alda noun "tree" (GALAD, GÁLAD, SA, Nam, RGEO:66, LR:41, SD:302, LT1:249, LT2:340, VT39:7), also name of tengwa #28 (Appendix E). Pl. aldar in Narqelion; gen. pl. aldaron "of trees" in Namárië. Etymology of alda, see Letters:426 and UT:266-7. The latter source states that primitive ¤galadā, whence Quenya alda, originally applied to stouter and more spreading trees such as oaks or beeches, while straighter and more slender trees such as birches were called ¤ornē, Quenya ornë - but this distinction was not always observed in Quenya, and it seems that alda became the general word. According to PE17:25, primitive galada (sic) referred to "a plant (large) and was a general term". Place-name Aldalómë ""tree-night" or "tree-shade-night" (LotR2:III ch. 4, translated in PE17:82); Aldarion masc. name, *"Son of (the) Trees" (Appendix A), Tar-Aldarion a Númenorean King (UT:210). Aldaron a name of Oromë (Silm); aldinga "tree-top" (VT47:28), aldarembina (pl. aldarembinë attested) adj. "tree-tangled", the cognate of Sindarin galadhremmin**(PM:17:26).Aldúya fourth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Trees (Appendix D). The word seems to include Aldu, a dual form referring to the Two Trees. The Númenóreans altered the name to Aldëa (presumably < aldajā), referring to one tree (the White) only. The dual Aldu seems to occur also in Aldudénië** "Lament for the Two Trees" (a strange word, since Quenya does not permit intervocalic d as in this word perhaps the Vanyarin dialect of Quenya did) (Silm)
noun. tree, tree, [ᴱQ.] branch
- ✶galadā “great plant, tree” ✧ Let/426; NM/352; PE17/025; PE17/050; PE17/063; PE17/135; PE17/153; PE17/153; VT39/07
- √GAL “grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, [ᴹ√] thrive” ✧ PE22/160
- Q. Aldalómë “Tree-twilight” ✧ RC/385
- Q. Aldamir “*Tree Jewel”
- Q. Aldanil “Lover of Trees”
- Q. aldarembina “tree-meshed” ✧ PE17/135
- Q. Aldarion “*Son of Trees”
- Q. Aldaron “Lord of Forests, (lit.) Of Trees” ✧ SA/alda
- Q. Aldëa “*Tuesday, Tree-day (Númenórean)”
- ᴺQ. aldeon “avenue (of trees)”
- Q. aldinga “tree-top”
- Q. Aldudénië “Lament for the Two Trees” ✧ MR/100; SA/alda
- Q. Aldúya “*Tuesday, Day of the Two Trees”
- Q. culumalda “laburnum, *(lit.) orange-tree”
- ᴺQ. eccalda “cactus, (lit.) spine tree”
- Q. Malinalda “Tree of Gold” ✧ SA/alda
- ᴺQ. milpialda “olive tree”
- Q. Nísimaldar “Fragrant Trees” ✧ UT/167
- ᴺQ. paltalda “palm tree”
- ᴺQ. relyávalda “fig-tree”
- Q. yéni únótimë ve rámar aldaron “long years numberless as the wings of trees” ✧ LotR/0377; RGEO/58
- Q. yéni únótimë ve aldaron rámar “long-years not-countable as trees’ wings” ✧ RGEO/58
Development Stages Sources ✶galadā > alda [galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda] ✧ Let/426 ✶galada > alda [galada] > [galda] > [ɣalda] > [alda] ✧ NM/352 ✶galadā > alda [galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda] ✧ PE17/025 ✶galadā > alda [galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda] ✧ PE17/050 ✶galadā > alda [galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda] ✧ PE17/063 ✶galadā > ʒalaðā > ʒalðā > alda [galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [ɣalðā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda] ✧ PE17/135 ✶galadā́ > alda [galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda] ✧ PE17/153 ✶galadā > alda [galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda] ✧ PE17/153 √GAL > alda [galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda] ✧ PE22/160 ✶ʒalda > alda [galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda] ✧ VT39/07
- Alda ✧ RC/385
alta (2) noun "radiance" (VT42:32, PE17:50). Cf. variant ñalta.
cala ("k")noun "light" (KAL). Concerning the "Qenya" verb cala-, see #cal- above.
noun. light, light; [ᴱQ.] daytime (sunlight), 12 hours
This is the most common Quenya word for “light”, derived from the root √KAL of similar meaning (RGEO/62; PE17/84). It appears in numerous compounds, either in its full form or in a reduced form cal-.
Conceptual Development: ᴱQ. kala appeared all the way back in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s glossed “daytime (sunlight), 12 hours” and derived from the early root ᴱ√KALA “shine golden” (QL/44), but it had the sense “light” in the phrase ᴱQ. i·kal’antúlien “Light hath returned” (LT1/184), and it was given as the cognate of G. gala “light, daylight” in the contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon (GL/37).
ᴹQ. kala “light” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of the root ᴹ√KAL “shine” (Ety/KAL). Somewhat curiously in that document its primitive form was given as ᴹ✶k’lā́ (EtyAC/KAL), a form that also appeared in the first version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa (TQ1) from the 1930s (PE18/38). Tolkien may have used this variant form to explain N. glaw “radiance” (< ᴹ✶g’lā́), but in later writings S. glaw “sunshine” was derived from √LAW.
- √KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden” ✧ PE17/084
- Q. Anducal “*Light of the West”
- Q. Calacirya “Pass of Light” ✧ RGEO/62
- Q. calambar “*light-fated”
- Q. Calantar “Light-giver”
- Q. Calaquendi “Elves of the Light, (lit.) Light Elves”
- ᴺQ. calatengwë “photograph, (lit.) light-writing”
- Q. Calion “*Son of Light”
- Q. Caliondo
- Q. Calmacil “*Sword of Light, Shining Sword”
- Q. Calmindon “Light-tower”
- Q. Herucalmo
- ᴺQ. ruical(a) “firelight”
- Q. ú calo “without the light” ✧ PE17/143; VT39/14
Development Stages Sources √CAL > Cala [kala] ✧ PE17/084
- Cala ✧ PE17/084; RGEO/62
radiance, glittering reflection
nalta ("ñ")noun "radiance, glittering reflection" (from jewels, glass or polished metals, or water) (PM:347)
calina ("k")adj. "light" (KAL), "bright" (VT42:32) "(literally illumined) sunny, light" (PE17:153) but apparently a noun "light" in coacalina, q.v.
ára noun "dawn" (AR1). According to VT45:6, ára is also the name of the long vowel carrier of the Tengwar system; it would be the first letter of the word ára if spelt in Tengwar.
cálë ("k")noun "light" (Markirya; in early "Qenya", cálë meant "morning", LT1:254)
A noun for “light” appearing in the versions of the Markirya poem from the 1960s (MC/222-223).
Conceptual Development: In the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, ᴱQ. kále “morning” was a derivative of the early root ᴱ√KALA “shine golden” (QL/44), and kāle was mentioned again Gnomish Lexicon Slips as a cognate of G. gaul “a light” (PE13/114). The form ᴱQ. kale “day” appeared in the Early Qenya Grammar of the 1920s, but was deleted (PE14/43). It might also be an element in ᴹQ. yúkale “twilight” (= “both lights”) from The Etymologies of the 1930s (Ety/KAL).
Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I’d stick to the better attested Q. cala “light”.
- Q. cálë fifírula “the light fading” ✧ MC/222
- kále ✧ MC/222; MC/223
dawn, early day
†amaurëa noun "dawn, early day" (Markirya)
fairë (3) noun "radiance" (PHAY)
noun. dawn, dawn; [ᴹQ.] uprising, sunrise, Orient
- Q. Ambaróna “Eastern (Land)” ✧ PE17/082
Word Gloss amba “up(wards)” (h)róna “eastern, east”
- ambaróne ✧ PE17/082; RC/385
rillë noun "brilliance" (both the word and the gloss are uncertain, VT46:11)
aurë noun "sunlight, day" (SA:ur), "day (of light), a day of special meaning or festival" (VT49:45). locative auressë "in (the) morning" in Markirya, allative aurenna *"on the day" (VT49:43-45). Also compare amaurëa.
ornë noun "tree" _(Letters:308, SD:302: "when smaller and more slender like a birch or rowan", Etym stem ÓR-NI: "tree, high isolated tree"). For the etymology, see Letters:426; for (original) difference in meaning between ornë and alda, see alda. In ornemalin "tree-yellow"; see laurelindórenan lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4; cf. Letters:308), also as final element in malinornë "yellow-tree, mallorn" (q.v.) Masc. name Ornendil *"Tree-friend" (Appendix A)_, compound Ornelië "tree-folk" (Quenya name of the Galadhrim, the tree-people of Lórien) (TI:239).