-da suffix used to derive nouns denoting the result of an action, like yulda "draught, the amount drunk" (the stem YUL is here given the meaning "drink"). (PE17:68) Cf. also carda "deed" (q.v.) vs. the verb car- "do".
suffix. product of an action
- ✶-dā “product of an action”
draught, the amount drunk
no longer part of verbal conjugation
-na (4), ending used to form passive participles as well as some adjectives and nouns; see -ina. According to PE17:68, the ending -na was "no longer part of verbal conjugation"; the derived words are thus considered independent adjectives (sometimes nouns) rather than regularly derived passive participles, the obvious etymological connection to certain verbal stems notwithstanding. Where adding the ending to a root would produce the combinations tn, pn, kn (cn), metathesis occurs to produce nt, (np >) mp, nc, as in nanca *"slain" for older ¤ndakna, or hampa "restrained, delayed, kept" vs. the root KHAP "retain, keep, detain". Following -l, the suffix -na turns into -da, as in yulda "draught, the amount drunk" for older yulna (this being an example of a noun being derived with this ending, though Tolkien might also explain yulda as containing a distinct ending -da [q.v.] denoting the result of a verbal action). The word *turúna "mastered" (q.v., only attested in elided form turún) would seem to be a passive participle formed from the verb turu- "master" (PE17:113), suggesting that in the case of U-stem verbs, their final -u is lengthened to ú when -na is added.
carda noun "deed" (PE17:51). Cf. car #3. The word may contain the ending -da (q.v.) denoting the result of the corresponding verbal action.
Conceptual Development: Perhaps the earliest precursor of this word is ᴱQ. karma “shape, fashion; act, deed” in the Qenya Lexicon from the 1910s of similar derivation (QL/45). In The Etymologies from the 1930s, the word appeared as ᴹQ. kar (kard-), but this gloss was rejected and replaced by ᴹQ. kar “building” (Ety/KAR). The form karma “deed” also appeared in some later writings, but was rejected (PE22/138).
- S. carth “deed”
Word Gloss car- “to do, make, to do, make, [ᴹQ.] build” -da “product of an action”
- karda ✧ PE17/051; PE22/152
- karma ✧ PE22/138 (
draught, something drunk, a drink, the amount drunk
yulda noun "draught, something drunk, a drink, the amount drunk", pl. yuldar (Nam, PE17:63, 68, RGEO:66). See -da regarding etymology.
suffix. motion to or towards a point, motion to or towards a point, *archaic allative
- ✶-da “motion to or towards a point, allative suffix” ✧ WJ/366
- -r ✧ WJ/366
suhto noun "draught" (SUK)
car (card-) (3) ("k")noun "deed" (rewritten >) "building, house" (KAR). Cf. carda.