carma (2) noun "helm" (helmet) in Carma-cundo ("k") "Helm-guardian" (PM:260). Notice that in PE17:114, Tolkien indicated that he rather wanted carma to mean "tool" or "weapon", leaving the status of carma "helmet" uncertain. Possibly shortened to -car in the names Eldacar (Elfhelm?), Hallacar (Tall-helm?) Cf. also cassa in Etym.
noun. tool, implement, means, weapon
- ᴺS. carf “tool, implement, weapon”
- √KAR “do, make, build, do, make, build, [ᴹ√] construct” ✧ PE17/114
- ᴺQ. carmatan “toolsmith”
Word Gloss car- “to do, make, to do, make, [ᴹQ.] build” -ma “instrumental”
Development Stages Sources √KAR > karma [karma] ✧ PE17/114
- karma ✧ PE17/114; PE22/152
Word Gloss cas “head, head, [ᴱQ.] top, summit”
Development Stages Sources ✶kāsā > -kar [-kasā] > [-kazā] > [-kaza] > [-kaz] > [-kar] ✧ PE17/114 ✶-kāsă > -kas [-kasa] > [-kas] ✧ PE17/114 ✶kasma > kazma > karma [kasma] > [kazma] > [karma] ✧ PE17/114
- karma ✧ PE17/114
- Karma ✧ PM/260
noun. tool, implement, means
carma (1) noun "tool, weapon" (PE17:114)
carda noun "deed" (PE17:51). Cf. car #3. The word may contain the ending -da (q.v.) denoting the result of the corresponding verbal action.
Conceptual Development: Perhaps the earliest precursor of this word is ᴱQ. karma “shape, fashion; act, deed” in the Qenya Lexicon from the 1910s of similar derivation (QL/45). In The Etymologies from the 1930s, the word appeared as ᴹQ. kar (kard-), but this gloss was rejected and replaced by ᴹQ. kar “building” (Ety/KAR). The form karma “deed” also appeared in some later writings, but was rejected (PE22/138).
- S. carth “deed”
Word Gloss car- “to do, make, to do, make, [ᴹQ.] build” -da “product of an action”
- karda ✧ PE17/051; PE22/152
- karma ✧ PE22/138 (
car (card-) (3) ("k")noun "deed" (rewritten >) "building, house" (KAR). Cf. carda.
cassa ("k")noun "helmet" (KAS; though spelt cassa also in the Etymologies as printed in LR, VT45:19 indicates that Tolkien's own spelling was kassa). Cf. carma in a later source.
harna (3) noun "helmet" (VT45:21)
harpa noun "helmet" (VT45:21)
tamma noun "tool" (PE17:108)
- √TAM “construct, construct; [ᴹ√] knock, [ᴱ√] beat; smelt, forge” ✧ PE17/107
Word Gloss TAM “construct, construct; [ᴹ√] knock, [ᴱ√] beat; smelt, forge” -ma “instrumental”
Development Stages Sources √TAM > tamma [tamma] ✧ PE17/107
Eldacar masc. name, *"Elfhelm". Compare carma "helmet". (Appendix A)
castol noun "helmet", synonyms tholon (q.v.), sól (q.v), also variant castolo ("k")(PE17:186, 188)
- S. castol “helmet” ✧ PE17/186; PE17/188
- √THOL “stand up, top; helmet” ✧ PE17/186
Development Stages Sources √STOL > castol [castol] ✧ PE17/186
- castol ✧ PE17/186
- kastol(o) ✧ PE17/188
sól, also solma or solos, noun variant words apparently for "helmet", cf. castol, q.v. (PE17:188)
tholon noun "helmet", variant of castol (q.v.), though Tolkien might have mistakenly marked it as Quenya instead of Sindarin (PE17:186)