Quenya 

él

star

él noun "star", pl. éli given (WJ:362, EL)

él

noun. star

An archaic or poetic word for star (WJ/362), somewhat common in compounds but in ordinary speech typically appearing as elen. It was derived directly from the primitive root √EL “behold”, the basis for other star words (PM/340; WJ/360).

Conceptual Development: This word first appeared as poetical ᴹQ. él “star” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, already with the derivation given above, though in this document the root ᴹ√EL meant “star” (Ety/EL), a common gloss for the root in later writings as well.

Cognates

  • T. él “star” ✧ WJ/362

Derivations

  • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ PM/340
  • ēl “star” ✧ WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ WJ/360

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
el- > el[el]✧ PM/340
ēl > él[ēl]✧ WJ/360

Variations

  • el ✧ PM/340
Quenya [PM/340; WJ/362] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elen

star

elen noun "star" (SA:êl, elen, EL, VT49:39); pl. eleni (occasionally in verse: eldi) (WJ:362, PE17:127); partitive pl. elelli for elenli (PE17:127), gen. pl. elenion in the phrase Elenion Ancalima "brightest of stars" (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation); elen atta "two stars" (VT49:44), genitive elen atto "of two stars" (VT49:45), eleni neldë "three stars", archaic elenion neldë = "of stars three". Genitive "of 3 stars" = elenion neldë (for archaic elenion neldëo) (VT49:45). Allative elenna "starwards" used as name of Númenor _(Silm; see Elenna)_; ablative pl. elenillor "from stars" in Markirya. **Nai elen siluva ***"may a star shine", VT49:38.

elen

noun. star

The most common Quenya word for “star”, mentioned very frequently, derived from an extended form ✶elen of the root √EL “behold” (PE17/67; WJ/360, 362). Its usual plural form is eleni, but it has an archaic plural †eldi sometimes used in verse, the result of the Ancient Quenya sound whereby [[aq|[ln] became [ld]]] after the ancient plural underwent the Quenya syncope, ✶elenī > AQ. elni; its normal modern plural form eleni was actually a reformation from the singular (PE17/57, 151; WJ/362).

Conceptual Development: This word first appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, though in the original entry for the root ᴹ√EL Tolkien said it was poetical and gave variants ellen and elena (Ety/EL).

Cognates

  • S. êl “star” ✧ PE17/024; PE17/024; PE17/067; PE17/127; PE17/151; SA/êl; WJ/362
  • T. él “star” ✧ WJ/367
  • T. elen “star” ✧ WJ/362

Derivations

  • elen “star” ✧ PE17/067; PE17/151; WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; PE17/067; VT42/11; WJ/360
  • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ PE17/151; PM/340; RGEO/65; SA/êl

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
elen > elen[elen]✧ PE17/067
elni > eldi[eleni] > [elni] > [eldi]✧ PE17/151

Variations

  • Elen ✧ LotR/0081; WJ/367
Quenya [Let/265; Let/385; LotR/0081; LotR/0377; LotR/0720; LotR/0915; MC/222; PE17/012; PE17/024; PE17/025; PE17/056; PE17/057; PE17/067; PE17/090; PE17/091; PE17/101; PE17/127; PE17/151; PE19/096; PM/340; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; RGEO/65; SA/êl; UT/213; VT49/39; VT49/44; VT49/45; WJ/362; WJ/367] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ílë

star

ílë noun "star" (LT1:269; rather elen, él in LotR-style Quenya.)

Sindarin 

geil

silver spark

pl1. gîl, pl2. giliath _ n. _silver spark. >> gail

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:30:152] < Eldarin *_gilyā_ < GIL shine (white). Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gil

noun. star, bright spark

In The Etymologies (Ety/358, corrected by VT/45:15), this word was given as geil , plural gîl. However, later in LotR/E and RGEO/73, Tolkien seems to consider gil as a singular (with no hints in the sources of what the plural would be, besides the collective plural giliath )

Sindarin [LotR/E, S/431, RGEO/73] Group: SINDICT. Published by

gil

noun. star; (bright) spark, silver glint, twinkle of light

The usual word for “star” in Sindarin which replaced archaic/poetic êl; it originally meant “(bright) spark” (RGEO/65; VT42/11). It was derived from the root √(Ñ)GIL meaning “shine (white)” (PE17/152) or “silver glint” (MR/388; PE17/22).

Conceptual Development: This word first appeared as G. gail “a star” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/42), derived from the early root ᴱ√Gil- (GL/38). In the Early Noldorin Grammar Tolkien said ᴱN. gail meant “sign, token, heavenly body” (PE13/123); earlier in this document he gave it the gloss {“life” >>} “sign” (PE13/120 and note #6). In Early Noldorin Word-lists written somewhat later, gail again simply meant “star” (PE13/143), and it was used this way in the Nebrachar poem from around 1930 (MC/217).

In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien gave it as N. geil “star” from primitive ᴹ✶gilya under the root ᴹ√GIL “shine (white or pale)” (Ety/GIL; EtyAC/GIL). Christopher Tolkien incorrectly marked geil as a plural form in The Etymologies as published in The Lost Road (LR/358), but Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne corrected this in their Addenda and Corrigenda to the Etymologies (VT45/15). Remnants of this 1930s derivation can be seen in the forms geil/gail in notes from the 1950s, derived from ancient ✶gilyā “silver spark” (PE17/30, 152). Mostly, however, Tolkien represented this word as gil in later writings, including in The Lord of the Rings Appendix E (LotR/1113).

Possible Etymology: The etymology of gil is complicated by Tolkien’s vacillation with the singular form gail (†geil) < ✶gilyā, where the diphthong ai is the result of a-affection of the base vowel from i to e, which after i-intrusion produced ei and this diphthong became ai as usual in final syllables and monosyllables: gilyā [ >✱geli(a)] > geil > gail. Signs of this etymology can be seen in the class plural giliath as in S. Dagor-nuin-Giliath “Battle-under-Stars” (S/106).

With this alternate derivation, the plural form would still be gîl, since the ancient plural prevented a-affection, and the prefixal form likewise would have been gil- (PE17/152). However, this derivation conflicts with Tolkien’s usual presentation of the singular form as gil. In some places Tolkien gave a primitive form like ✶(ñ)gillē (PE17/23) or a Sindarin form gill (PE17/50), but I think it is best to assume primitive ✱gili- to explain singular gil and class-plural giliath.

Cognates

  • Q. nillë “silver glint; Valinorian imagines [images of real stars]” ✧ MR/470; PE17/022; MR/388; MR/471

Derivations

  • (Ñ)GIL “shine (white); silver glint; white or silver light” ✧ MR/388; PE17/022; PE17/152
  • gilyā “silver spark” ✧ PE17/152
    • (Ñ)GIL “shine (white); silver glint; white or silver light” ✧ PE17/152

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
gilyā > geil > gail[giljā] > [gilja] > [gelja] > [gelia] > [geli] > [geil] > [gail]✧ PE17/152
GIL > gîl[gilji] > [gilī] > [gil] > [gīl]✧ PE17/152

Variations

  • gil- ✧ PE17/023; PE22/159
  • geil ✧ PE17/030 (geil)
  • gail ✧ PE17/030; PE17/152
  • Gill ✧ PE17/050
Sindarin [Let/427; LotR/1113; MR/388; MR/470; MR/471; PE17/022; PE17/023; PE17/030; PE17/050; PE17/152; PE22/159; RC/232; RGEO/61; RGEO/65; S/106; SA/gil; VT42/11] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gail

silver spark

pl1. gîl, pl2. giliath _ n. _silver spark. >> gail, geil

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:30:152] < Eldarin *_gilyā_ < GIL shine (white). Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gail

noun. silver spark, silver spark, [ᴱN.] star; sign, token, heavenly body

gil-

noun. star

Sindarin [PE 22:159] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

gill

noun. star

el

star

n. star.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:55] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

giliath

noun. all the host of stars

Sindarin [Ety/358, RC/232] Group: SINDICT. Published by

elen

star

pl1. elin, pl2. elenath _n._star. Its collective plural (pl2.) designates 'the (host of all the) stars, (all) the (visible) stars of the firmament'. Q. elen, pl1. eldi, eleni. o menel aglar elenath ! lit. 'from Firmament glory of the stars !'. >> êl

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20-1:24-5:67:139:151] < EL star. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

elen

noun. star

êl

noun. star (little used except in verses)

Sindarin [WJ/363, MR/373, RGEO/73, Letters/281] Group: SINDICT. Published by

êl

star

pl1. elin, pl2. elenath** ** n. star. Q. elen, pl1. eldi, eleni, pl2. elelli. >> elen

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:24:67:127:139-40:151] < EL star. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

êl

noun. star

A Sindarin word for “star” that is largely archaic and poetic, and is mainly used as element in names like Elrond (Let/281; WJ/363; Ety/EL); the more usual word for “star” in ordinary speech was gil (RGEO/65). However, the collective form elenath is still used in common speech to refer to the entire host of stars (WJ/363). The plural of êl is elin, as this word was derived from ancient ✶elen, and the final n that was lost in the singular was preserved in the plural. In some cases Tolkien posited a restored analogical singular elen from the plural form (PE17/24, 67, 139), but this isn’t in keeping with the notion that the word was archaic, so I would ignore this for purposes of Neo-Sindarin.

Conceptual Development: This word and its root first appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, where N. el “star” was derived from the root ᴹ√EL of similar meaning, but was “only [used] in names” (Ety/EL). It seems Tolkien introduced the root to give a new etymology for names like N. Elrond and N. Elwing, which initially appeared under the root ᴹ√ƷEL “sky” (Ety/ƷEL).

Cognates

  • Q. elen “star” ✧ PE17/024; PE17/024; PE17/067; PE17/127; PE17/151; SA/êl; WJ/362

Derivations

  • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; RGEO/65; SA/êl
  • elen “star” ✧ PE17/067; PE17/139; PE22/150; WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; PE17/067; VT42/11; WJ/360

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
EL > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ Let/281
elen > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ PE17/067
ELEN > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ PE17/139
elenī > elin[elenī] > [eleni] > [elini] > [elin]✧ PE22/150
EL > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ RGEO/65
ele > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ SA/êl
elen > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ WJ/360

Variations

  • Êl ✧ MR/373
  • el- ✧ PE17/022
  • elen ✧ PE17/024; PE17/067; PE17/139
  • el(en) ✧ PE17/025
  • el ✧ PE17/055; PM/369
Sindarin [Let/281; LotR/0238; MR/373; PE17/022; PE17/024; PE17/025; PE17/055; PE17/067; PE17/127; PE17/139; PE17/151; PE22/150; PM/369; RGEO/63; RGEO/64; RGEO/65; RGEO/67; SA/êl; WJ/363] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gîl

star

gîl (i ngîl = i ñîl, o n**gîl, construct gil) (bright spark, silver glint), no distinct pl. form except with article (in gîl = i ñgîl), coll. pl. giliath** (RGEO, MR:388). Poetic †êl (elen-, pl. elin, coll. pl. elenath) (RGEO, Letters:281, WJ:363).

gildin

silver spark

gildin (i ngildin = i ñildin, o n**gildin = o ñgildin), no distinct pl. form except with article (in gildin** = i ñgildin). ”

Telerin 

él

noun. star

Cognates

  • Q. él “star” ✧ WJ/362
  • Q. elen “star” ✧ WJ/367

Derivations

  • ēl “star” ✧ WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ WJ/360

Element in

Variations

  • ēl ✧ WJ/362; WJ/407
Telerin [WJ/362; WJ/407] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elen

noun. star

Cognates

  • Q. elen “star” ✧ WJ/362

Derivations

  • elen “star” ✧ WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; PE17/067; VT42/11; WJ/360

Primitive elvish

gilyā

noun. silver spark

Derivations

  • (Ñ)GIL “shine (white); silver glint; white or silver light” ✧ PE17/152

Derivatives

  • S. gil “star; (bright) spark, silver glint, twinkle of light” ✧ PE17/152
Primitive elvish [PE17/152] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ēl

noun. star

Derivations

  • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ WJ/360

Derivatives

  • Q. él “star” ✧ WJ/360
  • T. él “star” ✧ WJ/360

Element in

  • eledā “star-folk, of the stars” ✧ WJ/360
  • elen-barathī “star-queen” ✧ PE17/066

Variations

  • el ✧ PE17/066
Primitive elvish [PE17/066; WJ/360] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elen

noun. star

Derivations

  • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; PE17/067; VT42/11; WJ/360

Derivatives

  • elenā “connected with or concerning the stars” ✧ PE17/139
    • Q. Elda “Elf, (lit.) one of the Star-folk” ✧ PE17/139; PE17/152
    • Q. elenya “adjective referring to the stars, *of the stars, stellar” ✧ WJ/360
    • S. Eledh “Elf” ✧ PE17/139; WJ/360
  • Q. elen “star” ✧ PE17/067; PE17/151; WJ/360
  • S. êl “star” ✧ PE17/067; PE17/139; PE22/150; WJ/360
  • T. elen “star” ✧ WJ/360

Element in

  • elenā “connected with or concerning the stars” ✧ WJ/360
  • elen-barathī “star-queen” ✧ MR/387
  • Q. Elentári “Queen of the Stars, Star-queen” ✧ PE17/022
  • S. Elbereth “Queen of Stars, (lit.) Star-queen” ✧ PE17/022; PE17/023

Variations

  • ĕlĕn ✧ Let/281
  • ELEN ✧ PE17/022; PE17/139; PE17/152
  • el-en ✧ PE17/023
  • elen- ✧ VT42/11
Primitive elvish [Let/281; MR/387; MR/388; NM/060; PE17/022; PE17/023; PE17/067; PE17/139; PE17/151; PE17/152; PE22/150; VT42/11; WJ/360] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

geil

noun. star, bright spark

Noldorin [Ety/358, VT/45:15] Group: SINDICT. Published by

geil

noun. star

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶gilya “star” ✧ Ety/GIL
    • ᴹ√GIL “shine (white or pale)” ✧ Ety/GIL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶gilya > gíl[gilji] > [gilī] > [gil] > [gīl]✧ Ety/GIL
ᴹ✶gilya > geil[gilja] > [gelja] > [gelia] > [geli] > [geil]✧ Ety/GIL

Variations

  • gîl ✧ EtyAC/GIL
Noldorin [Ety/GIL; Ety/OT; EtyAC/GIL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

el

noun. star

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. él “star” ✧ Ety/EL
  • ᴹQ. elen “star” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√EL “star, starry sky” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Element in

  • N. elanor “sun-star”
  • N. Elbereth “Queen of Stars, (lit.) Star Queen” ✧ Ety/EL
  • N. Elrond “Starry-dome, Sky” ✧ Ety/EL
  • N. Elros “Star-foam”
  • N. Eldûn “*West-star”
  • N. Elrûn “*East-star”
  • N. Elwing “Star-spray” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√EL > el[elen] > [ele] > [el]✧ Ety/EL

gildin

noun. silver spark

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “silver spark”, a combination of the root ᴹ√GIL and ᴹ√TIN (Ety/TIN). Presumably this refers to stars, since both roots also have derivatives referring to stars.

giliath

noun. all the host of stars

Noldorin [Ety/358, RC/232] Group: SINDICT. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Qenya 

él

noun. star

Cognates

  • Ilk. el “star” ✧ Ety/EL
  • N. el “star” ✧ Ety/EL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√EL “star, starry sky” ✧ Ety/EL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√EL > él[ēl]✧ Ety/EL

elen

noun. star

Cognates

  • Ilk. el “star” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL
  • N. el “star” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√EL “star, starry sky” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√EL > elen[elen]✧ Ety/EL
ᴹ√EL > elen[elen]✧ Ety/EL
ᴹ√EL > ellen[ellen]✧ Ety/EL

Variations

  • ellen ✧ Ety/EL
  • elena ✧ Ety/EL
  • Elen ✧ RS/324
Qenya [Ety/EL; PE17/014; RS/324; VT28/11; WR/223] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elena

noun. star

ellen

noun. star

Doriathrin

el

noun. star

A Doriathrin noun meaning “star”, a simple derivative of the root ᴹ√EL (Ety/EL).

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. él “star” ✧ Ety/EL
  • ᴹQ. elen “star” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√EL “star, starry sky” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√EL > el[el]✧ Ety/EL

Middle Primitive Elvish

gilya

noun. star

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GIL “shine (white or pale)” ✧ Ety/GIL

Derivatives

  • N. geil “star” ✧ Ety/GIL

Element in

  • ᴹQ. tingilya “twinkling star” ✧ Ety/GIL
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/GIL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

gail

noun. star

Cognates

  • Eq. íle “star” ✧ GL/37; LT1A/Tinwetári

Derivations

  • ᴱ√GILI “*shine (pale)”

Element in

Variations

  • Gail ✧ GL/37
Gnomish [GL/37; LT1A/Tinwetári] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

íle

noun. star

Cognates

  • G. gail “star” ✧ GL/37; LT1A/Tinwetári

Derivations

  • ᴱ√GILI “*shine (pale)”

Element in

Variations

  • īle ✧ GL/37
  • ílë ✧ LT1A/Tinwetári
Early Quenya [GL/37; LT1A/Tinwetári] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tinwe

noun. star

Cognates

  • G. tim “spark, gleam, (star)”

Derivations

  • ᴱ√TINI “twinkle” ✧ LT1A/Tinwë Linto; QL/092

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√TINI > tinwe[tinwē] > [tinwe]✧ QL/092

Variations

  • tinwë ✧ LT1A/Tinwë Linto
Early Quenya [LT1A/Tinwë Linto; MC/213; MC/214; MC/220; PE16/056; PE16/057; PE16/060; PE16/062; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/077; PE16/142; PME/092; QL/052; QL/092] Group: Eldamo. Published by