an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára "very old" or "oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca ("k") "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d, the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically iñ-) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept in the _Elaine inscription). (PE17:92)_
an- (3) prefix "re" in antúlien, q.v. (LotR-style Quenya shows en- instead.)
prefix. intensive prefix
- an- → an ✧ PE17/090
- S. an- “intensive prefix”
Development Stages Sources ✶and(a) > an- [an-] ✧ PE17/090 ✶and(a) > anda- [anda-] ✧ PE17/090 ✶am > an [am-] ✧ PE17/090 √AMA > ama [ama-] ✧ PE17/091 ✶am > an [am-] ✧ PE17/092 √ANA/NĀ > an- [an-] ✧ PE17/146 √ANA/NA > an- [an-] ✧ PE21/79
- an ✧ PE17/056; PE17/057; PE17/090; PE17/092; PE17/092
- ana ✧ PE17/056; PE17/057
- ana- ✧ PE17/056
- añ- ✧ PE17/090
- am ✧ PE17/090; PE17/091 (am)
- anda- ✧ PE17/090
- ama ✧ PE17/091 (ama)
- ama- ✧ PE17/092
prefix. to, towards
- √NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/147
- Q. arcandë “petition” ✧ VT44/08 (
Development Stages Sources √AN/NĀ > ana- [ana-] ✧ PE17/147
- ana- ✧ PE17/147 (ana-)
- an- ✧ VT44/08 (
signifying addition, increase
am- (2) prefix used in comparison, "signifying addition, increase" (PE17:90), or with genitive superlative: elenion ancalima "brightest of stars" (PE17:91). Originally identical with #1 above. The form am- as such is in late Quenya only used before p and (presumably) before vowels; the longer form ama- came to be preferred before r and l; before other consonants, the prefix assumes the form an- (pronounced, but not in Romanized Quenya orthography written, añ- before c) (PE17:90-92). Phonologically we would expect am- before y- (since my is an acceptable Quenya combination); however, Tolkien used an- in the word anyára (q.v.) See an- #2 and compare ar- #2.
ana (1) prep. "to" (VT49:35), "as preposition _ana _is used when purely _dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that the preposition ana can be used instead of the dative ending -n (#1, q.v.) Also as prefix: ana- "to, towards" (NĀ1); an (q.v.) is used with this meaning in one source (PE17:127)_
ar- (2), also ari-, prefix for superlative (compare arya #1, 2), hence arcalima "brightest", arimelda *"dearest" (PE17:56-57). In the grammar described in the source, this prefix was to express superlative as the highest degree (in actual comparison), whereas the alternative prefix an- rather expressed "very" or "exceedingly" with a more purely augmentative or adverbial force, but these distinctions do not seem to have been clearly present at all stages of Tolkiens work. See an- #2, am- #2.
in evil sense
un- intensive prefix used before qu; the assimilated variant um- is said to occur before p, and "b" (the latter evidently = v developed from prehistoric b, but following um- its original quality would be preserved so that we would see umb-). This prefix is reportedly only used "in evil sense"; otherwise the intensive prefix is an- (and assimilated variants thereof). (VT45:5)
anda adj. "long" (ÁNAD/ANDA), "far" (PE17:90).In Andafangar noun "Longbeards", one of the tribes of the Dwarves (= Khuzdul Sigin-tarâg and Sindarin Anfangrim) (PM:320). Compare Andafalassë, #andamacil, andamunda, andanéya, andatehta, Anduinë. Apparently derived from the adj. anda is andavë "long" as adverb ("at great length", PE17:102), suggesting that the ending -vë can be used to derive adverbs from adjectives (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)
ando (2) adv. "long"; maybe replaced by andavë; see anda (VT14:5)
#car- (2) prep. "with" (carelyë "with thee"), prepositional element (evidently an ephemeral form abandoned by Tolkien) (VT43:29)
prefix. intensive prefix
long, at great length
andavë adv. "long, at great length" (PE17:102); see anda
very high, very lofty
antara adj. "very high, very lofty", the adjective tára "lofty" with the superlative prefix an- (q.v.) We might have expected *antára. Also place-name Antaro (VT45:5, 36), said to be the "name of a mountain in Valinor south of Taniq[u]etil" (VT46:17)
#anyára (attested with dative ending: anyáran), see an-, yára
as prep. "with" (together with), also attested with a pronominal suffix: aselyë "with thee" (VT47:31, VT43:29). The conjunction ar "and" may also appear in assimilated form as before s; see ar #1.
o (2) prep. "with" (MC:216; this is "Qenya"; WJ:367 states that no independent preposition o was used in Quenya. Writers may rather use as.) See ó- below.
- √AS “beside”
- Q. i Héru aselyë “the Lord is with thee” ✧ VT43/29
na (2) prep. "to, towards", possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for clarity writers may use the synonym ana instead (NĀ1). Originally, Tolkien glossed na as "at, by, near"; the new meaning entered together with the synonyms an, ana (VT45:36).
preposition. to, towards
@@@ fix weird cognate bug
ita, íta adv. 2) "very, extremely" (PE17:112). Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkiens efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the "same" version of Quenya.
[lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8)]
-n (1) dative ending, originating as a reduced form of -nă "to", related to the allative ending -nna (VT49:14). Attested in nin, men, ten, enyalien, Erun, airefëan, tárin, yondon (q.v.) and also added to the English name Elaine (Elainen) in a book dedication to Elaine Griffiths (VT49:40). The longer dative ending -na is also attested in connection with some pronouns, such as sena, téna, véna (q.v.), also in the noun mariéna from márië "goodness" (PE17:59). Pl. -in (as in hínin, see hína), partitive pl. -lin, dual -nt (Plotz). The preposition ana (#1) is said to be used "when purely dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that it can replace the dative ending, e.g. *ana Eru instead of Erun for "to God". In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the ending -n (or -en) expressed genitive rather than dative, but he later decided that the genitive ending was to be -o (cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren becoming Yénië Valinórëo, MR:200).
to, at, upon
-nna "to, at, upon", allative ending, originating from -na "to" with fortified n, VT49:14. Attested in cilyanna, coraryanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, númenórenna, parma-restalyanna, rénna, senna, tielyanna, q.v. If a noun ends in -n already, the ending -nna merges with it, as in Amanna, formenna, Elenna, númenna, rómenna as the allative forms of Aman, formen, elen, númen, rómen (q.v.). Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.
sóra adj. "long, trailing" (LT2:344)
ancient, belonging to or descending from former times
yára adj. "ancient, belonging to or descending from former times" (YA); evidently it can also simply mean "old", since Tolkien used the intensive/superlative form #anyára to describe Elaine Griffiths as his "oldest" or "very old" friend in a book dedication (see an-).
preposition. with, with, [ᴹQ.] by, [ᴱQ.] with (accompaniment)
- S. di “with” ✧ PE17/095
- ✶dē “with” ✧ PE17/095
- ᴺQ. letinwessë “constellation”
Development Stages Sources ✶dē > lē > lé [dē] > [lē] ✧ PE17/095
- lé ✧ PE17/095 (lé)
lé (2) prep. "with" (PE17:95)
[re, possibly a 3rd person singular emphatic pronoun, struck out by Tolkien (VT49:49)]
yó→ ó ✧ PE22/162
- yó ✧ PE22/162 (
- ó- ✧ VT43/29
prefix. to, towards
- √NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus”
- √DAY “*great”