Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

tan²

root. indicate, show
Primitive elvish [MR/385; PE17/145; PE17/186; PE18/084; PE18/095] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tan¹

root. construct, make with tools, *[ᴹ√] make, *fashion

Apparently replaced in later writings by √TAM (see discussion in that entry), though it likely survived as the Sindarin (and Telerin?) form of the root.

Primitive elvish [PE17/069; PE17/096; PE17/107; PE17/108; PE17/186] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tam

root. construct

In the Etymologies, the word for “craftsman, smith” was ᴹQ. tano, N. *tân as in N. Cirdan “Shipbuilder”, both from the root ᴹ√TAN “make, fashion”. In later writings, Tolkien changed √TAN >> √TAM “construct” and the Quenya form tano >> tamo “smith” (PE17/107-108), possibly due to conflict with a new root √TAN² “show, indicate”. That this change was lasting is supported by the appearance of the form Q. Martamo as a title of Aulë in a “very late note” (LT1A/Talka Marda), as opposed to the form ᴹQ. Martan(o) in the Etymologies (Ety/TAN).

However, √TAM would have produced S. *tav, and Tolkien wanted to retain the name Círdan. On PE17/108, he indicated that √TAN became the usual Sindarin form of the root, owing to the influence of √PAN “arrange, set in order”. Thus, the Sindarin development would have been √TAM > ✶tan- > tân, lenited in S. Círdan and S. calardan “lampwright”, whose plural appears in The Lord of the Rings as part of S. Rath Celerdain “Lampwrights’ Street”.

Primitive elvish [PE17/107.4010; PE17/186.3201] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tam

root. construct, [ᴹ√] knock, [ᴱ√] beat, smelt, forge

In The Etymologies, the word for “craftsman, smith” was ᴹQ. tano, N. *tân as in N. Cirdan “Shipbuilder”, both from the root ᴹ√TAN “make, fashion”. In later writings, Tolkien changed √TAN >> √TAM “construct” and the Quenya form tano >> tamo “smith” (PE17/107-108), possibly due to conflict with a new root √TAN “show, indicate”. That this change was lasting is supported by the appearance of the form Q. Martamo as a title of Aulë in a “very late note” (LT1A/Talka Marda), as opposed to the form ᴹQ. Martan(o) in The Etymologies (Ety/TAN).

However, √TAM would have produced S. tav, and Tolkien wanted to retain the name Círdan. On PE17/108, he indicated that √TAN became the usual Sindarin form of the root, owing to the influence of √PAN “arrange, set in order”. Thus, the Sindarin development would have been √TAM > ✶tan- > tân, lenited in S. Círdan and S. calardan “lampwright”, whose plural appears in The Lord of the Rings as part of S. Rath Celerdain* “Lampwrights’ Street”.

Primitive elvish [PE17/107; PE17/186] Group: Eldamo. Published by

teñ

root. indicate, signify, show, represent, betoken, mark, to point at, *[ᴱ√] know, *understand
Primitive elvish [PE17/044; PE17/187; PE19/097; PE22/149; VT39/04; VT39/15; WJ/394] Group: Eldamo. Published by

te

pronoun. they
Primitive elvish [VT49/17; VT49/21; VT49/37; VT49/50; VT49/52] Group: Eldamo. Published by