lá (1) adv. "no, not" (LA, VT45:25) According to VT42:33, lá is the stressed form, alternating with la when the negation is unstressed. In another conceptual phase of Tolkien's, lá had the opposite meaning "yes" (VT42:32-33), but this idea is contradicted by both earlier and later material: usually lá is conceived as a negation. The negation can receive tense markers and be used as a negative verb "when [another] verb is not expressed" (VT49:13), apparently where the phrase "is not" is followed by a noun or an adjective as a predicate, or where some verb is understood, as in English "I do not" (i.e. "I do not do whatever the context indicates"). With pronominal endings la- in the aorist, e.g. lanyë "I do not, am not" (etc.) (Tolkien abandoned the form lamin.) Exemplified in the sentence melin sé apa lanyë hé *"I love him but I do not [love] him" (another person) (VT49:15). Present tense laia, past lánë, perfect alaië, future lauva.
- S. ilaurui “*daily” ✧ VT43/18
- Q. ámen anta síra ilaurëa massamma “give us this day our daily bread” ✧ VT43/18
Word Gloss il- “every, *all” aurë “day (as opposed to night), daylight, sunlight, morning, day (as opposed to night), daylight, morning; sunlight, [ᴱQ.] sunshine, gold light, warmth” -a “adjectival suffix”
- Q. ámen anta síra ilaurëa massamma “give us this day our daily bread” ✧ VT43/18; VT43/18
Word Gloss ilya “every, each, all (of a particular group of things), every, each, all (of a particular group of things), [ᴹQ.] the whole” árë “sunlight, warmth (especially of the sun); day” -a “adjectival suffix”
- ilyarea ✧ VT43/18
- ilyázea ✧ VT43/18 (ilyázea)
ilya adj. and noun "all" (LR:47, 56; SD:310), "all, the whole" (IL); "each, every, all of a particular group of things" (VT39:20); ilyë before a plural noun, "all" being inflected like an adjective (Nam, RGEO:67): ilyë tier "all paths" (Namárië, VT39:20), ilyë mahalmar "all thrones" (CO), ilya raxellor "from all dangers" (VT44:9; we might expect *ilyë raxellor here), ilyárëa (older ilyázëa) "daily, of every day" (evidently ilya "every" + árë, ázë "day" + -a adjectival ending) (VT43:18). Tolkien apparently abandoned ilyárëa in favour of ilaurëa, q.v.
la negation "no, not" (see lá); also prefix la- as in lacarë, q.v. (VT45:25)
verb. no, *un-
il- (prefix) "no, *un-" (LA); cf. ilfirin "immortal" (vs. firin "dead"). This prefix "denotes the opposite, the reversal, i.e. more than the mere negation" (VT42:32). But il- can also mean "all, every"; see ilaurëa, ilqua, ilquen.
illi noun "all" (as independent noun, apparently treated as a plural form). Imb' illi "among all" (VT47:30)
- Q. A ancalima imb’ illi “A is brightest of all” ✧ PE17/091
ui interjection "no" (originally an endingless negative verb in the 3rd person aorist: "it is not [so]"; see #u-). Apparently this is the word for "no" used to deny that something is true (compare vá, which is rather used to reject orders, or to issue negative orders). (VT49:28) Compare uito.
ilaurëa adj. "daily", "of every day" (il- "every" + aurë "day" + -a adjectival ending) (VT43:18).