Quenya 

uin

the primeval whale

Uin (2) masc. name, "the primeval whale" (LT1:263)

uin

uin

uin (1) see #u-.

in

the

i (1) "the", indeclinable definite article (I, Nam, RGEO:67, Markirya, WJ:369, WJ:398, MC:215, 216, 221). A variant in (q.v.) is also attested. Hyphenated i- in i-mar "the earth" (FS), i-Ciryamo "the mariner's" (UT:8), i-aldar "the trees" (Narqelion), attached with a dot in i·yulmar "the cups" (VT48:11), I·Eldanyárë "the History of the Elves" (LR:199), i·arya *"the best" (PE17:57), directly prefixed with no hyphen or dot in icilyanna = i cilyanna in SD:247, also ihyarma "the left hand" in VT49:22 (but i hyarma in other versions of the same text).

in

article. the

ui

no

ui interjection "no" (originally an endingless negative verb in the 3rd person aorist: "it is not [so]"; see #u-). Apparently this is the word for "no" used to deny that something is true (compare , which is rather used to reject orders, or to issue negative orders). (VT49:28) Compare uito.

ui-

verb. to not be, to not do

Derivations

  • UMU “not, expressing privation, not, expressing privation; [ᴹ√] negative stems” ✧ VT49/29
    • Ū “denial of fact, privation, negative element, denial of fact, privation, negative element, [ᴱ√] not”
  • ugu- ✧ VT49/29

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ū̆gu/gū > ū-[ugu-] > [uɣu-] > [ū-]✧ VT49/29
ū̆gu/gū > ui[ugi] > [uɣi] > [ui]✧ VT49/29
ugilme > uilme[ugilme] > [uɣilme] > [uilme]✧ VT49/29

Variations

  • ú ✧ VT49/13
  • ū- ✧ VT49/29 (ū-)
Quenya [PE17/068; PE22/152; VT49/13; VT49/29] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

article. the

Cognates

  • S. i “the” ✧ PE17/066

Element in

Variations

  • i ✧ DTS/54; LotR/0377; LotR/0377; LotR/0377; MC/221; MC/222; Minor-Doc/1955-CT; Minor-Doc/1973-05-30; MR/049; NM/239; NM/351; PE16/096; PE17/013 (i); PE17/065; PE17/066; PE17/068; PE17/127; PE17/127; PE19/076; PE21/77; PE21/80; PE22/147; PE22/161; PE22/166; RGEO/58; RGEO/58; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; RGEO/59; RGEO/59; S/190; UT/305; UT/317; VT21/06; VT43/19; VT43/29; VT43/31; VT43/35; VT43/37; VT43/37; VT43/37; VT43/38; VT44/35; VT47/35; VT49/08; VT49/12; VT49/22; WJ/166; WJ/369; WJ/369
  • I ✧ PE16/096; WJ/398
  • ✧ PE17/076; PM/395; PM/403; UT/008
  • in· ✧ PM/403
  • ’n ✧ S/190; S/190; WJ/166; WJ/166
Quenya [DTS/54; LotR/0377; MC/221; MC/222; Minor-Doc/1955-CT; Minor-Doc/1973-05-30; MR/049; NM/239; NM/240; NM/351; PE16/096; PE17/013; PE17/065; PE17/066; PE17/068; PE17/076; PE17/127; PE19/076; PE21/77; PE21/80; PE22/147; PE22/161; PE22/166; PM/395; PM/403; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; S/190; UT/008; UT/305; UT/317; VT21/06; VT43/19; VT43/29; VT43/31; VT43/35; VT43/37; VT43/38; VT44/35; VT47/35; VT49/08; VT49/12; VT49/22; WJ/166; WJ/369; WJ/398] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nína

woman

#nína (gen.pl. nínaron attested) noun "woman" (VT43:31; this word, as well as some other experimental forms listed in the same source, seem ephemeral: several sources agree that the Quenya word for "woman" is nís, nis [q.v.])

u-

not do, not be

#u- vb. "not do, not be" (1st pers. aorist uin "I do not, am not"), pa.t. úmë (UGU/UMU). A late (ca. 1968) source gives the forms uin, uin() "I am not", uil() "you are not", uis "it is not", uilmë "we are not", uir "are not" and endingless ui *"is not" (VT49:29, 36); these forms were however struck out. The example uin carë "I dont" (PE17:68) combines this negative verb with a following verb in the "simplest aorist infinitive". Compare ua in another late source. See also ui, which (despite its use as an interjection "no") seems to be the endingless 3rd person aorist.

Lindissë

woman

Lindissë fem.name, perhaps lin- (root of words having to do with song/music) + (n)dissë "woman" (see nís). (UT:210)

il-

verb. no, *un-

il- (prefix) "no, *un-" (LA); cf. ilfirin "immortal" (vs. firin "dead"). This prefix "denotes the opposite, the reversal, i.e. more than the mere negation" (VT42:32). But il- can also mean "all, every"; see ilaurëa, ilqua, ilquen.

woman, female

(2) noun "woman, female" (NI1, INI (NĒR ) ). Not to be confused with as a stressed form of the pronoun ni "I".

ua-

not do, not be

ua- negative verb "not do, not be". If a verb is to be negated, ua (coming before the verb) receives any pronominal endings (and presumably also any endings for plurality or duality, -r or -t), whereas the uninflected tense-stem of the verb follows: With the ending -n for "I", one can thus have constructions like uan carë "I do not" (aorist), uan carnë "I did not" (past), uan cára "I am not doing" (present), uan caruva "I shall not do" (future). The verb ua- can itself be fully conjugated: #ua aorist (or present?), únë (past), úva "(future), #uië (perfect) (the aorist and perfect are attested only with the ending -n "I"). In "archaic Quenya" these tense-forms could be combined with an uninflected aorist stem, e.g. future *úvan carë = later Quenya uan caruva, "I shall not do". In later Quenya, only the forms ua (present or aorist) and "occasionally" the past tense form #únë were used in normal prose (únen* "I did not, was not"). (PE17:144; compare FS for úva** as a future-tense negative verb "will not")

ua-

verb. to not be, to not do

Element in

Variations

  • ua ✧ PE17/144
Quenya [PE17/144; VT43/21] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nís

noun. woman

The usual Quenya word for “woman” or more exactly a “female person” of any race, in later writings appearing as both nís (MR/213, 226, 229) and nisse (VT47/18, 33). Even in the cases where its singular was nís, its plural form was given as nissi, indicating a stem form of niss-. In rough notes from 1968 Tolkien said “The monosyllabic nouns (especially those with only one stem-consonant) were a small dwindling class often replaced by strengthened forms (as nis- was [by] nisse)” (VT47/18).

Thus it seems the ancient form was ✱nis- from the root √NIS, which like its male counterpart Q. nér “man” inherited a long vowel from the ancient subjective form ✱nīs. But the voiceless s was felt to be intrinsic to word, and it was thus strengthened to niss- in inflected forms to avoid the sound changes associated with an isolated s. From this a longer form nisse was generalized. In practice I think either form can be used, with singular nís being preserved by analogy with nér. However, I think inflected forms are probably all based on nisse, such as genitive nisseo “of a woman” rather than ✱✱nisso.

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien had both ᴹQ. nis and nisse “woman” derived the root ᴹ√NIS, with plural nissi in both cases (Ety/NIS, NDIS). He explained this variation as follows: “nis was a blend of old nīs (nisen) and the elab[orated] form ✱nis-sē” (EtyAC/NĪ¹). Hence it is was essentially the same as the scenario described above, but in the 1930s the long vowel in ancient nīs did not survive in the later short form nis.

In Quenya prayers of the 1950s, Tolkien experimented with some alternate plural forms nínaron [genitive plural] >> nísi [ordinary plural] (VT43/26-29, 31), the former apparently representing a variant singular form ✱nína, but in later writings plural nissi was restored.

Derivations

  • nīs “woman, female person”
    • NIS “woman”
    • NĪ/INI “*female, [ᴹ√] female” ✧ PE21/71
  • NIS “woman” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/33

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
nis- > nisse[nisse]✧ VT47/18
nis > nisse[nisse]✧ VT47/33

Variations

  • nisse ✧ VT47/18; VT47/33
Quenya [MR/213; MR/226; MR/229; MR/471; VT43/31; VT47/18; VT47/33] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nís

woman

nís (niss-, as in pl. nissi) noun "woman" _(MR:213. The Etymologies gives _nis (or nissë), pl. nissi: see the stems NDIS-SĒ/SĀ, NI1, NIS (NĒR), VT46:4; compare VT47:33. In Tolkien's Quenya rendering of Hail Mary, the plural nísi occurs instead of nissi; this form is curious, since nísi would be expected to turn into *nízi, *_níri** (VT43:31). VT47:33 suggests that Tolkien at one point considered _niþ- as the older form of the stem, which etymology would solve this problem (since s from older þ does not become z > r). Even so, the MR forms, nís with stem niss-, may be preferred. - Compare †, #nína, nisto, Lindissë.

nissë

woman

nissë noun "woman" (NDIS-SĒ/SĀ, NI1, NIS, VT47:33); see nís. Note: nissë could apparently also mean "in me", the locative form of the 1st person pronoun ni, q.v.

nissë

noun. woman

wenci

woman, maiden

wenci ("k") noun, apparently a diminutive form of the stem wēn- "woman, maiden". It is possible that this is meant to be Common Eldarin rather than Quenya; if so the Quenya form would be *wencë (compare nercë "little man") (VT48:18)

la

no, not

la negation "no, not" (see ); also prefix la- as in lacarë, q.v. (VT45:25)

no, not

(1) adv. "no, not" (LA, VT45:25) According to VT42:33, is the stressed form, alternating with la when the negation is unstressed. In another conceptual phase of Tolkien's, had the opposite meaning "yes" (VT42:32-33), but this idea is contradicted by both earlier and later material: usually is conceived as a negation. The negation can receive tense markers and be used as a negative verb "when [another] verb is not expressed" (VT49:13), apparently where the phrase "is not" is followed by a noun or an adjective as a predicate, or where some verb is understood, as in English "I do not" (i.e. "I do not do whatever the context indicates"). With pronominal endings la- in the aorist, e.g. lanyë "I do not, am not" (etc.) (Tolkien abandoned the form lamin.) Exemplified in the sentence melin sé apa lanyë *"I love him but I do not [love] him" (another person) (VT49:15). Present tense laia, past lánë, perfect alaië, future lauva.

lá-

verb. to not be

Changes

  • laminlanye ✧ VT49/13

Derivations

  • lā- “to not be” ✧ PE22/153; PE22/153; VT49/13
    • LA “no, not; negative; not to be” ✧ PE22/153
  • LA “no, not; negative; not to be” ✧ PE22/156; VT42/33; VT49/13

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
> lanye[lanye]✧ PE22/153
lājā > laia[lājā] > [laijā] > [laija] > [laia]✧ PE22/153
(A)LA > lā-[lā-]✧ PE22/156
ala > [lā-]✧ VT42/33
ala > [lā-]✧ VT49/13
lājā > laia[lājā] > [laijā] > [laija] > [laia]✧ VT49/13

Variations

  • la ✧ PE22/154; VT43/22; VT49/15
  • lā- ✧ PE22/156
  • ✧ VT42/33; VT49/13; VT49/13
  • ✧ VT49/13
  • lamin ✧ VT49/13 (lamin)
Quenya [PE22/153; PE22/154; PE22/156; PE22/160; VT42/33; VT43/22; VT49/13; VT49/15] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-va

from

-va possessive ending, presumably related to the preposition va "from". In Eldaliéva, Ingoldova, miruvóreva, Oroméva, rómeva, Valinóreva (q.v. for references), Follondiéva, Hyallondiéva (see under turmen for references). Following a consonant, the ending instead appears as -wa (andamacilwa "of the long sword", PE17:147, rómenwa *"of the East", PE17:59). Pl. - when governing a plural word (from archaic -vai) (WJ:407), but it seems that -va was used throughout in late Exilic Quenya (cf. miruvóreva governing the plural word yuldar in Namárië). Pl. -iva (-ivë*), dual -twa, partitive pl. -líva**.

ho

from

ho prep. "from" (3O); cf. -

from

, lo (2) prep. "from", also used = "by" introducing the agent after a passive construction: nahtana ló Turin *"slain by Túrin" (VT49:24). A similar and possibly identical form is mentioned in the Etymologies as being somehow related to the ablative ending -llo, but is not there clearly defined (VT45:28). At one point, Tolkien suggested that lo rather than the ending -llo was used with proper names (lo Manwë rather than Manwello for "from Manwë"), but this seems to have been a short-lived idea (VT49:24).

o

preposition. from

Derivations

  • ăwă “from” ✧ PE17/148
    • WĀ/AWA “away (from); go (away), depart, pass away, move (from speaker); before (of time), ago, away (from); go (away), depart, pass away, move (from speaker); before (of time), ago; [ᴹ√] forth, out” ✧ PE17/148
  • “from, coming from, as described by a genitive” ✧ PE22/168
    • HO “from, coming from” ✧ WJ/361

Variations

  • ō ✧ PE22/168
Quenya [PE17/148; PE22/168] Group: Eldamo. Published by

va

from

va prep. "from" (VT43:20; prefixed in the form var- in var-úra "from evil", VT43:24). In VT49:24, va, au and o are quoted as variants of the stem awa "away from".

fanto Speculative

noun. whale

This word only appears in the name of the Númenórean ship Turuphanto “Wooden-whale” (UT/191). The language of the name is unclear, but Carl Hostetter suggested (Tolklang/5.31) that the name is likely to be Quenya, since ᴱQ. turu meant “wood”. If so, the second element phanto might be Quenya for “whale”. This spelling is unusual, however. In Quenya, [f] was normally spelled “f”, while the spelling “ph” appeared only in languages like Sindarin or Adûnaic.

Conceptual Development: The only other attested words for “whale” are the very early G. uin and G. uimoth in the Gnomish Lexicon (GL/74).

Element in

Variations

  • phanto ✧ UT/191 (phanto)

Sindarin 

uin

suffix. I do not

_ v. & pron. suff. _I do not. Could be used with bare verbs : uin gare I do not make. >> -n, ú-

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:145] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

uin

preposition. of the

Sindarin [SD/129-31] o+i. Group: SINDICT. Published by

i

definite article. the

Sindarin [Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417] Group: SINDICT. Published by

i

the

pl1. in _ art. _the.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:39:42:44:66:96:102:1] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

i

article. the

@@@ enclytic Dagor-nuin-Giliath vs. Dagor-nui-Ngiliath

Cognates

  • Q. i “the” ✧ PE17/066

Element in

Variations

  • i ✧ Let/425; Let/448; LotR/0299; NM/164; NM/372; PE17/039; PE17/044; PE17/044; PE17/066; S/198; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; UT/280; VT44/24; VT50/12; VT50/18; VT50/18; VT50/23; WJ/338
  • i- ✧ LotR/1061; LotR/1114
  • in ✧ NM/364
  • ✧ PE17/147
  • ir ✧ VT50/23
Sindarin [Let/425; Let/448; LotR/0299; LotR/0305; LotR/0768; LotR/0807; LotR/0953; LotR/1054; LotR/1061; LotR/1114; MR/373; NM/164; NM/364; NM/372; NM/378; PE17/039; PE17/044; PE17/060; PE17/066; PE17/097; PE17/102; PE17/147; PM/256; RGEO/62; S/106; S/198; S/238; SA/edhel; SD/129; UT/054; UT/057; UT/153; UT/280; UT/319; VT44/24; VT50/12; VT50/15; VT50/18; VT50/19; VT50/23; WJ/338; WJ/379; WJ/418; WJI/Taur-i-Melegyrn] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

definite article. who

Sindarin [Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417] Group: SINDICT. Published by

ú

prefix. no, not (negative prefix or particle)

Sindarin [WJ/369, LotR/A(v)] Group: SINDICT. Published by

û

interjection. no

adv. or interj. no, not (of fact).

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:144] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

nan

preposition. of

ú-

prefix. no, not, negative; impossible, no, not, negative; impossible; [N.] bad-

Cognates

  • Q. ú- “no, not, un-, in-; hard, difficult, bad, uneasy; hardly, with difficulty, ‘badly’” ✧ PE17/062

Derivations

  • UG “dislike” ✧ PE22/160
  • Ū “denial of fact, privation, negative element, denial of fact, privation, negative element, [ᴱ√] not” ✧ VT42/33

Element in

  • S. ú-chebin estel anim “I have kept no hope for myself” ✧ LotR/1061
  • S. Udalraph “Stirrupless” ✧ UT/313
  • ᴺS. úgan(n) “gutless, faint-hearted, diffident”
  • S. úgarol “not now doing or making, idling” ✧ PE17/144
  • S. úgarth “trespass, *(lit.) misdeed” ✧ VT44/28
  • ᴺS. úgethiol “boring, (lit.) not interesting”
  • S. uin gar “I do not make” ✧ PE17/145
  • ᴺS. úlam “dumb, unable to speak, (lit.) untongued”
  • S. úlan(n) “narrow, (lit.) not broad” ✧ PE17/144
  • S. uluithiad “unquenchable”
  • S. Úmarth “Ill-fate”
  • S. únodui “countless” ✧ PE17/144

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
û > ú[ū-]✧ VT42/33

Variations

  • ū- ✧ PE17/062; PE17/144; PE17/144
  • ú ✧ PE17/145; PE22/160; VT42/33; VT44/28 (ú)
  • U- ✧ UT/313
  • ū ✧ WJ/369
Sindarin [LotR/1061; PE17/062; PE17/144; PE17/145; PE22/160; UT/313; VT42/33; VT44/28; WJ/369] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bess

noun. wife

Sindarin [Ety/352, SD/129-31] Group: SINDICT. Published by

arwen

noun. noble woman

Sindarin [Arwen (name) LotR] ar-+gwend. Group: SINDICT. Published by

bess

noun. (young) woman

Sindarin [Ety/352, SD/129-31] Group: SINDICT. Published by

adaneth

noun. (mortal) woman

Sindarin [MR/349] adan+-eth. Group: SINDICT. Published by

baw

interjection. no, don't!

Sindarin [WJ/371] Group: SINDICT. Published by

o

preposition. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker)

According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

Sindarin [Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-3] Group: SINDICT. Published by

od

preposition. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker)

According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

Sindarin [Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-3] Group: SINDICT. Published by

o

preposition. from

_ prep. _from. . This gloss was rejected.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:148] < AWA, WĀ go, move (from speaker), go away, depart. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

o

from

(od), followed by hard mutation; with article uin ”from the, of the” (followed by mixed mutation according to David Salo’s reconstuctuons). (WJ:366) Not to be confused with o ”about, concerning” (q.v. for this meaning of ”of”). 2) na (followed by lenition), with article nan (followed by ”mixed mutation”, according to David Salo’s reconstruction). The preposition has various meanings: ”with, by, near” and also ”to, toward, at; of” 3)

o

preposition. from

_ prep. _from, of. In older S. o had the form od before vowels. o menel aglar elenath ! lit. 'from Firmament glory of the stars !'.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20-1:42:54] < _au(t) _< stem_ awa_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

o

of

(od), followed by hard mutation. With article uin ”from the, of the” (followed by ”mixed” mutation according to David Salo’s reconstuctuons). (WJ:366). Not to be confused with o ”about, concerning”.

o

preposition. from, of

@@@ for o + in = uin, compare no + i = nui (Ety/NU)

Derivations

  • WĀ/AWA “away (from); go (away), depart, pass away, move (from speaker); before (of time), ago, away (from); go (away), depart, pass away, move (from speaker); before (of time), ago; [ᴹ√] forth, out” ✧ PE17/024; WJ/366
  • ăwă “from” ✧ PE17/148
    • WĀ/AWA “away (from); go (away), depart, pass away, move (from speaker); before (of time), ago, away (from); go (away), depart, pass away, move (from speaker); before (of time), ago; [ᴹ√] forth, out” ✧ PE17/148

Element in

Sindarin [LotR/0238; LotR/0305; LotR/0729; PE17/024; PE17/042; PE17/148; RGEO/62; RGEO/63; RGEO/64; SD/129; WJ/366; WJ/367; WJ/370] Group: Eldamo. Published by

uin

from the, of the

uin.

uin

from the, of the

.

i

the

: Singular i (+ soft mutation), basically in in the plural, but often loses the n which is then replaced by nasal mutation of the next consonant (e.g. i thîw ”the letters”, compare tîw ”letters”). In this wordlist it is assumed that in becomes idh before a word in r-, as general patterns would seem to suggest. The articles are also used as relative pronouns ”who, which, that” (see THAT). Apparently ”the” sometimes appears as a suffix -n added to a preposition, e.g. be**<u>n</u>** ”according to <u>the</u>”. This suffix is followed by ”mixed mutation” according to David Salos reconstructions.

i

the

(+ soft mutation), basically in in the plural, but often loses the n which is then replaced by nasal mutation of the next consonant (e.g. i thîw ”the letters”, compare tîw ”letters”). In this wordlist it is assumed that in becomes idh before a word in r-, as general patterns would seem to suggest. – The articles are also used as relative pronouns ”who, which, that” (see

n

that

added to a preposition, e.g. ben ”according to the”.  This suffix is followed by ”mixed mutation” according to David Salo’s reconstructions.

an

to the, for the

(for) + i (the).

baw!

no

! (interjection expressing refusal or prohibition, not denying facts) baw! (dont!) Prefix

baw!

no

(don’t!) Prefix

en

of the

e-, genitival article, mostly only used in the singular (in the plural, in or i + nasal mutation is used), though infrequently en is used in the pl. as well. Followed by ”mixed mutation” according to David Salo’s reconstructions.

en

of the

e- (sg. genitival article)

gwanur

kinsman

(i ’wanur) (brother), pl. gwenyr (in gwenyr). Note: a homophone of the sg. means ”pair of twins”.

no, not

also ú

dess

young woman

(i ness, o ndess, constuct des), pl. diss (i ndiss).

bess

woman

bess (i vess, construct bes) (wife), pl. biss (i miss). The word etymologically means ”wife”, but the meaning was generalized.

bess

woman

(i vess, construct bes) (wife), pl. biss (i miss). The word etymologically means ”wife”, but the meaning was generalized.

adaneth

mortal woman

(pl. edenith), also firieth (pl. firith).

lae-

verb. to not be

Derivations

  • lā- “to not be”
    • LA “no, not; negative; not to be” ✧ PE22/153
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - neologism/reconstructions. Published by

Telerin 

-o

suffix. of

Cognates

  • Q. -o “of; genitive ending” ✧ WJ/369

ho

preposition. from

Derivations

  • ʒō “from” ✧ PE21/78

Adûnaic

kali

noun. woman

A noun translated “woman” (SD/434).

preposition. from

A prepositional suffix translated “from” (SD/429). In a few places, the suffix appears with the glide-consonant v (pronounced [w]) between it and a preceding u-vowel (SD/247, 249). It is likely related to the Quenya genitive inflection Q. -o.

Conceptual Development: At an earlier conceptual stage, this suffix was a grammatical inflection, the draft-genitive (SD/438).

Cognates

  • Q. -o “of; genitive ending”

Element in

Variations

  • -o ✧ SD/365
  • ō ✧ SD/429
Adûnaic [SD/247; SD/249; SD/365; SD/382; SD/429] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Khuzdûl

-ul

suffix. of

Element in

  • Kh. Azanulbizar “Dimrill Dale, (lit.) Rills of the Shadows” ✧ RC/269

Variations

  • |ul ✧ PE17/047
Khuzdûl [PE17/047; RC/269] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Primitive elvish

nis

root. woman

This root first appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as ᴹ√NIS “woman”, an extension of ᴹ√ “female” (Ety/NIS). It also had a strengthened form ᴹ√NDIS, unglossed but apparently meaning “bride” based on its derivatives ᴹQ. indis/N. dîs of that meaning (Ety/NDIS). Unstrengthened ᴹ√NIS seems to have survived only in Quenya as the basis for ᴹQ. nis (niss-) “woman”, but this word was also blended with ✱ndis-sē to produce a longer form nisse of the same meaning.

In Tolkien’s later writings, both short Q. nís and longer nissë appeared as words for “woman” (MR/213; VT47/33) and Q. indis reappeared as well, though glossed “wife” (UT/8). As primitive forms, both unstrengthened √nis (VT47/33) and strengthened ✶ndī̆s “woman” also appeared in later writings, the latter given as the feminine equivalent of ✶[[p|n[d]ēr]] “man” (PE19/102).

Derivatives

  • ndī̆s “*bride, [ᴹ✶] bride”
    • Q. indis “wife, [ᴹQ.] bride; [Q.] wife”
  • nīs “woman, female person”
  • Q. nillë “small [woman]” ✧ VT47/33
  • Q. nís “woman” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/33
  • Q. nisto “large woman” ✧ VT47/33

Variations

  • nis- ✧ VT47/18
  • nis ✧ VT47/33
Primitive elvish [VT47/18; VT47/33] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lā-

verb. to not be

Derivations

  • LA “no, not; negative; not to be” ✧ PE22/153

Derivatives

  • Q. lá- “to not be” ✧ PE22/153; PE22/153; VT49/13
  • ᴺS. lae- “to not be”

Element in

Variations

  • la ✧ PE22/140
  • ✧ PE22/153
Primitive elvish [PE22/140; PE22/153; VT49/13] Group: Eldamo. Published by

preposition. from

Primitive elvish [VT47/35] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ăwă

preposition. from

Derivations

  • WĀ/AWA “away (from); go (away), depart, pass away, move (from speaker); before (of time), ago, away (from); go (away), depart, pass away, move (from speaker); before (of time), ago; [ᴹ√] forth, out” ✧ PE17/148

Derivatives

  • Q. o “from” ✧ PE17/148
  • S. o “from, of” ✧ PE17/148
Primitive elvish [PE17/148] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ʒō

preposition. from

Derivatives

  • T. ho “from” ✧ PE21/78

Variations

  • ʒō̆ ✧ PE21/78
Primitive elvish [PE21/78] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

i

definite article. the

Noldorin [Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417] Group: SINDICT. Published by

i

definite article. who

Noldorin [Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417] Group: SINDICT. Published by

i

article. the

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. i “the” ✧ Ety/I¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ√I “that (deictic particle); [ᴱ√] here it is, root of relatives” ✧ Ety/I¹

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√I > i-[i]✧ Ety/I¹

Variations

  • i- ✧ Ety/I¹
Noldorin [Ety/I¹; Ety/KHOP; Ety/KIRIK; EtyAC/I¹; LR/201; PE22/033; RS/186; SD/046; TAI/150; TI/182; TI/187] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an

preposition. of

Element in

Noldorin [WR/287; WR/388] Group: Eldamo. Published by

interjection. no

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ “no, not” ✧ Ety/MŪ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ > [mū]✧ Ety/MŪ
Noldorin [EtyAC/MŪ] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nan

preposition. of

bess

noun. wife

Noldorin [Ety/352, SD/129-31] Group: SINDICT. Published by

dess

noun. young woman

Noldorin [Ety/375] Group: SINDICT. Published by

noun. woman, lady

Noldorin [Ety/352, Ety/354] Group: SINDICT. Published by

bess

noun. (young) woman

Noldorin [Ety/352, SD/129-31] Group: SINDICT. Published by

al-

prefix. no, not

Noldorin [Ety/367] Group: SINDICT. Published by

o

preposition. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker)

According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

Noldorin [Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-3] Group: SINDICT. Published by

o

preposition. from, of

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. ho “from” ✧ Ety/ƷŌ̆

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ƷO “from, away, from among, out of” ✧ Ety/ƷŌ̆

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ƷŌ̆ > o[ɣo] > [o]✧ Ety/ƷŌ̆

Variations

  • o ✧ Ety/ƷŌ̆; TI/182
Noldorin [Ety/ƷŌ̆; TI/182] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Undetermined

uin

Uin

In the Gnomish Lexicon, the word uin means "whale". The original meaning of uin seems to have been "wave". Another Gnomish word for whale was uimoth, "sheep of the waves" (incorporating moth).

Undetermined [Tolkien Gateway] Published by

Qenya 

i

article. the

Cognates

  • N. i “the” ✧ Ety/I¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ√I “that (deictic particle); [ᴱ√] here it is, root of relatives” ✧ Ety/I¹

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√I > i[i]✧ Ety/I¹

Variations

  • i ✧ Ety/I¹; LR/072; LR/072; PE21/69; PE22/106; PE22/108; PE22/116; PE22/120; PE22/121; PE22/124
  • i- ✧ LR/072
  • ✧ LR/199
  • i{n} ✧ VT28/11
Qenya [Ety/I¹; LR/072; LR/199; PE21/69; PE22/106; PE22/108; PE22/116; PE22/120; PE22/121; PE22/124; VT28/11] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nis

noun. woman

Cognates

  • On. ndissa “young woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS; EtyAC/NIS
  • N. dess “young woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NDIS “*bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • ᴹ√NĪ/INI “female” ✧ Ety/BES
    • ᴹ√NIS “woman” ✧ Ety/NIS
  • ᴹ√NIS “woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS; Ety/NĪ¹; Ety/NIS

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NDIS-SĒ/SĀ > nisse[ndisse] > [nisse]✧ Ety/NDIS
ᴹ√NIS/NĪ > nis[niss] > [nis]✧ Ety/NDIS
ᴹ√NIS > nis[niss] > [nis]✧ Ety/NĪ¹
ᴹ√NIS > nisse[nisse]✧ Ety/NĪ¹
ᴹ√NIS > nis[niss] > [nis]✧ Ety/NIS

Variations

  • nisse ✧ Ety/NDIS; Ety/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NIS (nisse)
Qenya [Ety/NDIS; Ety/NĪ¹; Ety/NIS; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NIS; PE21/08] Group: Eldamo. Published by

um-

verb. to not be, to not do

Derivations

  • ᴹ√UMU “negative stems” ✧ Ety/LA; Ety/UGU
    • ᴹ√ “no, not” ✧ Ety/UGU; Ety/GŪ
  • ᴹ√ “no, not” ✧ EtyAC/ƷŪ

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√UGU > ume[um-]✧ Ety/LA
ᴹ√UGU > uin[ugin] > [uɣin] > [uin]✧ Ety/UGU
ᴹ√ƷŪ > humin[ɣumin] > [humin]✧ EtyAC/ƷŪ
Qenya [Ety/LA; Ety/UGU; EtyAC/ƷŪ; LR/072] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nisse

noun. woman

lá-

verb. to not be

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LA “no, not; to be not” ✧ PE22/126

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ > [lā-]✧ PE22/126

Variations

  • la ✧ PE22/121; PE22/126; PE22/127
  • ✧ PE22/126
Qenya [PE22/106; PE22/119; PE22/121; PE22/126; PE22/127] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ho

preposition. from

Changes

  • oho ✧ PE21/60
  • hoo ✧ PE21/60

Cognates

  • Ilk. go “from, away; patronymic” ✧ Ety/ƷŌ̆
  • N. o “from, of” ✧ Ety/ƷŌ̆

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ƷO “from, away, from among, out of” ✧ Ety/ƷŌ̆
  • ᴹ✶ʒō “partitive; away from, from among” ✧ PE21/60
    • ᴹ√ƷO “from, away, from among, out of” ✧ Ety/ƷŌ̆; Ety/WŌ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ƷŌ̆ > ho[ɣo] > [ho]✧ Ety/ƷŌ̆
ᴹ✶ʒō̆ > o[-ɣo] > [-o]✧ PE21/60
ᴹ✶ʒō̆ > ho[ɣo] > [ho]✧ PE21/60

Variations

  • o ✧ PE21/60; PE21/60 (o)
Qenya [Ety/ƷŌ̆; PE21/60] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Old Noldorin 

i

article. the

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ī “the” ✧ PE21/58
Old Noldorin [PE21/58; PE22/027] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. woman

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NĪ/INI “female” ✧ Ety/NĪ¹
  • ᴹ✶ “woman” ✧ EtyAC/NDIS
    • ᴹ√NĪ/INI “female” ✧ PE21/55
  • ᴹ√NIS “woman” ✧ EtyAC/NDIS; Ety/NIS

Derivatives

  • N. “woman, bride, lady” ✧ Ety/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NIS

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ > [nī] > [dī]✧ EtyAC/NDIS

Variations

  • ✧ EtyAC/NDIS
  • ✧ EtyAC/NDIS ()
  • nīs ✧ EtyAC/NDIS (nīs); EtyAC/NIS (nīs)
  • ✧ EtyAC/NĪ¹
  • nî/dī ✧ EtyAC/NIS
Old Noldorin [Ety/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NIS] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

ī

article. the

Derivatives

  • On. i “the” ✧ PE21/58
Middle Primitive Elvish [PE21/58] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. woman

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NĪ/INI “female” ✧ PE21/55

Derivatives

  • On. “woman” ✧ EtyAC/NDIS
    • N. “woman, bride, lady” ✧ Ety/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NIS
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/NĒR; EtyAC/NDIS; PE21/55] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nis

root. woman

Derivatives

  • ᴹ√NDIS “*bride” ✧ Ety/NIS
    • ᴹ✶ndīse “bride” ✧ Ety/DER; Ety/I²; Ety/NDIS
    • N. dîs “bride” ✧ EtyAC/NIS
    • On. ndīs “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
      • N. dîs “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • ᴹQ. indis “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • ᴹQ. nis “woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • N. “woman, bride, lady” ✧ Ety/BES
    • N. dîs “bride” ✧ Ety/BES
    • On. ndīs “bride” ✧ EtyAC/NIS
    • N. dîs “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • On. ndissa “young woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • N. dess “young woman” ✧ Ety/BES; Ety/NDIS; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NIS
  • ᴹ✶ndīse “bride” ✧ Ety/NIS
    • N. dîs “bride” ✧ EtyAC/NIS
    • On. ndīs “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • N. dîs “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
  • ᴹ✶nī̆s “woman” ✧ PE21/55
  • ᴹQ. nis “woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS; Ety/NĪ¹; Ety/NIS
  • ᴹQ. nissa “lady”
  • On. “woman” ✧ EtyAC/NDIS; Ety/NIS
    • N. “woman, bride, lady” ✧ Ety/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NIS

Variations

  • NĪ/NIS ✧ Ety/DER
  • NIS/NĪ ✧ Ety/NDIS
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/DER; Ety/NDIS; Ety/NĪ¹; Ety/NIS; EtyAC/NDIS; PE21/55] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nī̆s

noun. woman

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NIS “woman” ✧ PE21/55

Variations

  • nis ✧ Ety/NĒR
  • nīs- ✧ PE21/55
  • nīs ✧ PE21/64
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/NĒR; PE21/55; PE21/64] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

uin

proper name. Primeval Whale

Cognates

Gnomish [GL/74; LT1/085; LT1A/Ónen; LT1A/Uin; LT1I/Uin; LT2I/Uin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

uin

noun. whale, †wave

Derivations

  • ᴱ√GWIŊI “*foam” ✧ GL/45

Element in

  • G. uimoth “whale, (lit.) sheep of the waves” ✧ GL/74; LT1A/Uin
  • G. Uin “Primeval Whale” ✧ LT1A/Uin

Variations

  • uin² ✧ GL/74
Gnomish [GL/45; GL/74; LT1A/Uin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

article. the

Derivations

  • ᴱ√I “here it is, root of relatives” ✧ GG/07

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ GG/09; GL/44; GL/50
  • in· ✧ GG/09
  • i(n) ✧ GL/59
Gnomish [GG/07; GG/09; GG/11; GG/12; GG/15; GL/17; GL/34; GL/44; GL/49; GL/50; GL/59; GL/64; GL/65; LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi; PE13/093; PE13/095; PE13/117] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mu

preposition. from

Variations

  • mu ✧ GL/58

nan

preposition. of

a(n)

preposition. of

Derivations

  • ᴱ✶ā ✧ PE13/108

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ GG/07; GL/17; GL/49; LT1A/Uolë Kúvion; LT1I/Gilfanon
  • an ✧ GG/11; GL/26; GL/26; LT2A/Cûm an-Idrisaith
  • a ✧ GG/11; GL/34; GL/46; GL/64; LT1A/Cûm a Gumlaith; LT2A/Falasquil; LT2A/Teld Quing Ilon; LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin; PE13/093; PE13/108
Gnomish [GG/07; GG/11; GG/12; GL/17; GL/26; GL/34; GL/46; GL/49; GL/64; LT1A/Cûm a Gumlaith; LT1A/Uolë Kúvion; LT1I/Gilfanon; LT2A/Cûm an-Idrisaith; LT2A/Falasquil; LT2A/Teld Quing Ilon; LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin; PE13/093; PE13/108] Group: Eldamo. Published by

û-

verb. not to be, not to do

Cognates

  • Eq. um- “to be not, do not”

Derivations

  • ᴱ√Ū “not”

Element in

Gnomish [GL/45; GL/73] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nîr

noun. woman

Cognates

  • Eq. “woman” ✧ GL/60

a

preposition. from

Cognates

  • Eq. ô “from” ✧ GL/17

Derivations

Element in

Variations

  • a ✧ GG/11
  • a(n·) ✧ GL/17
  • o ✧ PE13/115
Gnomish [GG/11; GL/17; PE13/115] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

preposition. of

o

preposition. from

Early Noldorin

uin

noun. woman

Changes

  • gwinduin “woman” ✧ PE13/146
  • gwinnuin “woman” ✧ PE13/155

Variations

  • gwind ✧ PE13/146 (gwind)
  • gwinn ✧ PE13/146 (gwinn); PE13/155 (gwinn)
Early Noldorin [PE13/123; PE13/146; PE13/155] Group: Eldamo. Published by

hin

preposition. from

Element in

Early Noldorin [MC/217] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nain

noun. woman

Changes

  • nainuin “woman” ✧ PE13/123

Cognates

  • Eq. “woman”
Early Noldorin [PE13/123] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

article. the

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ PE13/128; PE13/128 ()
Early Noldorin [PE13/120; PE13/124; PE13/128] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na

preposition. of

Element in

Early Noldorin [LB/275; SM/026] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

uin

proper name. Uin

The “primeval whale”, a name appearing only in the Qenya Lexicon from the 1910s (QL/97), derived from the root ᴱ√IWI having to do with fish.

Changes

  • uinuino ✧ PE16/138

Cognates

  • G. Uin “Primeval Whale”

Derivations

  • ᴱ√IWI “*fish” ✧ QL/097

Variations

  • uino ✧ PE16/138
  • uin ✧ PE16/138 (uin)
Early Quenya [PE16/138; QL/097] Group: Eldamo. Published by

in

article. the

i

article. the

Derivations

  • ᴱ√I “here it is, root of relatives”

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ LT1/114; LT1/184
  • i ✧ LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi; MC/215; MC/216; MC/216; MC/221; PE14/032; PE14/046; PE14/047; PE14/048; PE14/050; PE14/055; PE14/056; PE14/079; PE14/081; PE14/083; PE15/32; PE15/32; PE15/32; PE15/32; PE16/062; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/077; PE16/077; PE16/077; PE16/090; PE16/090; PE16/092; PE16/100; PE16/100; PE16/104; PE16/104
  • I ✧ LT1A/Nori Landar; MC/215
  • i- ✧ PE14/042
  • n- ✧ PE14/042
  • in- ✧ PE14/042 (in-)
  • ’n ✧ PE14/048; PE14/081
  • n ✧ PE14/050; PE14/054; PE15/32; PE16/062; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/077
  • ✧ PE14/071; QL/031; VT40/08
  • ✧ PE14/071; PE14/083; PE14/117
  • in· ✧ PE14/071 (in·)
  • in ✧ PE15/32
  • Y ✧ PE16/090; PE16/092
  • ✧ VT40/08; VT40/08
Early Quenya [LT1/114; LT1/184; LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi; LT1A/Nori Landar; MC/215; MC/216; MC/221; PE14/032; PE14/042; PE14/046; PE14/047; PE14/048; PE14/050; PE14/054; PE14/055; PE14/056; PE14/071; PE14/079; PE14/081; PE14/083; PE14/117; PE15/32; PE16/062; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/077; PE16/090; PE16/092; PE16/100; PE16/104; QL/031; VT40/08] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anai

noun. woman

A noun in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s form “woman” with variants anai and anî, a feminine form ᴱQ. anu “a male” (QL/31).

Element in

  • Eq. anaina “womanly” ✧ QL/031

Variations

  • anî ✧ QL/031
Early Quenya [QL/031] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. woman

Cognates

  • G. nîr “woman” ✧ GL/60
  • En. nain “woman”

Element in

  • Eq. -ni “feminine suffix”
Early Quenya [GL/60] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anî

noun. woman

nyél

noun. woman

A word for “woman” in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s with stem form nyel-, as indicated by its accusative nyela (PE16/135). Its etymology is unclear; Patrick Wynne and Christopher Gilson suggested it might be connected to the early root ᴱ√NYEHE “weep” or later root ᴹ√NYEL “ring, sing”, but these both feel like stretches to me.

Variations

  • nyēl ✧ PE16/135
Early Quenya [PE16/135] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ô

preposition. from

Cognates

  • G. a “from” ✧ GL/17

Derivations

Early Quenya [GL/17] Group: Eldamo. Published by