Elenna place-name "Starwards", a name of Númenor: Elenna-nórë *"Starwards-land", "the land named Starwards", genitive Elenna-nórëo in CO.
place name. Starwards
- Ad. Gimlad “Starwards”
- Q. Elenna-nórë “The Land of the Star” ✧ UT/305
Word Gloss elen “star” -nna “(movement) to, towards, onto, at (arriving at a point); allative suffix”
elen noun "star" (SA:êl, elen, EL, VT49:39); pl. eleni (occasionally in verse: eldi) (WJ:362, PE17:127); partitive pl. elelli for elenli (PE17:127), gen. pl. elenion in the phrase Elenion Ancalima "brightest of stars" (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation); elen atta "two stars" (VT49:44), genitive elen atto "of two stars" (VT49:45), eleni neldë "three stars", archaic elenion neldë = "of stars three". Genitive "of 3 stars" = elenion neldë (for archaic elenion neldëo) (VT49:45). Allative elenna "starwards" used as name of Númenor _(Silm; see Elenna)_; ablative pl. elenillor "from stars" in Markirya. **Nai elen siluva ***"may a star shine", VT49:38.
The most common Quenya word for “star”, mentioned very frequently, derived from an extended form ✶elen of the root √EL “behold” (PE17/67; WJ/360, 362). Its usual plural form is eleni, but it has an archaic plural †eldi sometimes used in verse, the result of the Ancient Quenya sound whereby [[aq|[ln] became [ld]]] after the ancient plural underwent the Quenya syncope, ✶elenī > AQ. elni; its normal modern plural form eleni was actually a reformation from the singular (PE17/57, 151; WJ/362).
Conceptual Development: This word first appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, though in the original entry for the root ᴹ√EL Tolkien said it was poetical and gave variants ellen and elena (Ety/EL).
- Q. aiya Eärendil elenion ancalima “hail Eärendil, brightest of stars” ✧ LotR/0720; LotR/0915; PE17/090; PE17/101
- Q. ancalima ep’ eleni “brighter than stars” ✧ PE17/056
- Q. ancalima imbi eleni “brightest among stars” ✧ PE17/091
- Q. arcalima ar eleni “A is brightest of all” ✧ PE17/056
arcalima ep’ eleni“far and away brighter than stars” ✧ PE17/056 ( arcalima ep’ eleni)
- Q. elenion ancalima “brightest of stars” ✧ PE17/056; PE17/056; PE17/056; PE17/057; PE17/091
- Q. Elemmacil “*Star Sword”
- Q. Elemmírë “Elven-gem, Star-gem” ✧ PE19/096
- Q. elen atto “of 2 stars” ✧ VT49/45
- Q. Elendil “Elf-friend, Star-lover”
- Q. Elendur “*Star-servant”
- ᴺQ. elengolmë “astronomy”
- Q. elenillor pella talta-taltala “beyond the stars falling” ✧ MC/222
- Q. eleni neldë “*3 stars” ✧ VT49/45
- Q. elenion neldë “of 3 stars” ✧ VT49/45; VT49/45
- Q. Elenna “Starwards”
- Q. elen síla lúmenn’ omentielvo “a star shines on the hour of our meeting” ✧ Let/265; LotR/0081; PE17/012; WJ/367
- Q. Elentári “Queen of the Stars, Star-queen”
- Q. Elentir “*Star-gazer”
- Q. Elentirmo “Star-watcher” ✧ UT/213
- Q. Elenwë
- Q. elenya “adjective referring to the stars, *of the stars, stellar” ✧ WJ/362
- Q. Elerondo “Elrond, (lit.) Star-dome”
- Q. Elerossë “Star Foam”
- Q. Elerrína “Crowned with Stars”
- Q. Elessar “Elfstone”
- Q. Elestirnë “Star-brow”
- Q. nai elen atta siluvat aurenna veryanwesto “*may two stars shine upon the day of your wedding” ✧ VT49/44; VT49/44
- Q. nai elen siluva lyenna “*may a star shine upon you” ✧ VT49/39
- Q. nai elen siluva parma-restalyanna meldonya “*may a star shine upon your book-fair, my friend” ✧ VT49/39
- Q. yassen tintilar i eleni “wherein the stars tremble” ✧ LotR/0377; RGEO/58
- Q. yassen tintilar i eleni “in which twinkle the stars” ✧ RGEO/59
Development Stages Sources ✶elen > elen [elen] ✧ PE17/067 ✶elni > eldi [eleni] > [elni] > [eldi] ✧ PE17/151
- Elen ✧ LotR/0081; WJ/367
-n (1) dative ending, originating as a reduced form of -nă "to", related to the allative ending -nna (VT49:14). Attested in nin, men, ten, enyalien, Erun, airefëan, tárin, yondon (q.v.) and also added to the English name Elaine (Elainen) in a book dedication to Elaine Griffiths (VT49:40). The longer dative ending -na is also attested in connection with some pronouns, such as sena, téna, véna (q.v.), also in the noun mariéna from márië "goodness" (PE17:59). Pl. -in (as in hínin, see hína), partitive pl. -lin, dual -nt (Plotz). The preposition ana (#1) is said to be used "when purely dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that it can replace the dative ending, e.g. *ana Eru instead of Erun for "to God". In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the ending -n (or -en) expressed genitive rather than dative, but he later decided that the genitive ending was to be -o (cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren becoming Yénië Valinórëo, MR:200).
to, at, upon
-nna "to, at, upon", allative ending, originating from -na "to" with fortified n, VT49:14. Attested in cilyanna, coraryanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, númenórenna, parma-restalyanna, rénna, senna, tielyanna, q.v. If a noun ends in -n already, the ending -nna merges with it, as in Amanna, formenna, Elenna, númenna, rómenna as the allative forms of Aman, formen, elen, númen, rómen (q.v.). Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.
na (2) prep. "to, towards", possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for clarity writers may use the synonym ana instead (NĀ1). Originally, Tolkien glossed na as "at, by, near"; the new meaning entered together with the synonyms an, ana (VT45:36).
ana (1) prep. "to" (VT49:35), "as preposition _ana _is used when purely _dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that the preposition ana can be used instead of the dative ending -n (#1, q.v.) Also as prefix: ana- "to, towards" (NĀ1); an (q.v.) is used with this meaning in one source (PE17:127)_
†él noun "star", pl. éli given (WJ:362, EL)
An archaic or poetic word for star (WJ/362), somewhat common in compounds but in ordinary speech typically appearing as elen. It was derived directly from the primitive root √EL “behold”, the basis for other star words (PM/340; WJ/360).
Conceptual Development: This word first appeared as poetical ᴹQ. él “star” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, already with the derivation given above, though in this document the root ᴹ√EL meant “star” (Ety/EL), a common gloss for the root in later writings as well.
- T. él “star” ✧ WJ/362
Development Stages Sources √el- > el [el] ✧ PM/340 ✶ēl > él [ēl] ✧ WJ/360
- el ✧ PM/340
ílë noun "star" (LT1:269; rather elen, él in LotR-style Quenya.)