Eärendil, masc. name; see ëar. Eärendilyon noun "son of Eärendel" ("used of any mariner") (LT1:251)
son of eärendel
masculine name. Lover of the Sea
The great mariner who took the Silmaril of Beren to Valinórë, thereby instigating the Valar’s liberation of Beleriand and the final defeat of Morgoth (S/246). His name was a compound of ëar “sea” and the suffix -(n)dil “-friend, -lover” (SA/ëar, (n)dil).
Conceptual Development: This was one of the oldest and most important names in Tolkien’s legendarium. Tolkien admitted that the name was inspired by the Anglo-Saxon word éarendel “ray of light” (Let/150, 385). In fact, the first form of this name in the Lost Tales was ᴱQ. Earendel (LT1/13), often spelt Earendl in Tolkien’s early linguistic notes (QL/34, PE13/99). At this stage the name seems to derive from ᴱQ. earen (earend-) “eagle, eyrie” (QL/34), though the “dialectical form” Yarendl was archaically used for “mariner” (QL/105).
The name remained ᴹQ. Earendel in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/326) and up through Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s (RS/215, TI/99, WR/223 note #29). The name’s association with the Sea did not emerge until Tolkien wrote the (unfinished) “Notion Club Papers” story in the mid-1940s, at which point its form changed to ᴹQ. Earendil (SM/237, 241) and so remained thereafter.
- Q. aiya Eärendil elenion ancalima “hail Eärendil, brightest of stars” ✧ LotR/0720; PE17/090
Word Gloss ëar “sea, great sea, sea, great sea, [ᴹQ.] open sea; water” -(n)dil “-friend, -lover; devotion, disinterested love”
- Earendil ✧ Let/150; PE17/090; RGEO/65
- eärendil ✧ NM/016; PE17/152
Eärnil masc. name, contraction of Eärendil (Appendix A)
-ndil (also -dil) ending occurring in many names, like Amandil, Eärendil; it implies devotion or disinterested love and may be translated "friend" (SA:(noun)dil); this ending is "describing the attitude of one to a person, thing, course or occupation to which one is devoted for its own sake" (Letters:386). Compare -ndur. It is unclear whether the names derived with the ending -ndil are necessarily masculine, though we have no certain example of a woman's name in -ndil; the name Vardilmë (q.v.) may suggest that the corresponding feminine ending is -(n)dilmë.
-ndur (also -dur), ending in some names, like Eärendur; as noted by Christopher Tolkien in the Silmarillion Appendix it has much the same meaning as -ndil "friend"; yet -ndur properly means "servant of" (SA:(noun)dil), "as one serves a legitimate master: cf. Q. arandil king's friend, royalist, beside arandur 'king's servant, minister'. But these often coincide: e.g. Sam's relation to Frodo can be viewed either as in status -ndur, in spirit -ndil." (Letters:286)
-ser noun "friend" (SER)
[heldo, also helmo, fem. heldë, noun "friend" (VT46:3)]
#meldë noun "friend", feminine (meldenya "my friend" in the Elaine inscription [VT49:40], Tolkien referring to Elaine Griffiths). Compare meldo.
málo noun "friend" (MEL, VT49:22)
nildo noun "friend" (apparently masc.; contrast nildë) (NIL/NDIL)
nildë noun "friend" (fem.) (NIL/NDIL)
nilmo noun "friend" (apparently masc.) (NIL/NDIL)
sermo noun "friend" (evidently masc., since sermë is stated to be fem.) (SER)
sermë noun "friend" (fem.) (SER)
seron noun "friend" (SER)
[sondo noun "friend" (VT46:15)]
ëar noun "sea" (AYAR/AIR [gives also dat. sg. ëaren],WJ:413; see Letters:386 for etymology). Not to be confused with the pl. form of the verb ëa "be, exist". Pl. ëari "seas" (FS, LR:47); Eär "the Great Sea" (cf. ëaron "ocean"), ablative Eärello "from the Great Sea", et Eärello "out of the Great Sea" (EO). Eärë noun "the open sea" (SD:305). Compound ëaruilë noun "seaweed" (UY). Found in proper names like Eärendil "Sea-friend", Eärendur masc. name, *"Sea-servant"; in effect a variant of Eärendil(Appendix A). Eärendur was also used ="(professional) mariner" (Letters:386).Fem. name Eärwen "Sea-maiden" (Silm); Eärrámë "Sea-wing", "Wings of the Sea", name of Tuor's ship (RAM, AYAR/AIR, SA)
-dil, -ndil, ending that Tolkien likened to Old English "-wine", sc. "-friend" as part of names, e.g. Elendil, Eärendil (NIL/NDIL); see the entry -ndil. Also long -dildo (VT46:4), and possibly -(n)dilmë as the corresponding feminine form (see Vardilmë).
-nil, final element in compounds, similar in meaning to Old English "-wine", sc. "-friend" as an element in names (NIL/NDIL). Also long -nildo (VT46:4). Variant of -ndil. In Eärnil, contraction of Earendil.
airë (2) noun "sea" (the form airen is given, intended as a genitive singular when Tolkien wrote this; in LotR-style Quenya it would rather be a dative sg.) (AYAR/AIR; cf. airon)
Conceptual Development: ᴹQ. aire “sea” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of ᴹ√AYAR (Ety/AY); it appeared beside a form ᴹQ. airen that might be a genitive form, or might be a longer form; see the entry on ᴹQ. airon for discussion.
- S. gaear “sea” ✧ PE17/027
- Q. airon “ocean” ✧ PE17/027
Development Stages Sources ✶gaı̯ră > aire [gaira] > [ɣaira] > [aira] ✧ PE17/027
- aire ✧ PE17/027 (aire)
meldo noun "friend, lover". _(VT45:34, quoting a deleted entry in the Etymologies, but cf. the pl. #_meldor in Eldameldor "Elf-lovers", WJ:412) **Meldonya *"my friend" (VT49:38, 40). It may be that meldo is the distinctly masculine form, corresponding to feminine #meldë** (q.v.)
váya noun "sea" (considered as "waters, motion"). The wording of the source indicates that Tolkien only tentatively considered such a word (PE17:33)
vëa (3) noun "sea" (MC:213, 214, 216; possibly obsoleted by #1 and #2 above, though some argue that the initial element of the late names Vëantur and Vëandur [q.v.] could be vëa #3 rather than #2 (it can hardly be #1) . In any case, the normal word for "sea" in LotR-style Quenya seems to be ëar.) Inflected vëan "sea" (MC:220), vëar "in sea" (a "Qenya" locative in -r, MC:213), vëassë "on sea" (MC:220). Cf. also vëaciryo.