Quenya 

car-

verb. to do, make, to do, make, [ᴹQ.] build

Variations

  • kar- ✧ PE22/152; VT39/20 (kar-)

Derivations

  • kar- “do, make” ✧ PE17/129; PE22/167
    • KAR “do, make, build, do, make, build, [ᴹ√] construct” ✧ PE18/095

Cognates

  • S. car- “to do, make” ✧ PE17/068; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132; PE17/132
  • T. car- “to do” ✧ WJ/371

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
karize- > karis-[karise] > [karize] > [karire]✧ PE17/129
✶*karubāni > caruvan(ye)*[karubāni] > [karubān] > [karuβān] > [karuβan] > [karuvan]✧ PE22/167

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
carnespast with-sg-object-✧ NM/239
carilyeaorist 2nd-sg-polite“you do”✧ PE17/058
kareinfinitive“(to) do”✧ PE17/068; PE22/152; PE22/154; VT49/20; WJ/371 simplest aorist infinitive
kariegerund-✧ PE17/068 general infinitive
kari-nwaperfective-participle-✧ PE17/068 simple past passive participle
kárienwaperfect-passive-participle-✧ PE17/068 a past form [of the passive participle?]; rare; [it seems to be formed form the perfect <i>(a)kárie</i>]
karnepast“did”✧ PE17/074; PE22/152
kareaorist-✧ PE17/094; PE17/132; VT42/34
añkárieintensive gerund-✧ PE17/094
karisaorist 3rd-sg-✧ PE17/129; PE22/162
karis-aorist 3rd-sg-✧ PE17/129
karilmeaorist 1st-pl-exclusive-✧ PE17/129 a merge of exclusive and inclusive forms [as part of Tolkien’s attempt to justify Frodo using <i>-lmo</i> in the first edition of <i>The Lord of the Rings</i>]
karin(ye)aorist 1st-sg-✧ PE17/132
karil(ye)aorist 2nd-sg-polite-✧ PE17/132
karitaraorist 2nd-sg-honorific-✧ PE17/132
karis(se)aorist 3rd-sg-✧ PE17/132
karimbeaorist 1st-pl-exclusive-✧ PE17/132
karilmeaorist 1st-pl-inclusive-✧ PE17/132
karilleaorist 2nd-pl-✧ PE17/132
kariltaraorist 2nd-pl-honorific-✧ PE17/132
karinteaorist 3rd-pl-✧ PE17/132
kariraorist plural-✧ PE17/132; WJ/391
karimmoaorist 1st-dual-exclusive-✧ PE17/132
karilmoaorist 1st-dual-inclusive-✧ PE17/132
karilloaorist 2nd-dual-✧ PE17/132
karistaraorist 2nd-dual-honorific-✧ PE17/132
karistoaorist 3rd-dual-✧ PE17/132
karitaorist dual-✧ PE17/132
careaorist“make”✧ PE17/144; VT43/15; VT49/16
carnepast“did make”✧ PE17/144
cárapresent“am making”✧ PE17/144
caruvafuture“shall make”✧ PE17/144
karinaorist 1st-sg“I make”✧ PE22/152 aor.
kar-einfinitive“do, make”✧ PE22/152
káranyepresent 1st-sg-✧ PE22/152 pres. cont
kăruvn(ye)future 1st-sg-✧ PE22/152 fut.
akárienyeperfect 1st-sg-✧ PE22/152 perf.
karnenpast 1st-sg-✧ PE22/152 past
kārenpast 1st-sg-✧ PE22/152
kăriegerund“doing”✧ PE22/152
karinapassive-participle-✧ PE22/152 aor. passive adj.
karil(y)aactive-participle-✧ PE22/152 aorist act[ive adj.]
kárielyaperfect-participle-✧ PE22/152
karnelyaperfect-participle-✧ PE22/152
kăruvalyafuture-participle-✧ PE22/152
káriélaperfect-participle-✧ PE22/152; PE22/155
karuvailafuture-participle-✧ PE22/152; PE22/155
karitalya(s)particular-infinitive 2nd-sg-polite-poss with-sg-object“your doing (it)”✧ PE22/154; VT41/17; VT42/33
karitaparticular-infinitive“to do (in this case)”✧ PE22/154; VT41/17; VT42/33
karitasparticular-infinitive with-sg-object-✧ PE22/154; VT41/13; VT41/13; VT41/17; VT42/34
karilaactive-participle“doing”✧ PE22/155
-karuvalafuture-participle-✧ PE22/155
karuvalwefuture 1st-pl-inclusive“we [shall] make”✧ PE22/161
karuvasfuture 3rd-sg-✧ PE22/162
caruvan(ye)future 1st-sg“I am going to do/shall do (it)”✧ PE22/167
carinapassive-participle“*done”✧ VT43/15
caraimperative“*done”✧ VT43/15
cari-aorist“make”✧ VT43/26 stem
caritaaorist with-pl-object-✧ VT43/26
cariltaaorist plural with-pl-object-✧ VT43/26
cariresaorist plural with-sg-object-✧ VT43/26
-carisaorist with-sg-object-✧ VT43/26
careinfinitive“do”✧ VT49/34
Quenya [NM/239; PE17/058; PE17/068; PE17/074; PE17/094; PE17/129; PE17/132; PE17/144; PE22/152; PE22/154; PE22/155; PE22/161; PE22/162; PE22/167; VT39/20; VT41/13; VT41/17; VT42/33; VT42/34; VT43/15; VT43/26; VT49/16; VT49/20; VT49/34; WJ/371; WJ/391] Group: Eldamo. Published by

car-

make, do, build, form

car- (1) vb. "make, do, build, form" (1st pers. aorist carin "I make, build"; the aorist is listed with all pronominal endings in VT49:16, also in pl. and dual forms carir, carit). Regarding the form carize- (PE17:128), see -s #1. Pa.t. carnë (KAR, PE17:74, 144). The infinitival aorist stem carë ("k") (by Patrick Wynne called a "general aorist infinitive" in VT49:34) occurs in ecë nin carë sa "I can do it" (VT49:34), also in áva carë "don't do it" (WJ:371) and uin carë (PE17:68); in the last example Tolkien calls carë an example of the "simplest aorist infinitive", the same source referring to carië as the "general infinitive" of the same verb. Pl. aorist carir "form" in the phrase i carir quettar ("k") "those who form words" (WJ:391, cf. VT49:16), continuative cára, future caruva (PE17:144), carita ("k"), infinitive/gerund "to do" or "doing" (VT42:33), with suffixes caritas "to do it" or "doing it", caritalya(s) "your doing (it)" in VT41:13,17, VT42:33. Past participle #carna, q.v.; VT43:15 also gives the long form carina ("k"), read perhaps *cárina. (Carima as a passive participle may be a mistake, VT43:15.) PE17:68 refers to a "simple past passive participle" of the form carinwa ("kari-nwa"). "Rare" past participle active (?) cárienwa* ("k") "having done" (PE17:68), unless this is also a kind of passive participle (the wording of the source is unclear). Some alternative forms in Fíriel's Song: past tense cárë ("káre") "made"; this may still be an alternative to the better-attested form carnë (LR:362) even in LotR-style Quenya. Cf. ohtacárë "war-made", made war (see #ohtacar-). Also cárië with various suffixes: cárier ("kárier") is translated "they made"; in LotR-style Quenya this could be seen as an augmentless perfect, hence "they have made", "they" being simply the plural ending -r. The literal meaning of cárielto* ("k") must also be "they made" (cf. -lto). Derived adjectives urcárima and urcarnë "hard to make / do", urucarin "made with difficulty" (PE17:154), saucarya "evil-doing" (PE17:68).

car-

verb. do, make

Quenya [PE 22:99ff,103,109,121; PE 22:152, 167] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

car-

with

#car- (2) prep. "with" (carelyë "with thee"), prepositional element (evidently an ephemeral form abandoned by Tolkien) (VT43:29)

úcar-

to sin, trespass; to do wrong

#úcar- vb. "to sin, trespass; to do wrong" (pl. aorist úcarer in VT43:12, we would rather expect úcarir, a form seemingly indicated by an emendation in one variant of the text in question, VT43:21). The verb is car- "do" with the prefix ú-, here suggesting something morally bad ("do wrong") rather than simple negation.

cár

head

cár (cas-) ("k")noun "head" (KAS).The given stem-form appears doubtful within the phonological framework of LotR-style Quenya. Probably we should read cas with stem car- (PE14:69 indeed reads "kas head, pl. kari", and VT49:17 quotes the sg. "kas" from a post-LotR source). Compare other forms found in late sources: hlas "ear" with stem hlar- (PE17:62) and olos "dream", pl. olori (UT:396). In Tolkiens early "Qenya", post-vocalic -s became -r at the end of words but was preserved when another vowel followed. His later scheme either lets -r appear in both positions, or reverses the scenario altogether (hence olos, olor-). It would seem that the forms cár, cas- were distractedly carried over into the Etymologies from the Qenya Lexicon (kar, kas-, QL:45) even though they presuppose an earlier version of the phonology. An apparent variant form in late material, cára from earlier cáza ("k"), however fits the later phonology since intervocalic s would become z > r (PE17:188).

carna

built, made

carna passive participle *"built, made" in Vincarna "newly-made" (MR:408), also struck-out alacarna "well-done, well-made" (PE17:172). Carna would seem to be the passive participle of car-, though a longer form carina (read *cárina?) is also attested (VT43:15).

carnë

red

carnë adj. "red", "scarlet, red" (SA:caran, PE17:154, MC:214, KARÁN - spelt with a k in the two latter sources), not to be confused with the past tense of car- "do, make". Stem carni- as in Carnimírië, Carnistir.

cára

noun. head

ohtacar-

káre

#ohtacar- stem of the past tense ohtacárë (-"káre")vb. "war-made", made war (+ allative = make war upon) (LR:47, SD:246; ohtacárië in LR:56). The past tense could probably also be *ohtacarnë with the better-attested pa.t. of car- "make".

cas

noun. head, head, [ᴱQ.] top, summit

Variations

  • kára ✧ PE17/188
  • kas ✧ PE19/103; VT49/17

Derivations

  • kas “head” ✧ PE17/188
    • KAS “head”

Element in

  • Q. carma “helm”
  • ᴺQ. caraxo “skull, *(lit.) head-bone”
  • ᴺQ. cumya- “to empty”
  • ᴺQ. quaccas “tadpole, (lit.) frog head”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
kāza > kára[kāsa] > [kāza] > [kāra]✧ PE17/188

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
kaz-stem-✧ PE19/103
Quenya [PE17/188; PE19/103; VT49/17] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cas

head

cas ("k")"head" (VT49:17), cf. also deleted [cas] ("k")noun "top, summit" (VT45:19). This noun should evidently have the stem-form car-. See cár.

aira

red, copper-coloured, ruddy

aira (1) adj. "red, copper-coloured, ruddy" (GAY)

carne (carni-)

adjective. red

Quenya [PE 22:152] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

nasar

red

nasar adj. "red" (in Vanyarin Quenya only). Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)

as

with

o (2) prep. "with" (MC:216; this is "Qenya"; WJ:367 states that no independent preposition o was used in Quenya. Writers may rather use as.) See ó- below.

as

with

as prep. "with" (together with), also attested with a pronominal suffix: aselyë "with thee" (VT47:31, VT43:29). The conjunction ar "and" may also appear in assimilated form as before s; see ar #1.

as

preposition. with

Derivations

  • AS “beside”

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
aselye2nd-sg-polite-prep“*with thee”✧ VT43/29

-da

draught, the amount drunk

-da suffix used to derive nouns denoting the result of an action, like yulda "draught, the amount drunk" (the stem YUL is here given the meaning "drink"). (PE17:68) Cf. also carda "deed" (q.v.) vs. the verb car- "do".

-ië

general infinitive

- (1) infinitive (or gerundial) ending, "general infinitive" (PE17:68), attested in carië (see car-), enyalië, q.v. (CO)

-ya

elvish

-ya (5) adjectival ending, as in the word Quenya "Elvish" itself; when added to a verbal stem it may derive a kind of short active participle, as in melumatya "honey-eating" (mat- "eat"), saucarya "evil-doing" (car- "do"). (PE17:68)

-ina

general 'passive' participle

-ina ending for what Tolkien called "general 'passive' participle" (VT43:15); compare nótina "counted", rácina "broken", hastaina "marred" (q.v.). The stem-vowel is usually lengthened when the ending is added to the stem of a primary verb (as in the two first examples above), though the lengthening fails to occur (or is not denoted) in carina as the passive participle of car- "make, do" (VT43:15).

yulda

draught, something drunk, a drink, the amount drunk

yulda noun "draught, something drunk, a drink, the amount drunk", pl. yuldar (Nam, PE17:63, 68, RGEO:66). See -da regarding etymology.

suhto

draught

suhto noun "draught" (SUK)

ó

with, accompanying

Quenya [PE 22:162] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

preposition. with, with, [ᴹQ.] by, [ᴱQ.] with (accompaniment)

Variations

  • ✧ PE17/095 ()

Derivations

  • “with” ✧ PE17/095

Cognates

  • S. di “with” ✧ PE17/095

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
> > [dē] > [lē]✧ PE17/095

with

(2) prep. "with" (PE17:95)

ó

preposition. with

Variations

  • ✧ PE22/162 ()
  • ó- ✧ VT43/29

Changes

  • ó ✧ PE22/162

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
olesse2nd-sg-polite-prep locative“*with thee”✧ VT43/29
onye1st-sg-prep-✧ VT43/29
óni1st-sg-prep-✧ VT43/29
óme1st-pl-exclusive-prep-✧ VT43/29
olye2nd-sg-polite-prep-✧ VT43/29
óle2nd-sg-prep-✧ VT43/29
óle2nd-pl-prep-✧ VT43/29
óse3rd-sg-prep-✧ VT43/29
óte3rd-sg-prep-✧ VT43/29
ósa3rd-sg-inanimate-prep-✧ VT43/29
ós3rd-sg-inanimate-prep-✧ VT43/29
óta3rd-sg-inanimate-prep-✧ VT43/29
ót3rd-sg-inanimate-prep-✧ VT43/29
ótar3rd-sg-honorific-prep-✧ VT43/29
ótari3rd-pl-honorific-prep-✧ VT43/29
-onte3rd-sg-prep-✧ VT43/36
-ontar3rd-sg-prep-✧ VT43/36
-†ór3rd-sg-prep-✧ VT43/36
Quenya [PE22/162; VT43/29; VT43/36] Group: Eldamo. Published by