Quenya zR5Ì#

ú-

prefix. hard, difficult, bad, uneasy, hardly, with difficulty, ‘badly’, no, not, un-, in-, not-, un-, in-, un-

[PE17/062.4102; PE17/063.0102; PE17/143.4202; PE17/144.1201; PE17/150.0303-1; PE22/152.0501; PE22/156.2217; PE22/156.2701; PE22/160.0601; PE22/167.2503; UT/211.1410-1; VT39/14.3702; VT42/33.1101; VT44/04.3901; VT49/15.3204; VT49/18.1805] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ú-

verb. not-, un-, in-

ú- (2) prefix "not-, un-, in-", denying presence or possession of thing or quality (VT39:14, UGU/UMU/VT46:20, GŪ, LT1:272), or simply suggesting something bad or immoral (see #úcar-, Úmaiar). Tolkien at one point considered redefining ú- as an element signifying "bad, uneasy, hard"; the already-published form únótima would then mean "difficult/impossible to count" rather than simply "uncountable" (VT42:33). However, Tolkien's very last word on the matter seems to be that ú- was to remain a mere negative (VT44:4). Compare úa, q.v. According to the Etymologies, the prefix ú- usually has a "bad sense", whereas according to early material u- (uv-, um-, un-) is a "mere negation" (UGU/UMU vs. VT42:32) According to a later source, ú- could be used as an uninflected verbal prefix, mainly in verse, but in a normal style the prefix was "verbalized" as ua-, q.v. (PE17:144). The stem Ū, as a negation, was accompanied by "pursed lips and shaking of the head" (PE17:145).

ú-

prefix. bad, uneasy, hard

[PE 22:160] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

hu-

verb. hu-

[hu- or -, negative prefix (VT45:17); Tolkien settled on ú- instead.]

úa

do not thou lead us

úa, with 1st person suffix úalyë, imperative particle á, a combined with the negation ú- to express a prohibition (úalyë mittanya me, *"do not thou lead us", VT43:9, 21-22). However, Tolkien apparently abandoned úa in favour of ala, alalyë, q.v. (later he also used the form áva for "don't"). Compare ua.

úcar-

to sin, trespass; to do wrong

#úcar- vb. "to sin, trespass; to do wrong" (pl. aorist úcarer in VT43:12, we would rather expect úcarir, a form seemingly indicated by an emendation in one variant of the text in question, VT43:21). The verb is car- "do" with the prefix ú-, here suggesting something morally bad ("do wrong") rather than simple negation.

úyë

is

úyë vb., a form occurring in Fíriel's Song (cf. VT46:22), apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")

únat

thing impossible to be or to be done

únat noun "a thing impossible to be or to be done" (VT39:26) Cf. ú- and nat.

ullumë

not for ever

ullumë adv.? a word occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently meaning "not for ever". Cf. ú-, lúmë and úlumë.

-ië

suffix. is

- (3) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantië "he is fallen", márië "it is good" (< *númessë "in the west", melda "beloved", *talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina "gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be", verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song. This suffix is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya: - is an infinitival or gerundial ending in CO, for ye "is" Namárië has , and the phrase "lost is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwië.

urra

adjective. bad

[PE22/168.0314; PE22/168.2609] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Maia

the beautiful

Maia pl. Maiar noun "the Beautiful" (MR:49), the lesser (= non-Vala) Ainur that entered Eä. Variant Máya in VT42:13/VT47:18, pl. Máyar in PM:363, 364 and VT47:18 (possibly, Máya is to be understood as the older form of Maia). With negative prefix ú- also Úmaiar, Maiar who became evil and followed Melkor, such as Balrogs (MR:79, "Umaiar", MR:165).

Vanimo

the beautiful

Vanimo (pl. Vanimor given), noun "the beautiful", children of the Valar (BAN), or "fair folk" = (men and) elves (UGU/UMU, VT45:17). Negated úvanimor = "monsters".

ufárëa

adjective. not enough

ufárëa

not enough

ufárëa adj. "not enough" (FS). Cf. ú- "un-" and fárëa "enough, sufficient" (read *úfárëa?)

lacaraite

adjective. impossible

[PE 22:156] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

lacaraitë

adjective. impossible

[PE22/156.2903; PE22/156.3808] Group: Eldamo. Published by

is

(1) vb. "is" (am). (Nam, RGEO:67). This is the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns "in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another" (VT49:28). Also in impersonal constructions: ringa ná "it is cold" (VT49:23). The copula may however be omitted "where the meaning is clear" without it (VT49:9). is also used as an interjection "yes" or "it is so" (VT49:28). Short na in airë [] na, "[] is holy" (VT43:14; some subject can evidently be inserted in the place of [].) Short na also functions as imperative: alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heaven be to God" (VT44:32/34), also na airë "be holy" (VT43:14); also cf. nai "be it that" (see nai #1). The imperative participle á may be prefixed (á na, PE17:58). However, VT49:28 cites as the imperative form. Pl. nar or nár "are" (PE15:36, VT49:27, 9, 30); dual nát (VT49:30). With pronominal endings: nányë/nanyë "I am", nalyë or natyë "you (sg.) are" (polite and familiar, respectively), nás "it is", násë "(s)he is", nalmë "we are" (VT49:27, 30). Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps to be taken as representing the aorist: nain, naityë, nailyë (1st person sg, and 2nd person familiar/polite, respectively); does a following na represent the aorist with no pronominal ending? However, the forms nanyë, nalyë, , nassë, nalme, nar (changed from nár) are elsewhere said to be "aorist", without the extra vowel i (e.g. nalyë rather than nailyë); also notice that *"(s)he is" is here nassë rather than násë (VT49:30).Pa.t. nánë or "was", pl. náner/nér and dual nét "were" (VT49:6, 9, 10, 27, 28, 30, 36). According to VT49:31, "was" cannot receive pronominal endings (though nésë "he was" is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29), and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen "I was", anel "you were", anes "(s)he/it was" (VT49:28-29). Future tense nauva "will be" (VT42:34, VT49:19, 27; another version however gives the future tense as uva, VT49:30). Nauva with a pronominal ending occurs in tanomë nauvan "I will be there" (VT49:19), this example indicating that forms of the verb may also be used to indicate position. Perfect anaië "has been" (VT49:27, first written as anáyë). Infinitive (or gerund) návë "being", PE17:68. See also nai #1.

ye

is

ye (2) copula "is" (FS, VT46:22); both earlier and later sources rather point to (q.v.) as the copula "is", so ye may have been an experiment Tolkien later abandoned. Future tense yéva, q.v.

Sindarin iT2#7T5

ú-

prefix. impossible

[PE 22:160] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

ú-

~M prefix. negates the sense of the following word

pref. negates the sense of the following word. Applied to all classes of words but especially to verbs and adjectives. Prefixed to verbal stems (without further suffix), it forms quasi-participles in aorist mode (e.g. únod not ever counting, _úbed _not saying). The continuative participle ol can be added in order to express a strictly present (and continuative) sense : úgarol 'not now doing or making', idling vs. ugar '(generally) idle'. There is no sens of 'without' attaching to ú- in Sindarin, see pen- (ben-). pen-, úland, úlann

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:62:144-5] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ú-

prefix. impossible, no, no, not, no, not, negative

[LotR/1061.4005-1; PE17/062.4102-1; PE17/144.3113; PE17/144.3409; PE17/144.3708; PE17/144.3908; PE17/144.4401; PE17/144.4704-1; PE17/145.0411; PE17/145.0610; PE17/145.0614; PE22/160.0818; UT/313.3808-1; VT42/33.1506; VT44/28.2701; WJ/369.4110] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thu

bad

_adj. _bad. thugar. This gloss was rejected.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:172] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

faeg

bad

*faeg (poor, mean). No distinct pl. form. (Suggested Sindarin form of ”Noldorin” foeg.)

law

jyE prefix. not

Neologism derived from the root √LA "no, not". ló- and lenition before consonants. It's meant to be used as an alternative to ú-, which Tolkien rejected as a negative prefix in his later writings.

Examples:
*ló-hevin mass "I do not have bread."
*law aníron mass "I do not want bread."

Phonological development:
lā > lǭ > lau, law
?law > ló-

[< √LA] Group: Neologism. Published by

ogol

bad

_ adj. _bad, evil, wrong. Q. olca bad, wicked. oklā << ōklā. oew, ogron

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:149:170] < *_oklā_ < OKO evil, bad. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

um

bad

um (evil), pl. ym. David Salo would read *ûm with a long vowel. (According to VT46:20, it may be that um is intended as a base rather than as a ”Noldorin” word.)

Adûnaic

-n

suffix. is, predicate suffix

A suffix appearing at the end of several words in the first draft of Lament of Akallabêth, variously glossed with different forms of the verb “to be”: burudan “heavy-is”, rōkhī-nam “bent-are”, īdōn “now is” (SD/312). Evidentally the suffix -n “is” is the singular form and -nam “are” is plural. The plural form probably includes the plural verbal suffix -m. This use of the suffix -n is probably no longer be valid in later versions of Adûnaic, as discussed below.

Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (VSH/36) that -nam maybe related to Q. ná- “to be”, but they fail to analyze the singular forms of the suffix. Andreas Moehn (LGtAG) does connect the singular instances of the suffix -n to the plural -nam, but without connecting it to Q. ná-. I think both authors got part of the story right: the suffixal form -na is mostly likely derived from the same Elvish root √ as Q. ná-, losing its final a in the singular form but preserving it in the plural form when the plural suffix -m is added.

In its first two appearances in the draft version of the Lament, this suffix is attached to the predicate of a copula (a linguistic term for a “to be” expression). For that reason, this lexicon uses the term “predicate suffix” for this use of the -n suffix:

  • agannūlo buruda~n~ nēnum “death-shade heavy-~is~ on-us”subject agannūlo “death-shade”, predicate buruda “heavy” + -n “is”.
  • īdō kathī batānī rōkhī-~nam~ “lo! now all ways bent-~are~”subject batānī “ways”, predicate rōkhī “bent” + -nam “are”.

The suffix’s second two appearances in the draft version of the Lament are more ambiguous.

  • ēphalek īdō~n~ akallabēth “far away lo!now ~is~ She-that-is-fallen”.
  • ēphal ēphalek īdō~n~ athanātē “far far away ~is~ now the Land of Gift”.

Going by word order alone, it seems that the -n is attached to the predicate in both of these sentences as well. However, as Andreas Moehn points out (LGtAG), īdō could be the subject of both sentences if the predicates are the final word of each sentence, which is more consistent with the later subjective inflection.

In the later version of Adûnaic described in Lowdham’s Report, the suffix -n has a new function, namely as the common subjective suffix: -an/-n. This new use differs from the older one in that it applies to the subject of a copula instead of the predicate. Despite this grammatical change from draft-Adûnaic, the word form īdōn appears in all later versions of the Lament of Akallabêth except the final manuscript version.

  • Ēphalak īdōn Yōzāyan “far away now (is) Land of Gift” (SD/247).
  • Ēphal ēphalak īdōn hi-Akallabēth “far far away now (is) She-that-hath-fallen” (SD/247).

These later appearances of īdōn still have the gloss “now (is)”, so it seems possible that these they are remnants of the predicate suffix from draft Adûnaic. Moehn, Hostetter and Wynne all suggested (LGtAG, AAD/16) that these later appearances of īdōn can be reinterpreted as a subjective inflection. However, this interpretation is still problematic, since îdô would surely be a neuter instead of a common noun, whose subjective form would therefore be *îdôwa.

The suffix -n did not appear after īdō in the final manuscript version of the Lament, and the gloss “is” was removed as well:

ul>

It is my belief that Tolkien eventually decided that the suffix -n could no longer be used in this context and removed it.

[SD/247.25021; SD/312.01041; SD/312.0503; SD/312.07011; SD/312.09031] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

ú-

prefix. un, bad-

[EtyAC/UGU.014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

um

adjective. bad, evil

[Ety/396] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Qenya zR5Ì#

ú-

prefix. not-, un-

[LT1A/Vána.020; QL/098.0401; QL/098.0403] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ú-

prefix. not, un-, in-

[Ety/GŪ.009; Ety/UGU.019; EtyAC/A.163; EtyAC/ƷŪ.014; EtyAC/UGU.010; LR/072.2005-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ufárea

adjective. not enough

[LR/072.2005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

faika

adjective. bad, bad, worthless, useless

[GL/34.5807; PE14/048.2601; PE14/081.1801; PE15/70.0804; PE16/137.4601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

falka

adjective. bad

Gnomish

unathriol

adjective. impossible, unreal, unreal; impossible

[GL/74.1701] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

feg

adjective. bad

[PE13/125.1401; PE13/125.1404; PE13/125.1405; PE13/125.1503; PE13/125.1504; PE13/143.4701] Group: Eldamo. Published by

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