Quenya 


immediate time reference

a (3), also á, imperative particle. An imperative with "immediate time reference" is expressed by á in front of the verb (or "occasionally after it, sometimes before and after for emphasis"), with the verb following in "the simplest form also used for the uninflected aorist without specific time reference past or present or future" (PE17:93). Cf. a laita te, laita te! "[o] bless them, bless them!", á vala Manwë! "may Manwë order it!", literally "o rule Manwë!" (see laita, vala for reference); cf. also á carë "do[!]", á ricë "try!", á lirë "sing[!]", á menë "proceed[!]", a norë "run[!]" (PE17:92-93, notice short a in this example), á tula "come!" (VT43:14). In the last example, the verb tul- "come" receives an ending -a that probably represents the _suffixed form of the imperative particle, this apparently being an example of the imperative element occurring both "before and after" the verbal stem "for emphasis" (PE17:93)_. This ending may also appear on its own with no preceding a/á, as in the command queta "speak!" (PE17:138). Other examples of imperatives with suffixed -a include cena and tira (VT47:31, see cen-, tir-); the imperatives of these same verbs are however also attested as á tirë, á cenë (PE17:94) with the imperative particle remaining independent and the following verb appearing as an uninflected aorist stem. This aorist can be plural to indicate a 3rd person pl. subject: á ricir! "let them try!" (PE17:93). Alyë (VT43:17, VT44:9) seems to be the imperative particle a with the pronominal suffix -lyë "you, thou" suffixed to indicate the subject who is to carry out the command; attested in the phrase alyë anta "give thou" (elided aly' in VT43:11, since the next word begins in e-: aly' eterúna me, *"do thou deliver us"); presumably other pronominal suffixes could likewise be added. The particle a is also present in the negative imperatives ala, #ála or áva, q.v.

Quenya [Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by


particle. imperative particle


  • S. -o “imperative” ✧ PE17/040


  • ā “imperative”

Element in


  • A ✧ Let/448; LotR/0953; PE17/102; VT43/17
  • a ✧ Let/448; LotR/0953
  • ā ✧ PE17/040; PE17/093; PE17/093
  • ā̆ ✧ VT43/17
  • á- ✧ VT43/19
  • Ā ✧ WJ/404
Quenya [Let/448; LotR/0953; PE17/040; PE17/093; PE17/102; PE17/162; PE17/167; PE22/140; PE22/166; VT43/14; VT43/15; VT43/17; VT43/18; VT43/19; VT43/23; VT43/32; VT43/33; VT44/09; WJ/404] Group: Eldamo. Published by


particle. {particle for calling attention}

Quenya [PE 22:105; PE 22:139] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by



ala, #ála (1) imperative particle á, a combined with the negation , -la "not" to express a prohibition (VT43:22; see #1). Also with 1st person suffix -lyë (alalyë and álalyë, VT43:10, 22, VT44:8) and 1st person pl. object suffix - (alamë and álamë, "do not [do something to] us", as in ála tulya, "do not lead us", VT43:12, 22). In the essay Quendi and Eldar, negative imperatives are rather indicated by áva, q.v., but this form can well coexist with ala, #ála.


(1) vb. "is" (am). (Nam, RGEO:67). This is the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns "in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another" (VT49:28). Also in impersonal constructions: ringa ná "it is cold" (VT49:23). The copula may however be omitted "where the meaning is clear" without it (VT49:9). is also used as an interjection "yes" or "it is so" (VT49:28). Short na in airë [] na, "[] is holy" (VT43:14; some subject can evidently be inserted in the place of [].) Short na also functions as imperative: alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heaven be to God" (VT44:32/34), also na airë "be holy" (VT43:14); also cf. nai "be it that" (see nai #1). The imperative participle á may be prefixed (á na, PE17:58). However, VT49:28 cites as the imperative form. Pl. nar or nár "are" (PE15:36, VT49:27, 9, 30); dual nát (VT49:30). With pronominal endings: nányë/nanyë "I am", nalyë or natyë "you (sg.) are" (polite and familiar, respectively), nás "it is", násë "(s)he is", nalmë "we are" (VT49:27, 30). Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps to be taken as representing the aorist: nain, naityë, nailyë (1st person sg, and 2nd person familiar/polite, respectively); does a following na represent the aorist with no pronominal ending? However, the forms nanyë, nalyë, , nassë, nalme, nar (changed from nár) are elsewhere said to be "aorist", without the extra vowel i (e.g. nalyë rather than nailyë); also notice that *"(s)he is" is here nassë rather than násë (VT49:30).Pa.t. nánë or "was", pl. náner/nér and dual nét "were" (VT49:6, 9, 10, 27, 28, 30, 36). According to VT49:31, "was" cannot receive pronominal endings (though nésë "he was" is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29), and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen "I was", anel "you were", anes "(s)he/it was" (VT49:28-29). Future tense nauva "will be" (VT42:34, VT49:19, 27; another version however gives the future tense as uva, VT49:30). Nauva with a pronominal ending occurs in tanomë nauvan "I will be there" (VT49:19), this example indicating that forms of the verb may also be used to indicate position. Perfect anaië "has been" (VT49:27, first written as anáyë). Infinitive (or gerund) návë "being", PE17:68. See also nai #1.


interjection. O, Oh

Element in


  • A ✧ Let/448; LotR/0981; S/223; UT/138; VT43/13; VT44/15
  • Ai ✧ VT43/13
  • á ✧ VT44/07
Quenya [Let/448; LotR/0981; S/223; UT/138; VT43/13; VT44/07; VT44/15] Group: Eldamo. Published by



ala- (2) negative prefix "not", "un-", reduced to al- before a vowel (VT42:33, GALA, VT45:25), though the example Alcorin would suggest that al- can sometimes appear before a consonant as well. In a deleted entry in Etym, al(a)- was defined as "not" and said to be a "pure negative" (VT45:5). In alahasta, Alamanyar, alasaila, Alcorin.


wild beast

hravan noun "wild beast"; pl.Hravani "the Wild", used as a name of non-Edain Men (PE17:78, WJ:219). PE17:18 has Hrávani with a long á, glossed "Wild-men, Savages".


noun. wild beast

A word for a “wild beast” in notes from the mid-1960s, derived from the root √S-RAB “wild, in senses not tamed, domesticated” (PE17/78), hence meaning “wild animal” vs. a “tamed animal”, which would probably be Q. laman.


  • S. rhovan “wilderness; wild beast” ✧ PE17/078


  • srāban “wild beast” ✧ PE17/078
    • SRAB “wild, not tamed/domesticated” ✧ PE17/078

Element in


hráva“wild, savage, wild, savage, [ᴹQ.] untamed”

Phonetic Developments

srāban > hrăvan[srāban] > [r̥āban] > [r̥āβan] > [r̥āvan] > [r̥avan]✧ PE17/078


  • hrăvan ✧ PE17/078



#avatyar- vb. "forgive" (VT43:18); the form ávatyara (VT43:10) seems to include the imperative particle á (the two-word phrase *á avatyara "forgive!" merging into ávatyara). Plural aorist avatyarir (VT43:20). Where Tolkien used avatyar-, he cited the person(s) forgiven in the ablative (ávatyara mello** "forgive us", literally "from us"), whereas the matter that is forgiven appears as a direct object (VT43:11). Compare apsenë**.


do not thou lead us

úa, with 1st person suffix úalyë, imperative particle á, a combined with the negation ú- to express a prohibition (úalyë mittanya me, *"do not thou lead us", VT43:9, 21-22). However, Tolkien apparently abandoned úa in favour of ala, alalyë, q.v. (later he also used the form áva for "don't"). Compare ua.


stop, block

tap- vb. "stop, block" (the form tapë given in the Etymologies is translated "he stops, blocks", evidently the 3rd person sg. aorist. In Etym as printed in LR, a was misprinted as á, cf. VT46:17). Pa.t. tampë (TAP)



pusta (1) noun "stop", in punctuation full stop (PUS). Compare putta.



putta noun "stop" (in punctuation) _(PUT; see PUS). _According to VT46:10, a dot under a letter is intended, possibly indicating that the consonant is not followed by a vowel; cf. VT46:33 and see VT49:38, 40 regarding an actual example of such punctuation in a Tengwar sample.



usta- vb. "burn" (transitive) (LT1:271, QL:98). This form reflects the stem USU listed in early material; however, since Tolkien seems to have changed it to UR later, we should perhaps read *urta- for usta-.


suffix. is

- (3) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantië "he is fallen", márië "it is good" (< *númessë "in the west", melda "beloved", *talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina "gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be", verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song. This suffix is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya: - is an infinitival or gerundial ending in CO, for ye "is" Namárië has , and the phrase "lost is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwië.



ye (2) copula "is" (FS, VT46:22); both earlier and later sources rather point to (q.v.) as the copula "is", so ye may have been an experiment Tolkien later abandoned. Future tense yéva, q.v.



úyë vb., a form occurring in Fíriel's Song (cf. VT46:22), apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")