ala- (3), also al-, a prefix expressing "good" or "well" (PE17:146), as in alaquenta (q.v.) Whether Tolkien imagined this ending to coexist with the negative prefix of the same form (#2 above) is unclear and perhaps dubious.
prefix. un-; -less; non-, without
verb. to deny
- √LA “no, not; negative; not to be”
- ala- ✧ PE22/167
verb. to plant, grow, to grow (of plants) [intr. and trans.], plant; *to thrive, flourish (of other creatures)
A verb glossed “plant, grow” in notes on Words, Phrases and Passages from The Lord of the Rings from the late 1950s or early 1960s discussing the derivation of S. galenas “pipeweed” (PE17/100). The verb ala- was used several times in verb charts, such as illustrating pronominal suffixes (PE17/132) or giving the inflections of a-verbs (PE22/164).
Conceptual Development: As suggested by Gilson, Welden and Hostetter, the earliest appearance of this verb might be in the phrase ᴱQ. alildon ornin lassevarnen, which seems to mean something like “✱leaf-brown trees grow” (PE16/80). The word element (and verb?) ᴹQ. ’al appeared under the root ᴹ√GALA “thrive” in The Etymologies of the 1930s (Ety/GALA); an earlier iteration of this root had the glosses “grow, thrive, prosper, be healthy, be glad” along with a word element (and verb?) al-, but the gloss “grow” was deleted along with a statement that “grow is ol-” (Ety/GAL(AS)).
Indeed, the verb ᴹQ. ’alā- “grow” appeared in Quendian & Common Eldarin Verbal Structure (EVS1: PE22/98) from the late 1940s and again in Quenya Verbal System from 1948 (QVS: PE22/106 note #39), but in the latter document it was replaced by ᴹQ. ola- “grow” (PE22/113 note #80). However, in Common Eldarin: Verb Structure (EVS2) from the early 1950s, primitive ✶galā- was restored, but with a more specific sense “grow (of plants)”, as opposed to ✶olā- “become, come into being, turn into (another state)” (PE22/134). This plant-growth meaning seems to have carried forward into Tolkien’s later writings (see above: PE17/100).
Neo-Quenya: For purpose of Neo-Quenya, I would assume the verb ala- only means “grow” when applied to plants, but more generally could mean “✱thrive, flourish” when applied to other living creatures, as in i lótë ala “the flow grows” but i Elda ala “the Elf thrives/flourishes”. Based on its glosses from PE17/100, I would assume it can also be used transitively when applied to plants to mean “cause to grow = plant”, as in i Elda ala lóti “the Elf grows/plants flowers” or alëa lóti “... is planting flowers”.
- S. gala- “to grow” ✧ PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132
- √GAL “grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, [ᴹ√] thrive”
- ✶galā- “to grow (of plants)” ✧ PE22/164
- √GAL “grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, [ᴹ√] thrive” ✧ PE22/133
Development Stages Sources ✶galan > alan [galan] > [ɣalan] > [alan] ✧ PE22/164
- ala- ✧ PE17/100
ala- (2) negative prefix "not", "un-", reduced to al- before a vowel (VT42:33, GALA, VT45:25), though the example Alcorin would suggest that al- can sometimes appear before a consonant as well. In a deleted entry in Etym, al(a)- was defined as "not" and said to be a "pure negative" (VT45:5). In alahasta, Alamanyar, alasaila, Alcorin.
[alta- (3) vb. "grow" (VT45:13) or "make grow" (VT45:14)]
'al- (1) vb."thrive" (GALA; the 'simply indicates that the original initial G has disappeared and needs not normally be included, PE17:100) Other sources hint at the meaning "grow" (cf. the root GAL meaning "grow, be healthy; to grow [like a plant]", PE17:153). Compare ala- #4 and #alála- (and cf. ol-).
ala, #ála (1) imperative particle á, a combined with the negation lá, -la "not" to express a prohibition (VT43:22; see lá #1). Also with 1st person suffix -lyë (alalyë and álalyë, VT43:10, 22, VT44:8) and 1st person pl. object suffix -më (alamë and álamë, "do not [do something to] us", as in álamë tulya, "do not lead us", VT43:12, 22). In the essay Quendi and Eldar, negative imperatives are rather indicated by áva, q.v., but this form can well coexist with ala, #ála.
prefix. well, happily
- S. al- “well, happily” ✧ PE17/146; PE17/172
- √AL(A) “good (physically), blessed, fortunate, prosperous, health(y)” ✧ PE17/146; PE17/172
Development Stages Sources √ALA > ala- [ala-] ✧ PE17/146 √ALA > ala- [ala-] ✧ PE17/172
- ala- ✧ PE17/146; PE17/172 (ala-)
- al- ✧ PE17/146; PE17/172 (al-)
prefix. in-, un-, not; †-less, without
- S. al- “no, not”
- √LA “no, not; negative; not to be” ✧ PE22/153; VT42/33
- ᴺQ. alacénima “invisible”
- ᴺQ. alacestaima “unsearchable”
- ᴺQ. alacestima “unsearchable”
- ᴺQ. alafasta “tidy, orderly”
- Q. alahasta “unmarred”
- ᴺQ. alahastaima “incorruptable”
- ᴺQ. alahastima “incorruptable”
- Q. alahen “eyeless” ✧ PE22/153
- ᴺQ. alahírima “unfindable, impossible to find”
- ᴺQ. alaica “blunt”
- ᴺQ. alairë “unholy”
- ᴺQ. alaloitala “unfailing”
- ᴺQ. alalunga “light, unheavy”
- ᴺQ. alamára “no-good”
- ᴺQ. alanancárima “indestructible”
- ᴺQ. alapálima “unshakable”
- ᴺQ. alapihta “unshrunk”
- ᴺQ. alapulúna “unleavened, unfermented”
- Q. alasaila “unwise”
- ᴺQ. alasóvinë “unwashed”
- ᴺQ. alavahtaina “undefiled”
- ᴺQ. alavistaima “unchangeable”
- ᴺQ. alavistima “unchangeable”
- Q. aleldarin “unelvish” ✧ PE22/156
aleldarinwa“unElvish” ✧ PE22/156 ( aleldarinwa)
- ᴺQ. allumë “never”
- ᴺQ. alquen “nobody, no one”
- ᴺQ. alaquen “nobody, no one”
- Q. lacaraitë “impossible, inactive; impossible” ✧ PE22/156 (
- Q. lanotoitë “innumerable” ✧ PE22/156 (
- ᴺQ. alavéla “different, various [pl.]”
- Q. Alamanyar “(Elves) Not of Aman” ✧ PE22/156
Development Stages Sources √ALA > al [al-] ✧ PE22/153 √ala > ala [ala-] ✧ VT42/33
- al ✧ PE22/153; PE22/153; PE22/153
- ala- ✧ PE22/153
- ala ✧ PE22/153; PE22/156; PE22/160; PE22/160; VT42/33
- al- ✧ VT42/33
to continually grow
#alála- vb *"to continually grow" (VT27:20, 25), maybe the frequentative form of a simpler verb al- or ala- "to grow". Cf. 'al- "thrive".
an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára "very old" or "oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca ("k") "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d, the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically iñ-) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept in the _Elaine inscription). (PE17:92)_
[lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8)]
ol- vb. "grow" (VT45:13; this may be a primitive root rather than a Quenya verb)
*empanya- vb. "plant" (deduced from the "Qenya" pl. past tense empannen, VT27:20-22)
laima noun "plant" (PE17:159). Cf. olvar.
- √LAY “*be alive, flourish, [ᴱ√] be alive, flourish” ✧ PE17/159
- ᴺQ. laimamatta “vegetable food”
- ᴺQ. laimamatya “herbivorous, vegetarian, (lit.) plant-eating”
- ᴺQ. nastalaima “thistle, (lit.) spear plant”
Development Stages Sources √LAY > laima [laima] ✧ PE17/159
Amarië fem. name; perhaps derived from mára "good" with prefixing of the stem-vowel and the feminine ending -ië (Silm)
verb. well, bubble out
ita, íta adv. 2) "very, extremely" (PE17:112). Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkiens efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the "same" version of Quenya.
mai (1) adv. "well" (VT47:6), apparently also used as prefix (PE17:17:162, 163, 172)
adverb. well, well; [ᴱQ.] too much
- S. mae “well; excellent, admirable” ✧ PE17/162
Development Stages Sources √MAY > maie [maje] ✧ PE17/162 √MAG > maie [magje] > [maɣje] > [maije] ✧ PE17/162 √MAG > mai [magje] > [maɣje] > [maije] ✧ VT47/06
- maie ✧ PE17/162 (maie); PE17/162 (maie)
Mairen fem. name(UT:210), initial element perhaps related or identical to mai "well". The second element is obscure; the root REN "recall, have in mind" (PM:372) could be related; if so the name may imply "well remembered", "(of) good memory" or something similar. It may also connect with the adj. maira, q.v. and compare the masc. name Mairon (PE18:163).
mandë (2) adv. "well" (VT49:26; this is "Qenya"). Rather mai in Tolkiens later Quenya.
tampo noun "well" (QL:93)
- √DAY “*great”
- √TAM “construct, construct; [ᴹ√] knock, [ᴱ√] beat; smelt, forge”
ala- (4) vb. "plant, grow" _(the first gloss would suggest that the following one is transitive: to "grow" plants) (PE17:100). _Compare al- "thrive, *grow" (which however seems intransitive).