Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Middle Primitive Elvish


root. high tree

A root mentioned in several places in The Etymologies of the 1930s: as {ᴹ√ORÓN >>} ᴹ√ÓRON under the entry for ᴹ√NEL (EtyAC/NEL) and as {ᴹ√ÓR-ON >>} ᴹ√ÓR-NI “high tree” under the entry for ᴹ√ORO “up, rise”, an extension of that root (Ety/ORO; EtyAC/ORO). In the latter entry ᴹ√ÓR-NI was the basis for ᴹQ. orne/N. orn “(high isolated) tree”. The root itself does not appear in Tolkien’s earliest writings, but G. orn “tree” dates all the way back to the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, though there its Qenya cognate was ᴱQ. orond- “bush” (GL/62). The primitive form ᴱ✶orne- appeared in the Noldorin Dictionary from the 1920s with derivatives ᴱQ. orne/ᴱN. orn “tree” (PE13/164), and primitive ✶ornē continued to appear in Tolkien’s writings in the 1940s, 50s and 60s (SD/302; PE17/113; UT/266), its last mentioned being in a 1972 letter to Richard Jeffery, where it was again given as an extension of √OR/RO (Let/426). It was thus a very enduring idea.


  • ÓR-ONÓR-NI “high tree” ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI


  • Ilk. orn “tree” ✧ Ety/NEL
  • ᴹ✶ornē “(high) tree”
    • Ilk. orn “tree” ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI
    • ᴹQ. orne “(high isolated) tree” ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI; SD/302
    • N. orn “tree” ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI; SD/302


  • ÓRON ✧ Ety/NEL
  • ÓR-NI ✧ EtyAC/NEL
  • ÓR-ON ✧ EtyAC/ORO (ÓR-ON)
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/NEL; EtyAC/NEL; EtyAC/ORO] Group: Eldamo. Published by


root. tree

The basis for Elvish “tree” words, this root first appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as an extension of ᴹ√GALA “thrive” (Ety/GALAD). This replaced the earliest derivation of “tree” from the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, where the Qenya word for “tree” ᴱQ. alda was derived from ᴱ√ALA “spread” (QL/29). In The Etymologies, the Quenya form of this word remained the same, but the 1910s Gnomish words G. âl “wood” and †alwen “tree” (GL/19) became the 1930s Noldorin word N. galadh “tree” (Ety/GALA). Quenya and Sindarin retained these words for “tree” thereafter, and while Tolkien did not mention the root √GALAD again, his continued use of primitive ✶galadā “tree” (Let/426; PE17/153; PE21/74; UT/266) made it clear this root remained valid.


  • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA


  • Ilk. gald “tree” ✧ Ety/GALAD
  • galadā “great plant, tree”
    • Nan. galad “tree” ✧ PE17/050
    • Q. alda “tree, tree, [ᴱQ.] branch” ✧ Let/426; NM/352; PE17/025; PE17/050; PE17/063; PE17/135; PE17/153; PE17/153; VT39/07
    • S. galadh “tree” ✧ Let/426; NM/349; NM/352; PE17/025; PE17/050; PE17/063; PE17/135; PE17/153; PE17/153; UT/266
    • T. galada “tree” ✧ NM/352
  • ᴹ✶galadā “tree”
    • ᴹQ. alda “tree” ✧ SD/302
    • N. galadh “tree” ✧ SD/302
  • galādu “thicket”
  • ᴹQ. alda “tree” ✧ Ety/GALAD; Ety/GALAD
  • N. galadh “tree” ✧ Ety/GALAD; Ety/GALAD

Element in

  • Ilk. galbreth “beech” ✧ Ety/BERÉTH; Ety/NEL


Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/BERÉTH; Ety/GALA; Ety/GALAD; Ety/NEL; EtyAC/GALAD] Group: Eldamo. Published by


noun. tree


  • ᴹ√GALAD “tree”
    • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA


  • ᴹQ. alda “tree” ✧ SD/302
  • N. galadh “tree” ✧ SD/302
Middle Primitive Elvish [SD/302] Group: Eldamo. Published by


noun. bush


  • ᴹ√TUS “*bush” ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI; Ety/TUS


  • ᴹQ. tussa “bush” ✧ Ety/TUS
  • N. toss “bush, low-growing tree” ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI; Ety/TUS


  • tussa ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/ÓR-NI; Ety/TUS] Group: Eldamo. Published by