Quenya zR5Ì#

ú-

prefix. uneasy, difficult, not-, hard, hardly, with difficulty, ‘badly’, in-, bad, negative prefix, in-; hard, un-, not, no, hard to do

Variations of the word: ū-, ū, ú-.

Elements

WordGlossSource
únot-, un-, in-PE17/143.4004

Element in: Q. úcarë, Q. úcárima, Q. úfantima, Q. úfanwëa, Q. úχarin, Q. Úlairi, Q. Úmaiar, Q. úmaitë, Q. Úmaneldi, Q. Úmanyar, Q. úmara, Q. únat, Q. únotë(a), Q. únótima, Q. únyárima, Q. úpa, Q. úpahtëa, Q. úquétima, Q. úsahtië, Q. úsië, Q. úsir, Q. úvana, Q. úvanë(a), Q. úvanima, Q. úvanimo

[PE22/160.0601; VT42/33.1101; PE22/156.2701; PE22/167.2503; VT44/04.3901; PE17/063.0102; PE17/143.4202; PE17/150.0303-1; VT39/14.3702; VT49/15.3204; VT49/18.1805; UT/211.1410-1; PE17/062.4102; PE17/144.1201; PE22/152.0501; PE22/156.2217] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ú-

verb. not-, un-, in-

ú- (2) prefix "not-, un-, in-", denying presence or possession of thing or quality (VT39:14, UGU/UMU/VT46:20, GŪ, LT1:272), or simply suggesting something bad or immoral (see #úcar-, Úmaiar). Tolkien at one point considered redefining ú- as an element signifying "bad, uneasy, hard"; the already-published form únótima would then mean "difficult/impossible to count" rather than simply "uncountable" (VT42:33). However, Tolkien's very last word on the matter seems to be that ú- was to remain a mere negative (VT44:4). Compare úa, q.v. According to the Etymologies, the prefix ú- usually has a "bad sense", whereas according to early material u- (uv-, um-, un-) is a "mere negation" (UGU/UMU vs. VT42:32) According to a later source, ú- could be used as an uninflected verbal prefix, mainly in verse, but in a normal style the prefix was "verbalized" as ua-, q.v. (PE17:144). The stem Ū, as a negation, was accompanied by "pursed lips and shaking of the head" (PE17:145).

ú-

prefix. bad, uneasy, hard

[PE 22:160] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

hu-

verb. hu-

[hu- or -, negative prefix (VT45:17); Tolkien settled on ú- instead.]

la-

prefix. in-, un-, not

Variations of the word: la, la-.

Element in: Q. lacalima, Q. lacaltaima, Q. lacaraitë, Q. lacárima, Q. lamélima, Q. lanotoitë

[PE22/153.2812; PE22/153.3911; PE22/156.3101-1; PE22/155.4113; PE22/156.2209] Group: Eldamo. Published by

úa

do not thou lead us

úa, with 1st person suffix úalyë, imperative particle á, a combined with the negation ú- to express a prohibition (úalyë mittanya me, *"do not thou lead us", VT43:9, 21-22). However, Tolkien apparently abandoned úa in favour of ala, alalyë, q.v. (later he also used the form áva for "don't"). Compare ua.

úcar-

to sin, trespass; to do wrong

#úcar- vb. "to sin, trespass; to do wrong" (pl. aorist úcarer in VT43:12, we would rather expect úcarir, a form seemingly indicated by an emendation in one variant of the text in question, VT43:21). The verb is car- "do" with the prefix ú-, here suggesting something morally bad ("do wrong") rather than simple negation.

úyë

is

úyë vb., a form occurring in Fíriel's Song (cf. VT46:22), apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")

únat

thing impossible to be or to be done

únat noun "a thing impossible to be or to be done" (VT39:26) Cf. ú- and nat.

únat

noun. a thing impossible to be or to be done, thing impossible to be or to be done

Elements

WordGlossSource
ú-no-
nan-back (again); backwards-

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
únatiplural-VT39/26.0801

[VT39/26.0801; VT39/26.1516] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ullumë

not for ever

ullumë adv.? a word occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently meaning "not for ever". Cf. ú-, lúmë and úlumë.

úmara

noun. evil, ill-used, bad, {sinister}, sinister

Elements

WordGlossSource
ú-noVT49/15.3204
máragoodVT49/15.3205

[VT49/15.2501; VT49/15.3104] Group: Eldamo. Published by

il-

verb. no, *un-

il- (prefix) "no, *un-" (LA); cf. ilfirin "immortal" (vs. firin "dead"). This prefix "denotes the opposite, the reversal, i.e. more than the mere negation" (VT42:32). But il- can also mean "all, every"; see ilaurëa, ilqua, ilquen.

lau(më)

adverb. no, no indeed not, on the contrary

ui

no

ui interjection "no" (originally an endingless negative verb in the 3rd person aorist: "it is not [so]"; see #u-). Apparently this is the word for "no" used to deny that something is true (compare , which is rather used to reject orders, or to issue negative orders). (VT49:28) Compare uito.

-ië

suffix. is

- (3) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantië "he is fallen", márië "it is good" (< *númessë "in the west", melda "beloved", *talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina "gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be", verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song. This suffix is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya: - is an infinitival or gerundial ending in CO, for ye "is" Namárië has , and the phrase "lost is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwië.

il-

prefix. no, not

ala-

not

ala- (2) negative prefix "not", "un-", reduced to al- before a vowel (VT42:33, GALA, VT45:25), though the example Alcorin would suggest that al- can sometimes appear before a consonant as well. In a deleted entry in Etym, al(a)- was defined as "not" and said to be a "pure negative" (VT45:5). In alahasta, Alamanyar, alasaila, Alcorin.

urra

adjective. bad

[PE22/168.2609; PE22/168.0314] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Maia

the beautiful

Maia pl. Maiar noun "the Beautiful" (MR:49), the lesser (= non-Vala) Ainur that entered Eä. Variant Máya in VT42:13/VT47:18, pl. Máyar in PM:363, 364 and VT47:18 (possibly, Máya is to be understood as the older form of Maia). With negative prefix ú- also Úmaiar, Maiar who became evil and followed Melkor, such as Balrogs (MR:79, "Umaiar", MR:165).

Vanimo

the beautiful

Vanimo (pl. Vanimor given), noun "the beautiful", children of the Valar (BAN), or "fair folk" = (men and) elves (UGU/UMU, VT45:17). Negated úvanimor = "monsters".

adverb. no, not, not (it isn’t, not it), it doesn’t, don’t

Variations of the word: la, .

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
lanye1st-sgI don’t, not IPE22/153.1912
lányeaorist 1st-sgI don’tPE22/166.1503

Element in: Q. ála, Q. láquet-

[VT49/18.0111; PE22/154.1103; VT42/33.2406; PE22/158.2107; PE22/160.2011; PE22/162.4612; VT42/33.3611; VT42/33.2310; PE22/166.2917; PE22/166.1404; PE22/161.1503; PE22/160.2004; PE22/158.2606; PE22/154.1313; VT49/13.1602; PE22/153.1903; PE22/153.1912; PE22/166.1503] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ufárëa

not enough

ufárëa adj. "not enough" (FS). Cf. ú- "un-" and fárëa "enough, sufficient" (read *úfárëa?)

ufárëa

adjective. not enough

ala

not

ala, #ála (1) imperative particle á, a combined with the negation , -la "not" to express a prohibition (VT43:22; see #1). Also with 1st person suffix -lyë (alalyë and álalyë, VT43:10, 22, VT44:8) and 1st person pl. object suffix - (alamë and álamë, "do not [do something to] us", as in ála tulya, "do not lead us", VT43:12, 22). In the essay Quendi and Eldar, negative imperatives are rather indicated by áva, q.v., but this form can well coexist with ala, #ála.

la

no, not

la negation "no, not" (see ); also prefix la- as in lacarë, q.v. (VT45:25)

lacaraite

adjective. impossible

[PE 22:156] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

lacaraitë

adjective. impossible

Elements

WordGlossSource
la-not-
caraitëactive-
al(a)-impossiblePE22/156.3003

[PE22/156.3808; PE22/156.2903] Group: Eldamo. Published by

no, not

(1) adv. "no, not" (LA, VT45:25) According to VT42:33, is the stressed form, alternating with la when the negation is unstressed. In another conceptual phase of Tolkien's, had the opposite meaning "yes" (VT42:32-33), but this idea is contradicted by both earlier and later material: usually is conceived as a negation. The negation can receive tense markers and be used as a negative verb "when [another] verb is not expressed" (VT49:13), apparently where the phrase "is not" is followed by a noun or an adjective as a predicate, or where some verb is understood, as in English "I do not" (i.e. "I do not do whatever the context indicates"). With pronominal endings la- in the aorist, e.g. lanyë "I do not, am not" (etc.) (Tolkien abandoned the form lamin.) Exemplified in the sentence melin sé apa lanyë *"I love him but I do not [love] him" (another person) (VT49:15). Present tense laia, past lánë, perfect alaië, future lauva.

is

(1) vb. "is" (am). (Nam, RGEO:67). This is the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns "in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another" (VT49:28). Also in impersonal constructions: ringa ná "it is cold" (VT49:23). The copula may however be omitted "where the meaning is clear" without it (VT49:9). is also used as an interjection "yes" or "it is so" (VT49:28). Short na in airë [] na, "[] is holy" (VT43:14; some subject can evidently be inserted in the place of [].) Short na also functions as imperative: alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heaven be to God" (VT44:32/34), also na airë "be holy" (VT43:14); also cf. nai "be it that" (see nai #1). The imperative participle á may be prefixed (á na, PE17:58). However, VT49:28 cites as the imperative form. Pl. nar or nár "are" (PE15:36, VT49:27, 9, 30); dual nát (VT49:30). With pronominal endings: nányë/nanyë "I am", nalyë or natyë "you (sg.) are" (polite and familiar, respectively), nás "it is", násë "(s)he is", nalmë "we are" (VT49:27, 30). Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps to be taken as representing the aorist: nain, naityë, nailyë (1st person sg, and 2nd person familiar/polite, respectively); does a following na represent the aorist with no pronominal ending? However, the forms nanyë, nalyë, , nassë, nalme, nar (changed from nár) are elsewhere said to be "aorist", without the extra vowel i (e.g. nalyë rather than nailyë); also notice that *"(s)he is" is here nassë rather than násë (VT49:30).Pa.t. nánë or "was", pl. náner/nér and dual nét "were" (VT49:6, 9, 10, 27, 28, 30, 36). According to VT49:31, "was" cannot receive pronominal endings (though nésë "he was" is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29), and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen "I was", anel "you were", anes "(s)he/it was" (VT49:28-29). Future tense nauva "will be" (VT42:34, VT49:19, 27; another version however gives the future tense as uva, VT49:30). Nauva with a pronominal ending occurs in tanomë nauvan "I will be there" (VT49:19), this example indicating that forms of the verb may also be used to indicate position. Perfect anaië "has been" (VT49:27, first written as anáyë). Infinitive (or gerund) návë "being", PE17:68. See also nai #1.

olca

adjective. bad, wicked

Variations of the word: ŏlca, olca.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
olcalloablative*from evilVT43/23.4204

[PE17/149.2005; PE17/170.0409; VT43/24.0504; VT48/32.2606; VT49/14.3105; PE17/170.1203; VT43/23.4204] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ye

is

ye (2) copula "is" (FS, VT46:22); both earlier and later sources rather point to (q.v.) as the copula "is", so ye may have been an experiment Tolkien later abandoned. Future tense yéva, q.v.

Sindarin iT2#7T5

ú-

prefix. no, negative, -less, impossible, negative; impossible, not

Variations of the word: ū-, ú-, ú.

Elements

WordGlossSource
ûno, notPE17/144.3103

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
uinpresent 1st-sgI do notPE17/145.0610
únenpast 1st-sgI did notPE17/145.0614

Element in: S. Udalraph, S. úgarol, S. úlann, S. uluithiad, S. Úmarth, S. únodui

[PE17/145.0411; PE22/160.0818; VT42/33.1506; VT44/28.2701; WJ/369.4110; UT/313.3808-1; LotR/1061.4005-1; PE17/144.3113; PE17/144.3908; PE17/144.4401; PE17/144.4704-1; PE17/062.4102-1; PE17/144.3409; PE17/144.3708; PE17/145.0610; PE17/145.0614] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ú-

~M prefix. negates the sense of the following word

pref. negates the sense of the following word. Applied to all classes of words but especially to verbs and adjectives. Prefixed to verbal stems (without further suffix), it forms quasi-participles in aorist mode (e.g. únod not ever counting, _úbed _not saying). The continuative participle ol can be added in order to express a strictly present (and continuative) sense : úgarol 'not now doing or making', idling vs. ugar '(generally) idle'. There is no sens of 'without' attaching to ú- in Sindarin, see pen- (ben-). pen-, úland, úlann

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:62:144-5] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ú-

prefix. impossible

[PE 22:160] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

ú

prefix. no, not (negative prefix or particle)

[WJ/369, LotR/A(v)] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

û

adverb/interjection. not, no

Element in: S. ú-

[PE17/144.3103] Group: Eldamo. Published by

û

interjection. no

adv. or interj. no, not (of fact).

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:144] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

al-

prefix. not

pref. not. alfirin

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:101:146] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

al-

prefix. not, no

Element in: S. alfirin

[PE17/101.0101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thu

bad

_adj. _bad. thugar. This gloss was rejected.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:172] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ogol

adjective. gloom(y), bad, evil, wrong; gloom(y), wrong

[PE17/149.2106; PE17/149.2007; PE17/170.0413; PE18/088.0114; VT48/32.2608] Group: Eldamo. Published by

al

not

al- (prefix) as in alfirin "not-mortal", immortal.

baw

interjection. don’t!, do not, do not!, no!, no

[PE17/143.3703; PE17/145.1101; WJ/371.3709; WJ/372.0506] Group: Eldamo. Published by

baw

interjection. no, don't!

[WJ/371] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

baw!

no

! (interjection expressing refusal or prohibition, not denying facts) baw! (dont!) Prefix

faeg

bad

*faeg (poor, mean). No distinct pl. form. (Suggested Sindarin form of ”Noldorin” foeg.)

law

jyE prefix. not

Neologism derived from the root √LA "no, not". ló- and lenition before consonants. It's meant to be used as an alternative to ú-, which Tolkien rejected as a negative prefix in his later writings.

Examples:
*ló-hevin mass "I do not have bread."
*law aníron mass "I do not want bread."

Phonological development:
lā > lǭ > lau, law
?law > ló-

[< √LA] Group: Neologism. Published by

ogol

bad

_ adj. _bad, evil, wrong. Q. olca bad, wicked. oklā << ōklā. oew, ogron

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:149:170] < *_oklā_ < OKO evil, bad. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ú

not

(adverbial prefix) ú-, u- (followed by lenition, e.g. ú-chebin ”I do not keep”) (without). Verb

um

bad

um (evil), pl. ym. David Salo would read *ûm with a long vowel. (According to VT46:20, it may be that um is intended as a base rather than as a ”Noldorin” word.)

Telerin 1RjR7T5

aba-

prefix. not

[WJ/371.3301] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

ú-

prefix. bad-, un

Element in: N. ubed, N. Uvanwaith

[EtyAC/UGU.014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

interjection. no

[EtyAC/MŪ.012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

um

adjective. bad, evil

[Ety/396] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

al-

prefix. no, not

[Ety/367] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

al-

prefix. not, no

@@@ the phrase “the only place in Noldorin where the primitive prefix is preserved” was deleted (EtyAC/AR²)

Element in: N. Alchorin

[Ety/LA.035] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

la-

prefix. no, not

la

root. no, not, not to be, negative base, neg. element, negative element, negative

Variations of the word: AL/LA, LA, al/lā, ala.

[PE22/156.2501; PE22/140.1210; PE18/088.1901; VT42/32.2102; VT48/25.3410; PE17/143.0502; PE17/146.3201; PE22/140.1211; VT42/33.1906; VT49/13.1213; PE22/153.1607; PE17/158.3901; PE18/084.3905; PE22/153.0311] Group: Eldamo. Published by

oklā

adjective. wicked, bad

[PE17/170.0407; VT43/24.0507] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

gū̆-

interjection. in-, un-, not, no

[EtyAC/GŪ.012; Ety/GŪ.003; Ety/UGU.020] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gū/mū

root. not, negative stem, no

Variations of the word: , GŪ/MŪ, GŪ/GUMU.

[Ety/GŪ.001; EtyAC/GŪ.024; Ety/UGU.041; Ety/MŪ.001; EtyAC/ƷŪ.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

la-

prefix. not, no

Variations of the word: la-, l.

[EtyAC/LA.016; Ety/LA.031; EtyAC/LA.055; Ety/LA.029; EtyAC/LA.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

la

root. not, no

Variations of the word: LA, LĀ/ALA.

Elements

WordGlossSource
LA-EtyAC/LA.038

Element in: MP. LA

[EtyAC/ALA.001; EtyAC/LA.069; EtyAC/LA.080; Ety/AR².081; Ety/LA.001; EtyAC/LA.038; EtyAC/ALA.008; PE22/126.1904] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya zR5Ì#

ú-

prefix. not, un-, in-, no

Variations of the word: ū-, ú.

Element in: MQ. úvanimo

[EtyAC/ƷŪ.014; EtyAC/UGU.010; LR/072.2005-1; Ety/UGU.019; Ety/GŪ.009; EtyAC/A.163] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ú-

prefix. not-, un-

Element in: EQ. úvanimo

[QL/098.0401; LT1A/Vána.020; QL/098.0403] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lau(me)

adverb. no, no indeed not, on the contrary

Variations of the word: lau.

Elements

WordGlossSource
no-
um-to not be-
lá/lala-Ety/LA.005
ume-Ety/LA.012

[Ety/LA.009; Ety/LA.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

il-

prefix. no, not

Element in: MQ. ilfirin, MQ. Ilkorin

[Ety/LA.033; EtyAC/LA.058] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ala-

prefix. not

Element in: MQ. alaniñkwitálima, MQ. alkárima, MQ. alfárima, MQ. alfírima, MQ. Alfírimo, MQ. alistima, MQ. alqettima, MQ. Alkorin

[Ety/GALA.020; EtyAC/LA.085] Group: Eldamo. Published by

faika

adjective. bad, worthless, useless

Variations of the word: faika.

[GL/34.5807; PE14/048.2601; PE14/081.1801; PE15/70.0804; PE16/137.4601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ufárea

adjective. not enough

Elements

WordGlossSource
ú-notLR/072.2005-1
fáreaenoughLR/072.2004

[LR/072.2005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

falka

adjective. bad

adverb. not, no indeed, no

Element in: MQ. laqet-, MQ. lau(me)

[PE22/119.1402; PE22/120.0720; PE22/122.0407; EtyAC/LA.041; Ety/LA.005; EtyAC/LA.043] Group: Eldamo. Published by

qarda

adjective. bad, evil

[GL/28.3703; PE15/32.1404; PME/078.6103; QL/078.5901; PE15/32.0706] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

u

adverb. not – nor, no, not, nor; *negative particle, [n]or

[GL/47.2706-1; GL/47.2802; GL/52.7805-1; GL/53.1808-1; GL/73.8601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ub

adjective. none, no

[GL/74.1801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ulc

adjective. wicked, evil, bad

Variations of the word: ulc, ulch.

Element in: G. ulcarm, G. ulcoth

[PE13/115.3401; GL/20.6608; GL/74.7004; GL/74.7201; PE13/115.3403; PE13/115.3501] Group: Eldamo. Published by

untha

adjective. none, no

[GL/73.8701] Group: Eldamo. Published by

fêg

adjective. ill, wretched, poor, bad

Variations of the word: feg.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
faithirdiminutiveworseGG/16.0908
fedronaugmentativeworseGG/16.0908
fegincadiminutive-superlative-GG/16.0908
fegincidiminutive-superlativeexceedingly badGG/16.0908
ffwygplural-PE13/114.0801
fuigplural-PE13/114.0801

Element in: G. fectha-, G. fecthi, G. fegla

[PE13/114.0802; GG/16.1001; GG/16.1111; GG/16.0908; GL/32.8101-2; GL/34.5802; GL/52.1004; PE13/114.0801; GL/34.5801; GG/16.2002; GG/16.0701; PE13/114.0806; PE13/114.0805] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

feg

adjective. bad

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
fiadaugmentative-PE13/125.1401
fiantsuperlative-PE13/125.1401
suidaugmentative-PE13/125.1401
suintsuperlative-PE13/125.1503

[PE13/125.1401; PE13/143.4701; PE13/125.1404; PE13/125.1405; PE13/125.1503; PE13/125.1504] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Primitive Elvish

ū

root. not

Element in: EP. UMU

[QL/096.9602; QL/098.0105] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech, Nandorin, Noldorin, Quendya, Quenya, Sindarin, Telerin are languages conceived by Tolkien and they do not belong to us; we neither can nor do claim affiliation with Middle-earth Enterprises nor Tolkien Estate.