árë noun "day" (PM:127) or "sunlight" (SA:arien). Stem ári- _(PE17:126, where the word is further defined as "warmth, especially of the sun, sunlight"). Also name of tengwa #31; cf. also ar # 2. Originally pronounced ázë; when /z/ merged with /r/, the letter became superfluous and was given the new value ss, hence it was re-named essë (Appendix E)_. Also árë nuquerna *"árë reversed", name of tengwa #32, similar to normal árë but turned upside down (Appendix E). See also ilyázëa, ilyárëa under ilya. In the Etymologies, this word has a short initial vowel: arë pl. ari (AR1)
noun. sunlight, warmth (especially of the sun); day
A word for “sunlight” and “warmth (especially of the sun)” as well as the older name of tengwa #31 (k), which was originally used for the sound [z] matching the archaic pronunciation of this name: †áze (LotR/1123). When this sound fell out of use in Quenya (becoming r) the tengwa was repurposed for [ss] and given a new name: Q. essë. The word árë was derived from the root √AS “warmth” (PE17/18, 148; VT43/18).
Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies of the 1930s, ᴹQ. are has the sense “day” as a derivative of the root ᴹ√AR of the same meaning (Ety/AR¹), and it appears with this gloss in some later writings as well (PE17/148, PM/127). By the time Tolkien was writing The Lord of the Rings appendices, though, he had changed the sense of this word to “sunlight” as described above. The sense “day” was transferred to the words aurë and ré.
ast“light or heat of the sun” ✧ PE17/018
Development Stages Sources Q. áze > áre [āze] > [āre] ✧ LotR/1123 ✶áse > áze > áre [āse] > [āze] > [āre] ✧ PE17/018 √AS > āze > āre [āse] > [āze] > [āre] ✧ PE17/148 √AS > ar [ase] > [aze] > [are] > [ar] ✧ PE17/148 √as- > árë [āse] > [āze] > [āre] ✧ SA/arien √AS > áze > áre [āse] > [āze] > [āre] ✧ VT43/18
- áre ✧ LotR/1123; PE17/018; PE17/126; VT43/18
- áze ✧ LotR/1123 (áze)
- āre ✧ PE17/126; PE17/148
- ar ✧ PE17/148
- arë ✧ PM/127
aurë noun "sunlight, day" (SA:ur), "day (of light), a day of special meaning or festival" (VT49:45). locative auressë "in (the) morning" in Markirya, allative aurenna *"on the day" (VT49:43-45). Also compare amaurëa.
ázë see árë
Ae (Quenya?) noun "day" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK - ae was written over ar [# 2] in the names of the Valinorean week, but ar was not struck out.)
Arien fem. name "the Sun-maiden", the Maia of the Sun (AR1; Silm); cf. árë "sunlight"
ar (2) noun "day" (PE17:148), apparently short for árë, occurring in the names of the Valinorean week listed below. Tolkien indicated that ar in these names could also be arë when the following element begins in a consonant (VT45:27). Usually the word for "day" in LotR-style Quenya is rather aurë (or ré), q.v.
[ala (7) noun "day", also alan "daytime". The forms allen, alanen listed after these words could be inflected forms of them, genitive "of daytime", constracted (allen = al'nen) and uncontracted. However, Tolkien struck out all of this (VT45:13).]
ré noun "day" (of the sun), a full 24-hour cycle (Appendix D) composed of aurë (day, daylight) and lómë "night" (VT49:45). Short -rë in compounds like Ringarë (q.v.). Allative rénna (VT49:45).
-on gen.pl. ending (3O), in aldaron, aranion, elenion, Eldaron, #esseron, Ingweron, Istarion, Númevalion, Quendion, Silmarillion, Sindaron, tasarion (see Nan-Tasarion), Valion, wenderon, yénion. Normally the ending -on is added to the nominative plural, whether it ends in -i or -r, but some nouns in -ë that would have nominative plurals in -i seem to prefer the ending -ron in the genitive (hence #esseron as the gen. pl. of essë "name", though the nominative pl. is attested as essi and we might have expected the gen. pl. *ession; similarly wenderon, Ingweron).
essë (1) noun "name", also later name of Tengwa #31, originally (MET) called árë (ázë). (Appendix E). With a pronominal ending esselya "thy name" (VT43:14). Pl. #essi in PM:339 and MR:470, gen.pl. #esseron "of names" in the compound Nómesseron (q.v.); we would rather have expected *ession, given the nom.pl. essi; perhaps #esser is a valid alternative plural form. Essecarmë noun "name-making" (MR:214, 470), Eldarin ceremony where the father announces the name of his child. Essecenta *("k") noun "Name-essay" (see centa) (MR:415); Essecilmë noun "name-choosing", an Eldarin ceremony where a child named him- or herself according to personal lámatyávë (q.v.) (MR:214, 471). The meaning Tolkien originally assigned to the word essë** in the Etymologies was "place" rather than "name" (VT45:12).
- ᴺS. ess “name”
- ᴹ√ES “indicate, name”
- Q. amilessë “mother-name”
- Q. anessë “given (or added) name, nickname, surname” ✧ MR/216
- Q. cilmessë “self-name”
- Q. epessë “after-name”
- Q. Essecarmë “Name-making” ✧ MR/470
- Q. Essecenta Eldarinwa “Enquiry (into the origins) of the Elvish names” ✧ WJ/359
- Q. Essecilmë “Name-choosing” ✧ MR/470
- Q. na airë esselya “hallowed be thy name” ✧ VT43/14
- Q. nómessë “place-name” ✧ VT42/17
- Q. notessë “numeral”
- ᴺQ. tengessë “address, (lit.) indication-name”
- esse ✧ LotR/1123
- essë ✧ MR/470
- Esse ✧ WJ/359
[sanda, sandë] (þ) (2) noun "name" (VT46:16)
[sanya] (þ) (2) noun ?"name" (reading of gloss uncertain, VT46:16)
illi noun "all" (as independent noun, apparently treated as a plural form). Imb' illi "among all" (VT47:30)
- Q. A ancalima imb’ illi “A is brightest of all” ✧ PE17/091
ilya adj. and noun "all" (LR:47, 56; SD:310), "all, the whole" (IL); "each, every, all of a particular group of things" (VT39:20); ilyë before a plural noun, "all" being inflected like an adjective (Nam, RGEO:67): ilyë tier "all paths" (Namárië, VT39:20), ilyë mahalmar "all thrones" (CO), ilya raxellor "from all dangers" (VT44:9; we might expect *ilyë raxellor here), ilyárëa (older ilyázëa) "daily, of every day" (evidently ilya "every" + árë, ázë "day" + -a adjectival ending) (VT43:18). Tolkien apparently abandoned ilyárëa in favour of ilaurëa, q.v.