Quenya 

aiquassë

noun. precipice

Elements

WordGloss
aiqa“steep, steep, [ᴱQ.] tall; high, lofty, sublime; chief”

Sindarin 

avras

noun. precipice

A noun glossed “a precipice”, given as a derivative of the root √BARAS (PE17/22-23).

Derivations

  • BARAS “height combined with strength/majesty” ✧ PE17/022
    • BAR “[ᴹ√] raise; uplift, save, rescue(?)”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
BARAS > avras[abrasse] > [avrasse] > [avrass] > [avras]✧ PE17/022

rhass

precipice

rhass (i rass for ”older” i** **chrass; construct rhas), pl. rais (?idh rais).

Nandorin 

hrassa

noun. precipice

Primitive form given as khrassê, derived from a stem KHARÁS (LR:363) that is not defined, but compared to a stem KARAK "sharp fang, spike, tooth" (LR:362). The form khrassê displays the loss of an unaccented stem-vowel often seen in primitive words (cf. for instance d'râk- "wolf" from DARÁK-); the ending is found on a number of words denoting inanimates (though it is also a feminine ending). For the doubling of the final s, compare lassê "leaf" from LAS1 (LR:367).

This hr- is our only example of how primitive khr- comes out in Nandorin; hr is surely meant to denote an unvoiced r, as in Tolkien's later spelling of Quenya words (e.g. hroa "body"). For primitive becoming Nandorin -a, compare cwenda (q.v.) from kwenedê.

Nandorin [H. Fauskanger (LR:362:363)] < KHARÁS. Published by

Noldorin 

rhass

noun. precipice

Noldorin [Ety/363] Group: SINDICT. Published by

rhass

noun. precipice

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s gloss “precipice”, derived from primitive ᴹ✶khrassē (Ety/KHARÁS). Tolkien listed two soft mutated forms: i-rass and (archaic) †i-chrass, the latter the proper historical development but the former reformed to match normal (Noldorin) patterns of mutation.

Neo-Sindarin: This word would remain rhass if adapted into Sindarin, as its ancient initial consonants khr- would still produce rh-. But its mutations would likely be different; see the discussion of the Sindarin soft mutation.

Cognates

  • Ilk. rhass “precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
  • Dan. hrassa “precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶khrassē “precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
    • ᴹ√KHARAS “*precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶khrassē > rhass[kʰarássē] > [kʰrassē] > [kʰrasse] > [kʰrasse] > [xrasse] > [xrass] > [r̥ass]✧ Ety/KHARÁS
Noldorin [Ety/KHARÁS] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Doriathrin

rhass

noun. precipice

A Doriathrin noun for “precipice” derived from primitive ᴹ✶khrassē (EtyAC/KHARÁS), an example of how [[ilk|initial [x] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w]]] in Ilkorin.

Cognates

  • N. rhass “precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶khrassē “precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
    • ᴹ√KHARAS “*precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶khrassē > rhass[kʰrassē] > [kʰrasse] > [xrasse] > [xrass] > [r̥ass]✧ Ety/KHARÁS
Doriathrin [EtyAC/KHARÁS] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Ossriandric

hrassa

noun. precipice

A noun for “precipice” developed from primitive ᴹ✶khrassē (Ety/KHARÁS). Here the [[dan|aspirate [kʰ] became the voiceless spirant [x] (“ch”)]] and then the [[dan|initial [x] became [h], unvoicing the following [r]]]. The [x]-sound is preserved in the compound name Gochressiel. This word is also an example of how a long final vowel sometimes developed into short final [a].

Cognates

  • N. rhass “precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶khrassē “precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
    • ᴹ√KHARAS “*precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶khrassē > hrassa[kʰrassē] > [xrassē] > [xrassa] > [r̥assa]✧ Ety/KHARÁS
Ossriandric [Ety/KHARÁS] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

khrassē

noun. precipice

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KHARAS “*precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS

Derivatives

  • Ilk. rhass “precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
  • Dan. hrassa “precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
  • N. rhass “precipice” ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/KHARÁS] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

aiqasse

noun. precipice

A noun appearing as ᴱQ. aiqasse “precipice” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, a noun formation from ᴱQ. aiqa “steep” appearing nearby (QL/29). Since ᴹQ. aiqa “steep” continued to appear in Tolkien’s later writings (Ety/AYAK), perhaps this word can be salvaged for Neo-Quenya writing as ᴺQ. aiquassë.

Early Quenya [QL/029] Group: Eldamo. Published by