Quenya 

elen

star

elen noun "star" (SA:êl, elen, EL, VT49:39); pl. eleni (occasionally in verse: eldi) (WJ:362, PE17:127); partitive pl. elelli for elenli (PE17:127), gen. pl. elenion in the phrase Elenion Ancalima "brightest of stars" (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation); elen atta "two stars" (VT49:44), genitive elen atto "of two stars" (VT49:45), eleni neldë "three stars", archaic elenion neldë = "of stars three". Genitive "of 3 stars" = elenion neldë (for archaic elenion neldëo) (VT49:45). Allative elenna "starwards" used as name of Númenor _(Silm; see Elenna)_; ablative pl. elenillor "from stars" in Markirya. **Nai elen siluva ***"may a star shine", VT49:38.

elen

noun. star
Quenya [Let/265; Let/385; LotR/0081; LotR/0377; LotR/0720; LotR/0915; MC/222; PE17/012; PE17/024; PE17/025; PE17/056; PE17/057; PE17/067; PE17/090; PE17/091; PE17/101; PE17/127; PE17/151; PE19/096; PM/340; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; RGEO/65; SA/êl; UT/213; VT49/39; VT49/44; VT49/45; WJ/362; WJ/367] Group: Eldamo. Published by

él

noun. star
Quenya [PM/340; WJ/362] Group: Eldamo. Published by

él

star

él noun "star", pl. éli given (WJ:362, EL)

ílë

star

ílë noun "star" (LT1:269; rather elen, él in LotR-style Quenya.)

tinwë

spark

tinwë noun "spark" (gloss misquoted as "sparkle" in the Etymologies as printed in LR, see VT46:19), also "star"; pl. tinwi "sparks", properly used of the star-imagines on Nur-menel (q.v.). Cf. nillë. (TIN, MR:388) In early "Qenya", tinwë was simply glossed "star" (LT1:269, cf. MC:214). In one late source, the meaning of tinwë is given as "spark", and it is said that this word (like Sindarin gil) was used of the stars of heaven "in place of the older and more elevated el, elen- stem" (VT42:11).

tinwë

noun. spark, [apparent] star
Quenya [MR/388; MR/471; PE17/022; PE17/066; RGEO/61; SA/tin; VT42/11] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Elessar

elf-stone

Elessar masc. name "Elf-stone" (Elen + sar, actually "Star-stone", cf. Elendil concerning elen "star" being used to mean "Elf") (LotR3:V ch. 8). Genitive Elesarno _(VT49:28, read _Elessarno?) indicates that the stem is -sarn-. As a common noun, elessar or "elf-stone" may signify "beryl" (in the chapter Flight to the Ford in the LotR, Aragorn finds "a single pale-green jewel" and declares: "It is a beryl, an elf-stone"). Elessar as a name may also be seen as a pun or variant of Elesser "Elf-friend".

Elendil

star-friend

Elendil masc. name"Star-friend", "Lover or student of stars", applied to those devoted to astronomical lore. However, when the Edain used this name they intended it to mean "Elf-friend", confusing elen "star" and elda "elf" (WJ:410). (This idea that the name was misapplied seems to be late; Tolken earlier interpreted the name as an ancient compound Eled + ndil so that the meaning really was "Elf-friend"; see Letters:386. See also NIL/NDIL in the Etymologies, where Elendil is equated with "Ælfwine", Elf-friend.) Allative Elendilenna "to Elendil" (PM:401); Elendil Vorondo genitive of Elendil Voronda "Elendil the Steadfast" _(CO) Pl. Elendili the Númenórean Elf-friends (Silm)_; the variant Elendilli in SD:403 would seem to presuppose a stem-form Elendill- not attested elsewhere. Tar-Elendil a Númenorean king, UT:210.

Ambalar

east

Ambalar noun "East" (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

Rómë

east

Rómë noun "east", variant of Rómen (PE17:59). Possessive romeva (read rómeva?), genitive rómeö (Ibid.)

hrómen

east

hrómen noun "east", variant of the more common Rómen, q.v. (PE17:18)

rómen

east

rómen, Rómen noun "east" (RŌ, MEN, SA:men), "uprising, sunrise, east" (SA:rómen); also name of tengwa #25 (Appendix E). Possessive form rómenwa (PE17:59).Variant hrómen, PE17:18. Rómenna, a place in the eastern part of Númenor, is simply the allative "eastward" (SA:rómen), cf. also rómenna in LR:47, 56. Ablative Rómello "from the East" or "[to one] from the East", hence Tolkien's translation "to those from the East" in his rendering of Namárië (Nam, RGEO:67, PE17:59; Romello with a short o in VT49:32). Masc. name Rómendacil "East-victor" (Appendix A; cf. Letters:425). Masc. name Rómestámo, Róme(n)star "East-helper" (PM:384, 391; probably ?Rómenstar must always become Rómestar, but Tolkien cited the form as Róme(n)star to indicate the connection with rómen "east")

róna

east

róna adj.? "east" (RŌ). Compare hróna.

tauca

adjective. stiff, wooden
Quenya [PE17/115] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tauca

stiff, wooden

tauca ("k") "stiff, wooden" (PE17:115)

norna

stiff, tough; hard, firm, resistant

norna adj. "stiff, tough; hard, firm, resistant" (WJ:413, PE17:106), "thrawn, tough, obdurate", mainly applied to persons (PE17:181)

-li

the elves

-li partitive pl. ending (simply called a plural suffix in the Etymologies, stem LI). The ending is used to indicate a plural that is neither generic (e.g. Eldar "the Elves" as a race) nor definite (preceded by article); hence Eldali is used for "some Elves" (a particular group of Elves, when they are first mentioned in a narrative, VT49:8). Sometimes Tolkien also lets -li imply a great number; in PE17:129, the form falmalinnar from _Namárië _is broken down as falma-li-nnar "foam wave-many-towards-pl. ending", and falmali by itself Tolkien translated "many waves" (PE17:73). A distinct accusative in -seems to occur in the phrase an i falmalī (PE17:127, apparently meaning the same as i falmalinnar, but replacing the allative ending with a preposition). Genitive -lion in vanimálion, malinornélion (q.v. for reference), allative -linna and -linnar in falmalinnar, q.v. The endings for other cases are only known from the Plotz letter: possessive -líva, dative -lin, locative -lissë or -lissen, ablative -lillo or -lillon, instrumental -línen, "short locative" -lis. When the noun ends in a consonant, r and n is assimilated before l, e.g. Casalli as the partitive pl. of Casar "Dwarf" (WJ:402), or elelli as the partitive pl. of elen "star" (PE17:127). It is unclear whether the same happens in monosyllabic words, or whether a connecting vowel would be slipped in before -li (e.g. ?queneli or ?quelli as the partitive pl. of quén, quen- "person").

Sindarin 

el

star

n. star.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:55] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

elen

noun. star
Sindarin Group: Eldamo. Published by

elen

star

pl1. elin, pl2. elenath _n._star. Its collective plural (pl2.) designates 'the (host of all the) stars, (all) the (visible) stars of the firmament'. Q. elen, pl1. eldi, eleni. o menel aglar elenath ! lit. 'from Firmament glory of the stars !'. >> êl

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20-1:24-5:67:139:151] < EL star. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gil

noun. star, (bright) spark, silver glint, twinkle of light
Sindarin [Let/427; LotR/1113; MR/388; MR/470; MR/471; PE17/022; PE17/023; PE17/030; PE17/050; PE17/152; PE22/159; RC/232; RGEO/61; RGEO/65; S/106; SA/gil; VT42/11] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gil-

noun. star
Sindarin [PE 22:159] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

gill

noun. star
Sindarin Group: Eldamo. Published by

êl

noun. star
Sindarin [Let/281; LotR/0238; MR/373; PE17/022; PE17/024; PE17/025; PE17/055; PE17/067; PE17/127; PE17/139; PE17/151; PE22/150; PM/369; RGEO/63; RGEO/64; RGEO/65; RGEO/67; SA/êl; WJ/363] Group: Eldamo. Published by

êl

star

pl1. elin, pl2. elenath** ** n. star. Q. elen, pl1. eldi, eleni, pl2. elelli. >> elen

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:24:67:127:139-40:151] < EL star. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gail

noun. silver spark, *[ᴱN.] star, *sign, *token, *heavenly body
Sindarin Group: Eldamo. Published by

gil-

prefix. spark

_ pref. _spark, often used for 'star'. Form of gail/geil in compounds. >> gail, geil, Gilgalad

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:23:152] < GIL shine (white). Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

tarch

adjective. stiff, rough (or tough)
Sindarin [RC/536] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tarch

adjective. stiff, tough
Sindarin [tarch-lang RC/536] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

tin

noun. spark

_ n. _spark, sparkle (esp. used of the twinkle of stars). >> ithildin

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:39] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

tin

noun. spark, sparkle, twinkle of stars
Sindarin Group: Eldamo. Published by

tîn

noun. spark, sparkle, twinkle of stars
Sindarin [PE17/039; PE17/066] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tîn

spark

n. spark, star. Q. tinwe spark (Poet. star).

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:66] < TIN sparkle, spark. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

amrûn

noun. east

_n. _east. Q. orrō uprising, sunrise, east. >> rhûn

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:18:122] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

rhuven

noun. east
Sindarin [Ety/384, X/RH] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

rhûn

noun. east
Sindarin [Ety/384, S/436, LotR/E] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

rhûn

noun. east

n. east. Q. hrō- uprising, sunrise, east. >> amrûn

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:18:96:122] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

rûn

noun. east

n. #east. Q. rómen.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:88] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

tinu

noun. spark, small star
Sindarin [Ety/393, X/W] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

amrûn

noun. east, orient
Sindarin [Ety/348, Ety/384, S/437, LotR/E] am+rhûn "uprising, sunrise". Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

gail

silver spark

pl1. gîl, pl2. giliath _ n. _silver spark. >> gail, geil

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:30:152] < Eldarin *_gilyā_ < GIL shine (white). Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

geil

silver spark

pl1. gîl, pl2. giliath _ n. _silver spark. >> gail

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:30:152] < Eldarin *_gilyā_ < GIL shine (white). Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gildin

noun. silver spark
Sindarin Group: Eldamo. Published by

gil

noun. star, bright spark

In The Etymologies (Ety/358, corrected by VT/45:15), this word was given as geil , plural gîl. However, later in LotR/E and RGEO/73, Tolkien seems to consider gil as a singular (with no hints in the sources of what the plural would be, besides the collective plural giliath )

Sindarin [LotR/E, S/431, RGEO/73] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

giliath

noun. all the host of stars
Sindarin [Ety/358, RC/232] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

dorn

adjective. stiff, tough
Sindarin [WJ/413] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

êl

noun. star (little used except in verses)
Sindarin [WJ/363, MR/373, RGEO/73, Letters/281] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

elenath

noun. starry host, all the host of the stars of heaven
Sindarin [LotR/II:I, RGEO/73-75, WJ/363] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

lo

lo
Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:137] < _law_ < _lawa _ < LOWO. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

* gîl

star

gîl (i ngîl = i ñîl, o n**gîl, construct gil) (bright spark, silver glint), no distinct pl. form except with article (in gîl = i ñgîl), coll. pl. giliath** (RGEO, MR:388). Poetic †êl (elen-, pl. elin, coll. pl. elenath) (RGEO, Letters:281, WJ:363).

* elui

adjective. starry
Sindarin Group: Eldamo. Published by

* tint

spark

1) tint (i dint, o thint), no distinct pl. form except with article (i thint), coll. pl. tinnath; 2) tinu (i dinu, o thinu; also -din at the end of compounds), analogical pl. tiny (i thiny). The word is also used =

* dorn

stiff

1) dorn (tough), lenited dhorn, pl. dyrn; 2) tharn (sapless, rigid, withered), pl. thern.

* gildin

silver spark

gildin (i ngildin = i ñildin, o n**gildin = o ñgildin), no distinct pl. form except with article (in gildin** = i ñgildin). ”

* edhelharn

elf-stone

(a term for beryl) edhelharn (pl. edhelhern) (SD:128-31). SEEING STONE (palantír) *gwachaedir (i **wachaedir), no distinct pl. form except with prefixed article (in gwachaedir), coll. pl. ?gwachaediriath or ?gwachadirnath (the latter form assuming that -dir is reduced from older -dirn) The form occurring in the primary source, gwahaedir, must represent the late Gondorian pronunciation with h for ch** (PM:186).

* edhelharn

elf-stone

(a term for beryl) edhelharn (pl. edhelhern) (SD:128-31).

Telerin 

elen

noun. star
Telerin [WJ/362] Group: Eldamo. Published by

él

noun. star
Telerin [WJ/362; WJ/407] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

el

noun. star
Noldorin [Ety/EL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

geil

noun. star
Noldorin [Ety/GIL; Ety/OT; EtyAC/GIL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tint

noun. spark, small star
Noldorin [Ety/TIN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tint

noun. spark
Noldorin [Ety/393] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

tinw

noun. spark, small star
Noldorin [Ety/TIN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rhufen

noun. east
Noldorin [Ety/384, X/RH] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

rhûn

noun. east
Noldorin [Ety/384, S/436, LotR/E] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

tinw

noun. spark, small star
Noldorin [Ety/393, X/W] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

amrûn

noun. east, orient
Noldorin [Ety/348, Ety/384, S/437, LotR/E] am+rhûn "uprising, sunrise". Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

gildin

noun. silver spark
Noldorin [Ety/393] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

gildin

noun. silver spark
Noldorin [Ety/TIN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

geil

noun. star, bright spark
Noldorin [Ety/358, VT/45:15] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

giliath

noun. all the host of stars
Noldorin [Ety/358, RC/232] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

el

root. lo, behold, star, *[ᴹ√] starry sky, *[ᴱ√] ?wondewr
Primitive elvish [Let/281; PE17/067; PE17/151; PE17/152; PM/340; RGEO/65; SA/êl; VT42/11; WJ/360; WJ/362] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elen

noun. star
Primitive elvish [Let/281; MR/387; MR/388; PE17/022; PE17/023; PE17/067; PE17/139; PE17/151; PE17/152; PE22/150; VT42/11; WJ/360] Group: Eldamo. Published by

star

root. *stiff, *[ᴹ√] stiff
Primitive elvish [PE22/133] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ēl

noun. star
Primitive elvish [PE17/066; WJ/360] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tini

noun. spark
Primitive elvish [PE21/80] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gilyā

noun. silver spark
Primitive elvish [PE17/152] Group: Eldamo. Published by

North sindarin

tim

noun. spark, spark, sparkle (of stars), Valinorian imagines [images of real stars]

-nw > -m VT41/08 @@@

North sindarin [MR/388.2309; MR/471.3901; PE17/022.2705] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tim

noun. spark, sparkle (of stars)

-nw > -m VT41/08 @@@

North sindarin [MR/388; MR/471; PE17/022] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Primitive adûnaic

gimil

root. *star

One of the roots Tolkien used to illustrate various processes of Primitive Adûnaic word formation (SD/422-5). It also seems to be the basis of words related to stars, such as gimli.

Primitive adûnaic [SD/422; SD/423; SD/425; SD/434] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya 

elen

noun. star, stars
Qenya [Ety/EL; PE17/014; RS/324; VT28/11; WR/223] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elena

noun. star
Qenya Group: Eldamo. Published by

ellen

noun. star
Qenya Group: Eldamo. Published by

tinwe

noun. star, like stars, stars
Qenya [LT1A/Tinwë Linto; MC/213; MC/214; MC/220; PE16/056; PE16/057; PE16/060; PE16/062; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/077; PE16/142; PME/092; QL/052; QL/092] Group: Eldamo. Published by

él

noun. star
Qenya [Ety/EL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

íle

noun. star
Qenya [GL/37; LT1A/Tinwetári] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* rungwa

adjective. stiff, solid
Qenya [QL/080] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

el

noun. star

A Doriathrin noun meaning “star”, a simple derivative of the root ᴹ√EL (Ety/EL).

Doriathrin [Ety/EL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tim

noun. spark, star

A noun for “star”, more literally meaning “spark” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tinmē (Ety/TIN). As suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tim), probably the primitive [[ilk|[nm] became [mm]]] in Ilkorin to produce the final form.

Conceptual Development: Edward Kloczko suggested that Tolkien later reused this word as North Sindarin tim with the same meaning (Tyalië Tyelelliéva #9).

Doriathrin [Ety/TIN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thrôn

adjective. stiff, hard

An adjective meaning “stiff, hard” derived from primitive ᴹ✶starāna (Ety/STARAN). First the unstressed vowel in the first syllable vanished to produce the favored combination [tr], after which the [[ilk|initial [s] spirantalized the following [t] to [θ] (“th”)]], while the [[ilk|long [ā] became [ō]]]. All these developments were suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/thrôn).

Doriathrin [Ety/STARAN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

el

root. star, starry sky
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/EL; Ety/RIG; Ety/ROD] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gilya

noun. star
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/GIL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

star

root. stiff
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/BEL; Ety/DING; Ety/STAR; Ety/WŌ; PE22/112] Group: Eldamo. Published by

staran

root. *stiff, hard
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/STARAN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

starāna

adjective. stiff, hard
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/STARAN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tinmē

noun. spark, glint
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/TIN; EtyAC/TIN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

gail

noun. star
Gnomish [GL/37; LT1A/Tinwetári] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwim

noun. spark, wink
Gnomish [GL/45; LT1A/Morwinyon] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwinc

noun. spark, flash
Gnomish [GL/45; LT1A/Morwinyon] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sint

noun. spark
Gnomish [GL/67] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

gail

noun. star, sign, token, heavenly body
Early Noldorin [MC/217; PE13/120; PE13/123; PE13/143] Group: Eldamo. Published by