Quenya 

-da

suffix. product of an action

Derivations

  • -dā “product of an action”

Element in

  • Q. carda “deed”
  • Q. cenda “inspection, reading”
  • Q. yulda “drink, draught, thing drunk; cup”

-da

draught, the amount drunk

-da suffix used to derive nouns denoting the result of an action, like yulda "draught, the amount drunk" (the stem YUL is here given the meaning "drink"). (PE17:68) Cf. also carda "deed" (q.v.) vs. the verb car- "do".

-na

no longer part of verbal conjugation

-na (4), ending used to form passive participles as well as some adjectives and nouns; see -ina. According to PE17:68, the ending -na was "no longer part of verbal conjugation"; the derived words are thus considered independent adjectives (sometimes nouns) rather than regularly derived passive participles, the obvious etymological connection to certain verbal stems notwithstanding. Where adding the ending to a root would produce the combinations tn, pn, kn (cn), metathesis occurs to produce nt, (np >) mp, nc, as in nanca *"slain" for older ¤ndakna, or hampa "restrained, delayed, kept" vs. the root KHAP "retain, keep, detain". Following -l, the suffix -na turns into -da, as in yulda "draught, the amount drunk" for older yulna (this being an example of a noun being derived with this ending, though Tolkien might also explain yulda as containing a distinct ending -da [q.v.] denoting the result of a verbal action). The word *turúna "mastered" (q.v., only attested in elided form turún) would seem to be a passive participle formed from the verb turu- "master" (PE17:113), suggesting that in the case of U-stem verbs, their final -u is lengthened to ú when -na is added.

carda

deed

carda noun "deed" (PE17:51). Cf. car #3. The word may contain the ending -da (q.v.) denoting the result of the corresponding verbal action.

carda

noun. deed

Quenya [PE 22:152] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

carda

noun. deed

Quenya noun for a “deed”, a combination of the verb car- “to do” and the verbal suffix -da used for the product of an action (PE17/51; PE22/152), thus literally “✱a thing done”.

Conceptual Development: Perhaps the earliest precursor of this word is ᴱQ. karma “shape, fashion; act, deed” in the Qenya Lexicon from the 1910s of similar derivation (QL/45). In The Etymologies from the 1930s, the word appeared as ᴹQ. kar (kard-), but this gloss was rejected and replaced by ᴹQ. kar “building” (Ety/KAR). The form karma “deed” also appeared in some later writings, but was rejected (PE22/138).

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
car-“to do, make, to do, make, [ᴹQ.] build”
-da“product of an action”

Variations

  • karda ✧ PE17/051; PE22/152
  • karma ✧ PE22/138 (karma)
Quenya [PE17/051; PE22/138; PE22/152] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yulda

draught, something drunk, a drink, the amount drunk

yulda noun "draught, something drunk, a drink, the amount drunk", pl. yuldar (Nam, PE17:63, 68, RGEO:66). See -da regarding etymology.

-r

suffix. motion to or towards a point, motion to or towards a point, *archaic allative

Derivations

  • -da “motion to or towards a point, allative suffix” ✧ WJ/366

Element in

  • Q. öar “away from” ✧ WJ/366
  • Q. var “*from, away to”

Variations

  • -r ✧ WJ/366

suhto

draught

suhto noun "draught" (SUK)

car

deed

car (card-) (3) ("k")noun "deed" (rewritten >) "building, house" (KAR). Cf. carda.

carma

noun. deed