Sindarin 

galad

noun. radiance, glittering reflection; light, fire, brightness, shining; bliss, radiance, glittering reflection; light, fire, brightness, shining; bliss; [ᴱN.] dawn

A word for “radiance, glittering reflection” derived from primitive ✶ñ(g)alatā and the root √Ñ(G)AL “shine by reflection” (PM/347). Most notably it was an element in the names Galadriel and Gil-galad. In the latter name, since the ancient form began with ñg-, its mutated form was -galad rather than the more usual ’alad.

Conceptual Development: This word had a long and intricate history, and was intertwined with the shifting conceptions of various roots and names. It’s earliest iteration was G. {gâl(a) >>} gala “light, daylight” (GL/37), cognate to ᴱQ. kala of similar meaning, derived from the early root ᴱ√KALA “shine golden” (QL/44). Since ancient initial g- became k- in Early Qenya, is very likely the early root was actually ✱ᴱ√GALA. In early notes, Tolkien experimented with various alternate forms for this word such as gâl or gaul (GL/37; PE13/114), and in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s Tolkien had the word ᴱN. galad with the gloss “dawn” (PE13/144).

By the 1930s, Tolkien had revised the phonology of Quenya so that primitive initial g became ʒ and then vanished, but he wished to retain the kal-/gal- variation in “light” words, and so introduced a Noldorin-only variant ᴹ√GAL of the root ᴹ√KAL “shine” (Ety/GAL). In The Etymologies, Tolkien had both N. calad (Ety/KAL) and N. galad (EtyAC/GAL) for “light”, the former appearing in its mutated form as an element in the name N. Gil-galad “Starlight” (Ety/GIL).

S. calad continued to be the basis for the second element of S. Gil-galad in some later writings (PE17/50), but Tolkien began to have problems with another name from The Lord of the Rings, that is Galadriel. When Tolkien first introduced her name, it basically meant “Tree-lady” (TI/249), but this was no longer suitable for her more elevated role in the Legendarium, and in any case the proper Sindarin word for “tree” was galadh. In 1955 notes Tolkien considered making the initial element of her name mean “blessed” or “bliss” instead (NM/346).

In notes from the late 1950s or early 1960s Tolkien connected the names Gil-galad and Galadriel as sharing a common element meaning “light” and experimented with various derivatives of the roots √KAL and √GAL (PE17/50), but couldn’t contrive a satisfactory solution since the shared word would be mutated in Gil-Galad but unmutated in Galadriel. Eventually Tolkien resolved this quandary by introducing a new root √Ñ(G)AL in various notes from the late 1960s (PE17/59-60; NM/353) whose primitive form in Sindarin was strengthened ✶ñgalatā that would produce the correct result for both names. Tolkien discussed this new word at length in The Shibboleth of Fëanor from 1968:

The name [Galadriel] was derived from the Common Eldarin stem ÑAL “shine by reflection”; ✱ñalatā “radiance, glittering reflection” (from jewels, glass or polished metals, or water) > Quenya ñalta, Telerin alata, Sindarin galad ... The whole = “maiden crowned with a garland of bright radiance” was given in reference to Galadriel’s hair. Galad occurs also in the epesse of Ereinion (“scion of kings”) by which he was chiefly remembered in legend, Gil-galad “star of radiance” (PM/347).

Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I would assume (ñ)galad refers to radiant, glittering and reflected light, as opposed to S. calad (lit. = “shining”) which refers to direct light and the sources of such light, such as lamps and flames.

Cognates

  • Q. nalta “radiance, glittering reflection” ✧ PM/347
  • T. alata “radiance, glittering reflection” ✧ SA/kal

Derivations

  • GAL “light; shine, be bright” ✧ PE17/084
  • ñ(g)alatā “(reflected) radiance, glitter (of reflected light), glory” ✧ PM/347
    • Ñ(G)AL “gleam, sheen, shine (by reflection)” ✧ NM/350; NM/353; PE17/059; PE17/169; PM/347
    • GAL “light; shine, be bright” ✧ PE17/050
    • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden” ✧ PE17/050

Element in

  • S. Caras Galadhon “City of the Trees” ✧ PE17/084
  • S. Galadriel “Glittering-garland” ✧ Let/425; NM/346; PE17/084; PM/347
  • S. Gil-galad “Starlight, (lit.) Star of Radiance” ✧ Let/425; PE17/084; PM/347
  • S. Malgalad “?yellow radiance”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
GAL > galad[galata] > [galat] > [galad]✧ PE17/084
ñalatā > galad[ŋalatā] > [ŋgalatā] > [ŋgalata] > [galata] > [galat] > [galad]✧ PM/347
Sindarin [Let/425; NM/346; PE17/084; PM/347; SA/kal] Group: Eldamo. Published by

galad

radiance

1a _ n. _radiance. >> Galadriel, Gil-galad

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:50] < _kalat_- radiance < GAL < KAL shine. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

galad

noun. light, radiance, glittering, reflection (from jewels, glass or polished metal, or water)

Sindarin [VT/45:13, PM/347, Letters/425] Group: SINDICT. Published by

galad

light

_ n. _light, fire, brightness, shining. >> calad, Caras Galadon

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:84] < GAL. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

galadh

noun. tree

Cognates

  • Nan. galad “tree” ✧ MR/182; PE17/060
  • Q. alda “tree, tree, [ᴱQ.] branch” ✧ Let/426; LotR/1113; PE17/025; PE17/050; PE17/063; PE17/136; PE17/153; PE17/153; RGEO/65; SA/alda; NM/352

Derivations

  • galadā “great plant, tree” ✧ Let/426; NM/349; NM/352; PE17/025; PE17/050; PE17/063; PE17/135; PE17/153; PE17/153; UT/266
    • ᴹ√GALAD “tree”
    • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA
    • GAL “grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, [ᴹ√] thrive” ✧ Let/426; PE17/025; PE17/135; PE17/153; PE17/153

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
galadā > galadh[galadā] > [galada] > [galaða] > [galað]✧ Let/426
galada > galað[galada] > [galaða] > [galað]✧ NM/352
galadā > galadh[galadā] > [galada] > [galaða] > [galað]✧ PE17/025
galadā > galadh[galadā] > [galada] > [galaða] > [galað]✧ PE17/050
galadā > galadh[galadā] > [galada] > [galaða] > [galað]✧ PE17/063
galadā > galaða > galað > galadh[galadā] > [galada] > [galaða] > [galað]✧ PE17/135
galadā́ > galað[galadā] > [galada] > [galaða] > [galað]✧ PE17/153
galadā > galað[galadā] > [galada] > [galaða] > [galað]✧ PE17/153
galadā > galadh[galadā] > [galada] > [galaða] > [galað]✧ UT/266

Variations

  • galað ✧ MR/182; MR/470; NM/349; NM/352; PE17/060; PE17/153; PE17/153
Sindarin [LB/354; Let/426; LotR/1113; MR/182; MR/470; NM/349; NM/352; PE17/025; PE17/050; PE17/060; PE17/063; PE17/097; PE17/136; PE17/153; RGEO/65; SA/alda; SA/kal; UT/267] Group: Eldamo. Published by

galadh

noun. tree

Sindarin [Ety/357, S/427, LotR/E, LB/354, RGEO/73, Letters] Group: SINDICT. Published by

galadh

tree

{ð} n. tree. In Sindarin, there was no much distinction in size between galað and orn. A galað was more thick, dense and branching than a orn. Birch, ash and oak are of the orn kind. Q. alda. >> orn

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:25:136] < *_galaða_ < *_galadā_ < GAL to grow (like a plant). Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

galadh

tree

_n. Bot._tree, like oak (nordh) and beech. A galadh was more thick, dense and branching than a orn. In Sindarin, there was no much distinction in size between galað and orn. A galað was more thick, dense and branching than a orn. Birch, ash and oak are of the orn kind. Q. alda. >> orn

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:25:50] < *_galadā _a large plant (general term), tree < GALA grow like plants. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

calad

gerund noun. light

Sindarin [Ety/362, UT/65] Group: SINDICT. Published by

calad

noun. light

_ n. _light, fire, brightness, shining. >> galad

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:84] < GAL. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

calad

noun. light, fire, brightness, shining, light, brightness, shining, fire

A noun for “light” derived from the root √KAL of similar meaning (PE17/50, 84), and appearing in the phrase Lacho calad! Drego morn! “Flame light! Flee night!” (UT/65). In one place it was glossed “light, fire, brightness, shining” (PE17/84), so it seems it could refer to any shining thing or source of light. For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I would only use it in reference to “fire” as a source of illumination, not as a flame.

Conceptual Development: N. calad “light” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, already with the derivation given above (Ety/KAL). In this document it was the basis for the final element of the name N. Gil-galad, and this was true in some later writings as well (PE17/50), but Tolkien eventually decided the second element of Gil-galad was (ñ)galad “radiance”, an element also seen in the name of Galadriel (PM/347).

Derivations

  • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden” ✧ PE17/050; PE17/084

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
KAL > calad[kalata] > [kalat] > [kalad]✧ PE17/050
CAL > calad[kalata] > [kalat] > [kalad]✧ PE17/084
Sindarin [PE17/050; PE17/084; UT/065] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gala-

verb. to grow

Changes

  • galadgalast ✧ PE17/132

Cognates

  • Q. ala- “to plant, grow, to grow (of plants) [intr. and trans.], plant; *to thrive, flourish (of other creatures)” ✧ PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132

Derivations

  • GAL “grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, [ᴹ√] thrive”
  • galā- “to grow (of plants)” ✧ PE17/131
    • GAL “grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, [ᴹ√] thrive” ✧ PE22/133

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
agālē > ãlē > aul[agālē] > [agāle] > [agǭle] > [aɣǭle] > [aɣaule] > [aɣaul] > [aul]✧ PE17/131

Variations

  • galad ✧ PE17/132 (galad)
Sindarin [PE17/131; PE17/132] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aglar

noun. radiance

_n. _radiance, glory. Q. alkar. >> aglareb

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:24] < _aklar_ < KAL light. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

malhorn

noun. golden tree of Lothlórien

Sindarin [S/435, LotR/II:IV, VT/42:27, Tengwestie/20031207] malt+orn "tree of gold". Group: SINDICT. Published by

mallorn

noun. golden tree of Lothlórien

Sindarin [S/435, LotR/II:IV, VT/42:27, Tengwestie/20031207] malt+orn "tree of gold". Group: SINDICT. Published by

minuial

noun. "morrowdim", the time near dawn, when the star fade

Sindarin [LotR/D] min+uial "first twilight". Group: SINDICT. Published by

malthorn

noun. golden tree of Lothlórien

Sindarin [S/435, LotR/II:IV, VT/42:27, Tengwestie/20031207] malt+orn "tree of gold". Group: SINDICT. Published by

orn

noun. (any large) tree

Sindarin [Ety/379, S/435, Letters/426] Group: SINDICT. Published by

lebethron

noun. a tree - its black wood was used by the woodwrights of Gondor

In the original manuscript, one of the earlier (rejected) form of this name was lebendron. Didier Willis proposed the etymology lebed+doron "finger-oak", actually a real tree name (Finger Oak or Quercus digitata)

Sindarin [LotR/IV:VII, LotR/VI:V, WR/176] Group: SINDICT. Published by

oron

noun. tree

n. Bot. tree. Also in compound -(o)rŏnō. >> orn

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:89] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

galad

sunlight

1) galad (i ngalad = i ñalad), (bright light, brilliance, radiance, glittering reflection), pl. gelaid (in gelaid = i ñgelaid). 2) glawar (i **lawar) (gold; radiance of the Golden Tree Laurelin), pl. glewair (in glewair**) (VT41:10)

galad

glittering reflection

galad (i ngalad = i ñalad), (bright light, sunlight, brilliance, radiance), pl. gelaid (in gelaid = i ñgelaid).

galad

reflection

(glittering reflection) galad (i ngalad = i ñalad) (bright light, sunlight, brilliance, radiance), pl. gelaid (in gelaid = i ñgelaid)

galad

radiance

1) galad (i ngalad = i ñalad) (bright light, sunlight, brilliance, glittering reflection), pl. gelaid (in gelaid = i ñgelaid), 2) glaw (i **law), pl. gloe (in gloe), 3) thîl; no distinct pl. form, coll. pl. ?thiliath**.

galadh

tree

1) galadh (i **aladh), pl. gelaid (i ngelaidh = i ñelaidh) (Letters:426, SD:302). 2) orn (pl. yrn**). Note: a homophone means ”tall”.

calad

light

_(noun) _1) calad (i galad, o chalad), pl. celaid (i chelaid), 2) gaul (i **aul), pl. goel (i ngoel = i ñoel), coll. pl. golath. Note: A homophone means "wolf-howl", but has different mutations. 3) (bright light) galad (i ngalad = i ñalad), (sunlight, brilliance, radiance, glittering reflection), pl. gelaid (in gelaid = i ñgelaid). 4) gâl (gal-, -al in compounds, with article i **âl), pl. gail (i ngail = i ñail).

gail

light

(adjective) 1) gail (bright), lenited ngail, no distinct pl. form (VT45:18), 2) lim (clear, sparkling), no distinct pl. form. Note: a homophone means ”fish”.

glawar

sunlight

glawar (i **lawar) (gold, radiance of the Golden Tree Laurelin), pl. glewair (in glewair**) if there is a pl. (VT41:10)

minuial

dawn

minuial (i vinuial) (morrowdim, twilight), pl. minuiail (i minuiail)