Sindarin 

a

conjunction. and

See ah for the form that this conjunction might take before a vowel

Sindarin [LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:IV, S/428, SD/129-31, LB/354] Group: SINDICT. Published by

a

and

conj. and.Form of ad/ada before vowel, with soft mutation. Q. ar. >> ad, ada, adh

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:102] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

a

and

conj. and. About his mutation, see PE17:145.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:145] < ADA beside, alongside, by. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

a

conjunction. and

conj. and. Pedo mellon a minno! 'Say friend and enter'. Q. ar

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:41] Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

a

interjection. o

interj. o. A Elbereth Gilthoniel 'O Elbereth Who lit the Stars'.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

a

interjection. O!

See also ai.1 and ae.1

Sindarin [Letters/308] Group: SINDICT. Published by

a

interjection. O!

Element in

Variations

  • A ✧ LB/354; LotR/0238; LotR/0729; LotR/0729; RGEO/63; RGEO/64; RGEO/64; RGEO/64
  • a ✧ Let/279
  • Ae ✧ VT44/22
Sindarin [LB/354; Let/279; LotR/0238; LotR/0729; RGEO/63; RGEO/64; VT44/22] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

conjunction. and; †by, near, beside

Changes

  • aa “and” ✧ PE17/041
  • a “and” ✧ PE17/041
  • aa ✧ PE17/041

Cognates

  • Q. ar “and, and; [ᴱQ., ᴹQ.] but” ✧ PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/102; PE17/145; SA/ar

Derivations

  • as(a) “and” ✧ PE17/041; PE17/041; VT43/30; VT47/31
    • AS “beside” ✧ VT47/31
  • ad(a) “and, alongside” ✧ PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/102
    • AD(A) “by (the side of), beside, alongside; against, opposed to, opposite” ✧ PE17/071
  • AD(A) “by (the side of), beside, alongside; against, opposed to, opposite” ✧ PE17/145
  • AR “beyond, further than; outside; beside, alongside, beyond, further than; outside; beside, alongside; [ᴱ√] spread, extend sideways” ✧ SA/ar

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ad(a) > > a[ada] > [aða] > [að] > [a]✧ PE17/041
as(a) > a(h) > a[asa] > [aha] > [ah] > [a]✧ PE17/041

Variations

  • a ✧ LB/354; Let/448; LotR/0305; LotR/0953; PE17/041 (a); PE17/041; PE17/041 (a); PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/102; PE17/145; SA/ar; VT47/31
  • ah ✧ MR/329; VT43/30
  • ar ✧ MR/373; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; VT44/28; VT50/18; VT50/19
  • ✧ PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/145
  • ath ✧ PE17/041 (ath)
  • a(ð) ✧ PE17/102
  • að- ✧ PE17/145
  • Ar ✧ SD/129; VT50/20
  • A ✧ VT50/20 (A)
Sindarin [LB/354; Let/448; LotR/0305; LotR/0953; MR/329; MR/373; PE17/041; PE17/102; PE17/145; SA/ar; SD/129; VT43/30; VT44/28; VT47/31; VT50/18; VT50/19; VT50/20] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a

suffix. [old] genitive suffix

Derivations

  • -āga “genitive” ✧ NM/355; NM/355
  • “genitive” ✧ PE17/097; PE17/097
    • HO “from, coming from”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ō > ia > -a[-ō] > [-a]✧ PE17/097
iōm > ion[-iōm] > [-ion]✧ PE17/097

Variations

  • a ✧ NM/355 (Os. a)
Sindarin [NM/355; PE17/097; VT42/04] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Ae

interjection. O!

See also ai.1 and a.2

Sindarin [VT/44:21,22] Group: SINDICT. Published by

ad

conjunction. and

conj. and. a/adh before vowel, with soft mutation. Q. ar. >> a, ada, adh

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:102] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ae

interjection. O!

ah

preposition/conjunction. and, with

The title Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth is translated as "converse of Finrod and Andreth", but some scholars actually believe this word to be unrelated with the conjunction a.1 , ar "and", and they render it as "with". Other scholars consider that "and" and "with" (in the comitative sense) are not exclusive of each other, and regard ah as the form taken by this conjunction before a vowel. That a, ar and ah are etymologically related has finally been confirmed in VT/43:29-30. Compare also with Welsh, where the coordination "and" also takes different forms whether it occurs before a vowel or a consonant (respectively ac and a). In written Welsh, a often triggers the aspirate mutation: bara a chaws "bread and cheese". This usage is seldom applied in colloquial Welsh (Modern Welsh §510)

Sindarin [MR/329] Group: SINDICT. Published by

ah

conjunction. and

an

preposition. to, towards, for

With suffixed article and elision in aglar'ni Pheriannath

Sindarin [LotR/II:IV, UT/39, SD/129-31] Group: SINDICT. Published by

an

to

_ prep. _to, for. naur an edraith ammen! 'fire [be] for rescue/saving for us'. aglar an|i Pheriannath  'glory to all the Halflings'.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:38:102:147] < _ana _< ANA/NĀ to, towards – added to, plu-. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

an

preposition. to, for, to, for; [N. and G.] of

Changes

  • enienni ✧ VT41/16

Derivations

  • NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/146

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ANA/NĀ > ana > an[ana] > [an]✧ PE17/146

Variations

  • eni ✧ VT41/16 (eni)
  • ann ✧ VT44/22 (ann)
Sindarin [LB/354; Let/448; LotR/0290; LotR/0299; LotR/0307; LotR/0953; LotR/1061; PE17/038; PE17/045; PE17/117; PE17/147; SD/129; UT/039; VT41/11; VT41/16; VT44/22; VT44/27; VT47/37; VT50/23] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar

conjunction. and

See ah for the form that this conjunction might take before a vowel

Sindarin [LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:IV, S/428, SD/129-31, LB/354] Group: SINDICT. Published by

ar

conjunction. and, and, [G.] too, besides

na

to

e _ prep. _to, towards (of spacetime). n' before vowels. >> nan 2

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:147] < _nā _< ANA/NĀ to, towards – added to, plu-. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

na

preposition. to

prep. to Na-chaered palan-díriel lit. "To-distance (remote) after-gazing" >> na-chaered, nan 2

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20-1:25] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ada

conjunction. and

conj. and. a/adh before vowel, with soft mutation. Q. ar. >> a, ad, adh

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:102] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

adh

conjunction. and

an-

prefix. intensive prefix

Cognates

  • Q. an- “intensive prefix”

Element in

nan

preposition. of

Ídh

and

{ð}_ conj. _and. It was not mutated before vowels. >> a

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:41] < O.S. _ath_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

Ídh

and

{ð} conj. and.Form of ad/ada before vowel, with soft mutation. Q. ar. >> a, ad, ada

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:102] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

Ídh

and

{ð} conj. and. About his mutation, see PE17:145.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:145] < ADA beside, alongside, by. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

car-

verb. to do

Sindarin [avo garo WJ/371, WJ/415] Group: SINDICT. Published by

caro

verb. do! make!

Sindarin [VT/44:21,25] Group: SINDICT. Published by

madu

?. [unglossed]

maud

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
matwā > madw̯ > maud[matwā] > [matwa] > [matw] > [maut] > [maud]✧ PE17/148
matwā > madw̯ > madu[matwā] > [matwa] > [matw] > [madw] > [madu]✧ PE17/148

Variations

  • madu ✧ PE17/148
Sindarin [PE17/148] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-o

suffix. imperative

Cognates

  • Q. á “imperative particle” ✧ PE17/040

Derivations

  • ā “imperative” ✧ WJ/365; WJ/372

Element in

  • S. ped- “to say, speak” ✧ PE17/040

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ā > ō > o[ā] > [ǭ] > [au] > [o]✧ WJ/365
ā > -o[ā] > [ǭ] > [au] > [o]✧ WJ/372

Variations

  • o ✧ PE17/040; WJ/365
Sindarin [PE17/040; WJ/365; WJ/372] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ten

pronoun. (?) it (as object)

Sindarin [caro den VT/44:21,25-6] Group: SINDICT. Published by

pen

pronoun. one, somebody, anybody

Usually enclitic and mutated as ben.2

Sindarin [WJ/376] Group: SINDICT. Published by

min

fraction. one (first of a series)

Sindarin [Ety/373, VT/42:24-25, VT/48:6] Group: SINDICT. Published by

mîn

fraction. one (first of a series)

Sindarin [Ety/373, VT/42:24-25, VT/48:6] Group: SINDICT. Published by

o

preposition. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker)

According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

Sindarin [Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-3] Group: SINDICT. Published by

od

preposition. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker)

According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

Sindarin [Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-3] Group: SINDICT. Published by

be

like

(as, according to) Followed by lenition? With article ben (followed by "mixed mutation" according to David Salo’s reconstruction)

cidinn

?. [unglossed]

Cognates

  • Q. cinta “small” ✧ PE17/157

Derivations

  • KIT “*small” ✧ PE17/157

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
KIT > cidinn[kitinne] > [kitinn] > [kidinn]✧ PE17/157
Sindarin [PE17/157] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cinnog

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • KIT “*small” ✧ PE17/157

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
KIT > cinnog[kintok] > [kintʰok] > [kinθok] > [kinθog] > [kinnog]✧ PE17/157
Sindarin [PE17/157] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ed

pronoun. *it

Element in

Variations

  • ed ✧ VT50/15

en

of the

e- (sg. genitival article)

eru

the one

isolated from

min

cardinal. one

1) (number ”one” as the first in a series) min, mîn (VT48:6), Note: homophones include the noun ”peak” and the adjective ”isolated, first, towering”. 2) (number) êr, whence the adjectival prefix er- (alone, lone); 3)

Sindarin [Parviphith] Published by

min

cardinal. one, one, [G.] single

Cognates

  • Q. min “one, one, [ᴱQ.] one (in a series), the first” ✧ PE17/095; VT48/06

Element in

  • S. Miniel “Vanyar”
  • S. minlamad “?alliteration, (lit.) first-echoing”
  • S. minui “first” ✧ VT42/25
  • S. minuial “(dawn) twilight”

Variations

  • min ✧ PE17/095; VT48/06
  • mîn ✧ VT42/25
Sindarin [PE17/095; VT42/25; VT48/06] Group: Eldamo. Published by

min

one

mîn (VT48:6), Note: homophones include the noun ”peak” and the adjective ”isolated, first, towering”.

o

preposition. from

_ prep. _from, of. In older S. o had the form od before vowels. o menel aglar elenath ! lit. 'from Firmament glory of the stars !'.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20-1:42:54] < _au(t) _< stem_ awa_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

o

preposition. from

_ prep. _from. . This gloss was rejected.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:148] < AWA, WĀ go, move (from speaker), go away, depart. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

o

of

(od), followed by hard mutation. With article uin ”from the, of the” (followed by ”mixed” mutation according to David Salo’s reconstuctuons). (WJ:366). Not to be confused with o ”about, concerning”.

o

from

(od), followed by hard mutation; with article uin ”from the, of the” (followed by mixed mutation according to David Salo’s reconstuctuons). (WJ:366) Not to be confused with o ”about, concerning” (q.v. for this meaning of ”of”). 2) na (followed by lenition), with article nan (followed by ”mixed mutation”, according to David Salo’s reconstruction). The preposition has various meanings: ”with, by, near” and also ”to, toward, at; of” 3)

pen

cardinal. one

(indefinite pronoun) (= somebody, anybody) pen (WJ:376); lenited ben. According to one interpretation of the phrase caro den i innas lín from the Sindarin Lords Prayer (VT44:23), this could mean *”let one do your will”, with den (perhaps a lenited form of *ten) as the indefinite pronoun ”one”. However, others interpret den as the accusative form of the pronoun ”it”: ”Do it [, that is:] your will”.

pen

one

(WJ:376); lenited ben. According to one interpretation of the phrase caro den i innas lín from the Sindarin Lord’s Prayer (VT44:23), this could mean ✱”let one do your will”, with den (perhaps a lenited form of ✱ten) as the indefinite pronoun ”one”. However, others interpret den as the accusative form of the pronoun ”it”: ”Do it [, that is:] your will”.

sui

like

(prep. ”as, like”) 1) sui (VT44:23), 2) #be (as, according to) Followed by lenition? With article ben (followed by "mixed mutation" according to David Salos reconstruction)

sui

like

(VT44:23)

uin

preposition. of the

Sindarin [SD/129-31] o+i. Group: SINDICT. Published by

êr

one

whence the adjectival prefix er- (alone, lone)

a

and

a, or ah when the next word begins in a vowel: Finrod ah Andreth, Finrod and Andreth. In some sources, Tolkien uses ar as the conjunction "and", but a(h) would seem to be the proper Sindarin form.

a

and

or ah when the next word begins in a vowel: Finrod ah Andreth, Finrod and Andreth. In some sources, Tolkien uses ar as the conjunction "and", but a(h) would seem to be the proper Sindarin form.

a

o

O Elbereth Gilthoniel A Elbereth Gilthoniel. The alternative form ae may be used when the next word begins in a: Ae Adar nín, O my Father (VT44:23). By another theory, ae represents a + the definite article i (✱a i Adar nín "o the Father of mine").

a

don’

vo (+ lenited imperative, e.g. avo garo "don’t do"); av- (prefix added to imperative verbs, followed by lenition: avgaro! "don’t do!" as a negative version of caro! "do!")

an

to

(prep.) an (+ nasal mutation), with article ni "to the" (+ nasal mutation in plural).

an

to

(adverbial prefix) an-. 3)

ha

it

ha, han, hana. (The distinctions between these forms are unclear. Possibly ha is the nominative, whereas han is the accusative. Hana could be an emphatic form. It may be that these pronouns as ”N” rather than Sindarin proper.)

ha

it

han, hana. *(The distinctions between these forms are unclear. Possibly ha is the nominative, whereas han is the accusative. Hana could be an emphatic form. It may be that these pronouns as ”N” rather than Sindarin proper.)*

baw!

don’

(= "no!", as interjection expressing refusal or prohibition)

car

do

car- (i gâr, i cherir), pa.t. agor (make, build) (WJ:415),

car

do

(i gâr, i cherir), pa.t. agor (make, build) (WJ:415)

heria

set vigorously out to do

(i cheria, i cheriar) (have an impulse, be compelled to do something, begin suddenly and vigorously) (VT45:22)

dadbenn

do

(downhill, sloping down, inclined), lenited dhadbenn, pl. dedbinn. Verb