Quenya 

an-

very

an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára "very old" or "oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca ("k") "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d, the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically -) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept in the _Elaine inscription). (PE17:92)_

an-

prefix. intensive prefix

Changes

  • an-an ✧ PE17/090

Cognates

  • S. an- “intensive prefix”

Derivations

  • andā “long, far” ✧ PE17/090
    • ANAD “long; far” ✧ PE17/090
  • am- “intensive prefix” ✧ PE17/090; PE17/092
    • AMA “addition, increase, plus”
  • AMA “addition, increase, plus” ✧ PE17/091
  • NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/146; PE21/79

Element in

  • ᴺQ. amyára “elder”
  • Q. Anairë “*Holiest”
  • Q. Ancalimë “*Brightest (f.)”
  • Q. Ancalimon “*Brightest (m.)”
  • ᴺQ. anyára “elder, *senior”
  • Q. unqualë “death agony, death agony, torment, [ᴹQ.] agony, death” ✧ PE19/078

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
and(a) > an-[an-]✧ PE17/090
and(a) > anda-[anda-]✧ PE17/090
am > an[am-]✧ PE17/090
AMA > ama[ama-]✧ PE17/091
am > an[am-]✧ PE17/092
ANA/NĀ > an-[an-]✧ PE17/146
ANA/NA > an-[an-]✧ PE21/79

Variations

  • an ✧ PE17/056; PE17/057; PE17/090; PE17/092; PE17/092
  • ana ✧ PE17/056; PE17/057
  • ana- ✧ PE17/056
  • añ- ✧ PE17/090
  • am ✧ PE17/090; PE17/091 (am)
  • anda- ✧ PE17/090
  • ama ✧ PE17/091 (ama)
  • ama- ✧ PE17/092
Quenya [Let/279; PE17/056; PE17/057; PE17/090; PE17/091; PE17/092; PE17/146; PE19/078; PE21/79] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an-

re

an- (3) prefix "re" in antúlien, q.v. (LotR-style Quenya shows en- instead.)

ana-

prefix. to, towards

Derivations

  • NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/147

Element in

  • Q. arcandëpetition” ✧ VT44/08 (anarcandemman*)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
AN/NĀ > ana-[ana-]✧ PE17/147

Variations

  • ana- ✧ PE17/147 (ana-)
  • an- ✧ VT44/08 (an-)
Quenya [PE17/147; VT44/08] Group: Eldamo. Published by

am-

signifying addition, increase

am- (2) prefix used in comparison, "signifying addition, increase" (PE17:90), or with genitive superlative: elenion ancalima "brightest of stars" (PE17:91). Originally identical with #1 above. The form am- as such is in late Quenya only used before p and (presumably) before vowels; the longer form ama- came to be preferred before r and l; before other consonants, the prefix assumes the form an- (pronounced, but not in Romanized Quenya orthography written, - before c) (PE17:90-92). Phonologically we would expect am- before y- (since my is an acceptable Quenya combination); however, Tolkien used an- in the word anyára (q.v.) See an- #2 and compare ar- #2.

ana

to

ana (1) prep. "to" (VT49:35), "as preposition _ana _is used when purely _dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that the preposition ana can be used instead of the dative ending -n (#1, q.v.) Also as prefix: ana- "to, towards" (NĀ1); an (q.v.) is used with this meaning in one source (PE17:127)_

ar-

brightest

ar- (2), also ari-, prefix for superlative (compare arya #1, 2), hence arcalima "brightest", arimelda *"dearest" (PE17:56-57). In the grammar described in the source, this prefix was to express superlative as the highest degree (in actual comparison), whereas the alternative prefix an- rather expressed "very" or "exceedingly" with a more purely augmentative or adverbial force, but these distinctions do not seem to have been clearly present at all stages of Tolkiens work. See an- #2, am- #2.

un-

in evil sense

un- intensive prefix used before qu; the assimilated variant um- is said to occur before p, and "b" (the latter evidently = v developed from prehistoric b, but following um- its original quality would be preserved so that we would see umb-). This prefix is reportedly only used "in evil sense"; otherwise the intensive prefix is an- (and assimilated variants thereof). (VT45:5)

anda

long

anda adj. "long" (ÁNAD/ANDA), "far" (PE17:90).In Andafangar noun "Longbeards", one of the tribes of the Dwarves (= Khuzdul Sigin-tarâg and Sindarin Anfangrim) (PM:320). Compare Andafalassë, #andamacil, andamunda, andanéya, andatehta, Anduinë. Apparently derived from the adj. anda is andavë "long" as adverb ("at great length", PE17:102), suggesting that the ending - can be used to derive adverbs from adjectives (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)

ando

long

ando (2) adv. "long"; maybe replaced by andavë; see anda (VT14:5)

car-

with

#car- (2) prep. "with" (carelyë "with thee"), prepositional element (evidently an ephemeral form abandoned by Tolkien) (VT43:29)

am(a)-

prefix. intensive prefix

andavë

long, at great length

andavë adv. "long, at great length" (PE17:102); see anda

antara

very high, very lofty

antara adj. "very high, very lofty", the adjective tára "lofty" with the superlative prefix an- (q.v.) We might have expected *antára. Also place-name Antaro (VT45:5, 36), said to be the "name of a mountain in Valinor south of Taniq[u]etil" (VT46:17)

anyára

anyára

#anyára (attested with dative ending: anyáran), see an-, yára

as

preposition. with

Derivations

  • AS “beside”

Element in

as

with

o (2) prep. "with" (MC:216; this is "Qenya"; WJ:367 states that no independent preposition o was used in Quenya. Writers may rather use as.) See ó- below.

as

with

as prep. "with" (together with), also attested with a pronominal suffix: aselyë "with thee" (VT47:31, VT43:29). The conjunction ar "and" may also appear in assimilated form as before s; see ar #1.

na

preposition. to, towards

@@@ fix weird cognate bug

na

to, towards

na (2) prep. "to, towards", possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for clarity writers may use the synonym ana instead (NĀ1). Originally, Tolkien glossed na as "at, by, near"; the new meaning entered together with the synonyms an, ana (VT45:36).

ita

very, extremely

ita, íta adv. 2) "very, extremely" (PE17:112). Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkiens efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the "same" version of Quenya.

lai

very

[lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8)]

-nna

to, at, upon

-nna "to, at, upon", allative ending, originating from -na "to" with fortified n, VT49:14. Attested in cilyanna, coraryanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, númenórenna, parma-restalyanna, rénna, senna, tielyanna, q.v. If a noun ends in -n already, the ending -nna merges with it, as in Amanna, formenna, Elenna, númenna, rómenna as the allative forms of Aman, formen, elen, númen, rómen (q.v.). Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.

-nna

to

-n (1) dative ending, originating as a reduced form of - "to", related to the allative ending -nna (VT49:14). Attested in nin, men, ten, enyalien, Erun, airefëan, tárin, yondon (q.v.) and also added to the English name Elaine (Elainen) in a book dedication to Elaine Griffiths (VT49:40). The longer dative ending -na is also attested in connection with some pronouns, such as sena, téna, véna (q.v.), also in the noun mariéna from márië "goodness" (PE17:59). Pl. -in (as in hínin, see hína), partitive pl. -lin, dual -nt (Plotz). The preposition ana (#1) is said to be used "when purely dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that it can replace the dative ending, e.g. *ana Eru instead of Erun for "to God". In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the ending -n (or -en) expressed genitive rather than dative, but he later decided that the genitive ending was to be -o (cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren becoming Yénië Valinórëo, MR:200).

sóra

long, trailing

sóra adj. "long, trailing" (LT2:344)

yára

ancient, belonging to or descending from former times

yára adj. "ancient, belonging to or descending from former times" (YA); evidently it can also simply mean "old", since Tolkien used the intensive/superlative form #anyára to describe Elaine Griffiths as his "oldest" or "very old" friend in a book dedication (see an-).

ó

with, accompanying

Quenya [PE 22:162] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

preposition. with, with, [ᴹQ.] by, [ᴱQ.] with (accompaniment)

Cognates

  • S. di “with” ✧ PE17/095

Derivations

  • “with” ✧ PE17/095

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
> > [dē] > [lē]✧ PE17/095

Variations

  • ✧ PE17/095 ()

with

(2) prep. "with" (PE17:95)

re

re

[re, possibly a 3rd person singular emphatic pronoun, struck out by Tolkien (VT49:49)]

ó

preposition. with

Changes

  • ó ✧ PE22/162

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ PE22/162 ()
  • ó- ✧ VT43/29
Quenya [PE22/162; VT43/29; VT43/36] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ana-

prefix. to, towards

Derivations

  • NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus”

Element in

lai

adverb. very

Derivations

  • DAY “*great”