-n (1) dative ending, originating as a reduced form of -nă "to", related to the allative ending -nna (VT49:14). Attested in nin, men, ten, enyalien, Erun, airefëan, tárin, yondon (q.v.) and also added to the English name Elaine (Elainen) in a book dedication to Elaine Griffiths (VT49:40). The longer dative ending -na is also attested in connection with some pronouns, such as sena, téna, véna (q.v.), also in the noun mariéna from márië "goodness" (PE17:59). Pl. -in (as in hínin, see hína), partitive pl. -lin, dual -nt (Plotz). The preposition ana (#1) is said to be used "when purely dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that it can replace the dative ending, e.g. *ana Eru instead of Erun for "to God". In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the ending -n (or -en) expressed genitive rather than dative, but he later decided that the genitive ending was to be -o (cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren becoming Yénië Valinórëo, MR:200).
to, at, upon
-nna "to, at, upon", allative ending, originating from -na "to" with fortified n, VT49:14. Attested in cilyanna, coraryanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, númenórenna, parma-restalyanna, rénna, senna, tielyanna, q.v. If a noun ends in -n already, the ending -nna merges with it, as in Amanna, formenna, Elenna, númenna, rómenna as the allative forms of Aman, formen, elen, númen, rómen (q.v.). Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.
suffix. (movement) to, towards, onto, at (arriving at a point); allative suffix
Development Stages Sources √ANA/NĀ > -nna [-nna] ✧ PE17/146 √AN/NĀ > -nna [-nna] ✧ PE17/147 ✶-nă > -nna [-nna] ✧ VT49/14
- nna ✧ PE21/79
- -(n)na ✧ UTI/Eldanna
-nta (1) ending for dual allative (Plotz); see -nna
na (2) prep. "to, towards", possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for clarity writers may use the synonym ana instead (NĀ1). Originally, Tolkien glossed na as "at, by, near"; the new meaning entered together with the synonyms an, ana (VT45:36).
ana (1) prep. "to" (VT49:35), "as preposition _ana _is used when purely _dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that the preposition ana can be used instead of the dative ending -n (#1, q.v.) Also as prefix: ana- "to, towards" (NĀ1); an (q.v.) is used with this meaning in one source (PE17:127)_
falma noun "(crested/foaming) wave" (PHAL/PHÁLAS), "a wave-crest, wave" (VT42:15), "foam wave" (PE17:127), "a breaker" (PE17:62), partitive pl. falmali "many waves" (PE17:73), allative falmalinnar "on the foaming waves" in Namárië(Nam, RGEO:67); the phrase an i falmalī _(PE17:74) seems to be a paraphrase of this with an independent preposition instead of the allative ending -nna (see an #1). Compounded in Falmari, a name of the Teleri, and Mar-nu-Falmar, "Home/Land under Waves", a name of Númenor after the Downfall. (SA:falas) Falmari "wave-folk", a name of the Teleri (PM:386). In earlier "Qenya", falma was glossed "foam" (LT1:253, cf. MC:213). Compare also the early "Qenya" words falmar "wave as it breaks" (LT1:253), pl. falmari "waves" (MC:216)_
noun. deep shadow
PQ. deep shadow, night shade
fuinë noun "deep shadow" (PHUY; cf. "Qenya" fuin "night" in MC:221). According to VT41:8, fuinë is not a Quenya form at all, but Telerin for Quenya huinë (but unquestionably, fuinë is quoted as a Quenya form in certain earlier sources; cf. also Fuinur below - perhaps we may assume that fuinë was borrowed into Quenya from Telerin and thus came to co-exist with huinë?
huinë noun "deep shadow" (PHUY), "gloom" (VT41:8), "gloom, darkness" (SA:fuin), also used for "shadow" = Sauron (LR:56). Possessive (adjectival) form huinéva in the name Taurë Huinéva, q.v. In earlier sources, huinë is quoted as a variant of fuinë, but according to VT41:8, huinë is the proper Quenya form and fuinë is Telerin.With prefix nu- "under" and allative ending -nna in nuhuinenna (SD:246); also unuhuinë "under-shadow" (LR:47).
book, writing, composition
parma noun "book", also name of tengwa #2 (PAR, Appendix E). In early "Qenya", the gloss was "skin, bark, parchment, book, writings" (LT2:346); Tolkien later revisited the idea that parma basically is a noun "peel" and refers to bark or skin (as primitive writing materials, PE17:86): "peel, applied to bark or skin, hence "book", bark (literally skinning, peeling off), parchment, book; a book (or written document of some size")" (PE17:123). In the meantimeTolkien had associated the word with a root PAR meaning "compose, put together" (LR:380); the word loiparë "mistake in writing" (q.v.) may also suggest that the root PAR at one point was to mean "write", so that a parma was a "written thing". Instrumental form parmanen "with a book" or "by means of a book" (PE17:91, 180), parmastanna "on your book" (with the endings -sta dual "your", -nna allative) (VT49:47), parmahentië noun "book reading" (PE17:77). Other compounds: parmalambë noun "book-language" = Q[u]enya (PAR), #parma-resta noun "book-fair", attested with the endings -lya "thy" and the allative ending -nna (parma-restalyanna *"upon your book-fair") (VT49:38, 39). Parma as the name of the tengwa letter for P occurs compunded in parmatéma noun "p-series", labials, the second column of the Tengwar system (Appendix E).