Quenya zR5Ì#

-o

of goodness

-o (1) genitive ending, as in Altariello, Oromëo, Elenna-nórëo, Rithil-Anamo, Rúmilo, Lestanórëo, neldëo, omentielvo, sindiëo, Valinórëo, veryanwesto, q.v. In words ending in -a, the genitive ending replaces this final vowel, hence atto, Ráno, Vardo, vorondo as the genitive forms of atta, Rána, Varda, voronda (q.v.) Following a noun in -, the ending can have the longer form -no, e.g. *máriéno "of goodness" (PE17:59, but contrast sindiëo "of greyness" in PE17:72). Where the word ends in -o already, the genitive is not distinct in form, e.g. ciryamo (q.v.) = "mariner" or "mariners". Pl. -ion and -ron, q.v.; dual -to (but possibly -uo in the case of nouns that have nominative dual forms in -u rather than -t). The Quenya genitive describes source, origin or former ownership rather than current ownership (which is rather covered by the possessive-adjectival case in -va). The ending -o may also take on an ablativic sense, "from", as in Oiolossëo "from (Mount) Oiolossë" (Nam), sio "hence" (VT49:18). In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the genitive ending was -n rather than -o, cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren "Annals of Valinor" becoming Yénië Valinórëo (MR:200).

-o

suffix. of, genitive ending

[WJ/369.0103; WJ/369.1409; WJ/369.1907; WJ/407.1601; WJ/368.2407] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-o

person, somebody

-o (2), also -ó, "a person, somebody", pronominal suffix (PM:340)

-a

it is said

-r nominative plural ending regularly used on nouns ending in -a, -i, -, -o, -u, e.g. Ainur, Valar, tier. Occasionally it is added also to nouns ending in -ë (that normally take the ending -I in the pl.). This seems to regularly happen in the case of nouns in - (see #fintalë, mallë, tyellë), sometimes also otherwise (see Ingwë, wendë, essë #1). This plural ending was ("it is said") first used by the Noldor (PM:402).

-nna

to

-n (1) dative ending, originating as a reduced form of - "to", related to the allative ending -nna (VT49:14). Attested in nin, men, ten, enyalien, Erun, airefëan, tárin, yondon (q.v.) and also added to the English name Elaine (Elainen) in a book dedication to Elaine Griffiths (VT49:40). The longer dative ending -na is also attested in connection with some pronouns, such as sena, téna, véna (q.v.), also in the noun mariéna from márië "goodness" (PE17:59). Pl. -in (as in hínin, see hína), partitive pl. -lin, dual -nt (Plotz). The preposition ana (#1) is said to be used "when purely dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that it can replace the dative ending, e.g. *ana Eru instead of Erun for "to God". In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the ending -n (or -en) expressed genitive rather than dative, but he later decided that the genitive ending was to be -o (cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren becoming Yénië Valinórëo, MR:200).

ana

to

ana (1) prep. "to" (VT49:35), "as preposition _ana _is used when purely _dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that the preposition ana can be used instead of the dative ending -n (#1, q.v.) Also as prefix: ana- "to, towards" (NĀ1); an (q.v.) is used with this meaning in one source (PE17:127)_

eo

pronoun. person, somebody (unnamed), a person

Elements

WordGlossSource
WĒ/EWEa person or beingPM/340.2105
-ō̆pronominal suffixPM/340.2502

[PM/340.2407] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na

preposition. towards, to

@@@ fix weird cognate bug

Element in: Q. namárië

-lma

our

-lma pronominal ending "our", 1st person pl. exclusive (VT49:16), also attested (with the genitive ending -o that displaces final -a) in the word omentielmo "of our meeting" (nominative omentielma, PE17:58). Tolkien emended omentielmo to omentielvo in the Second Edition of LotR, reflecting a revision of the Quenya pronominal system (cf. VT49:38, 49, Letters:447). The cluster -lm- in the endings for inclusive "we/our" was altered to -lv- (VT43:14). In the revised system, -lma should apparently signify exclusive "our".

-lwa

our

-lwa, possessive pronominal ending, 1st person pl. inclusive "our" (VT49:16), later (in exilic Quenya) used in the form #-lva, genitive -lvo in omentielvo (see -lv-).

-mma

our

-mma "our", 1st person dual exlusive possessive ending: *"my and one others" (VT49:16). At an earlier conceptual phase, Tolkien apparently intended the same ending to be plural inclusive "our" (VT49:55, RS:324), cf. Mélamarimma "Our Home" (q.v.) In the latter word, Tolkien slips in i as a connecting vowel before this ending; elsewhere he used e, as in Átaremma "our Father" (see atar).

-ngwa

our

-ngwa "our", 1st person dual inclusive possessive pronominal ending: *"thy and my", corresponding to the ending -ngwë for dual inclusive "we" (VT49:16)

-wë

person

- a suffix occurring in many personal names, generally but not exclusively masculine (Elenwë is the sole certain example of a fem. name with this ending); it is derived from a stem simply meaning "person" (PM:340, WJ:399). In Etym, - is simply defined as an element that is frequent in masculine names, and it is there derived from a stem (WEG) having to do with "(manly) vigour".

menya

our

menya (pl. menyë is attested) possessive pron. "our", 1st person pl. exclusive independent possessive pronoun (VT43:19, 35). Evidently derived from the dative form men "for us" by adding the adjectival ending -ya. Compare ninya, q.v.

quén

noun. one, person, man or woman, individual, somebody

Variations of the word: quen, -quen.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-quensuffix-WJ/407.2906
quenipluralpeople, theyWJ/372.1302; WJ/361.3103

Element in: Q. aiquen, Q. arquen, Q. ciryaquen, Q. roquen

[WJ/393.0709; PE19/093.0806; WJ/361.3206; WJ/372.1407; WJ/372.1801; WJ/407.2906; WJ/372.1302; WJ/361.3103; WJ/361.3105; WJ/372.1304; WJ/372.1302|WJ/361.3103] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sio

adverb. hence

sio

hence

sio adv. "hence" (from here), also silo (VT49:18)

adverb. thence

thence

2) adv. "thence" (for *tao, the pronoun ta "that, it" with the genitive ending -o, here used in an ablativic sense). Also talo, with -lo as a short form of the ablative ending -llo. (VT49:29, 11)

-nna

to, at, upon

-nna "to, at, upon", allative ending, originating from -na "to" with fortified n, VT49:14. Attested in cilyanna, coraryanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, númenórenna, parma-restalyanna, rénna, senna, tielyanna, q.v. If a noun ends in -n already, the ending -nna merges with it, as in Amanna, formenna, Elenna, númenna, rómenna as the allative forms of Aman, formen, elen, númen, rómen (q.v.). Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.

enno

noun. person, being

esto

even the two of them

esto emphatic pronoun (?), apparently 3rd person dual, "even the two of them" (VT49:48). The word comes from a conceptual phase where Tolkien let dual pronouns end in the vowel -o, an idea that was apparently abandoned; also, -st- is associated with the second rather than the third person dual in later sources (see -stë). The ending may have been conceived as -sto at an earlier stage (VT49:49).

silo

hence

silo adv. "hence" (from here), also sio (VT49:18). The words seem to incorporate -lo, a shorter version of the ablative ending -llo, and -o, the genitive ending that may also be used in an ablativic sense. Compare talo, "thence".

silo

adverb. hence

Variations of the word: sio.

Elements

WordGlossSource
henceVT49/18.0409

[VT49/18.0606; VT49/18.0607] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sundo

noun. root, root-word, base

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
sundarpluralrootsUT/166.3504-2

Element in: Q. sundóma

[UT/166.3504-2; PE18/084.0406; WJ/319.0703] Group: Eldamo. Published by

talma

noun. base, foundation, root

talo

thence

talo adv. "thence". Also . Basically these are simple ablative/genitive forms of ta (#1) "that"; compare silo, sio. (VT49:11)

talo

adverb. thence

Variations of the word: .

Elements

WordGlossSource
tathenceVT49/11.3902

[VT49/11.3914; VT49/11.3913; VT49/29.1107] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Námo

person, somebody

námo (2) noun "a person, somebody" (PM:340 writers may prefer the synonym quén to avoid confusion with # 1)

námo

noun. a person, somebody (unnamed), person

[PM/340.2609] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sundo

base, root, root-word

sundo (þ) noun "base, root, root-word" (SUD), sc. a Quendian consonantal "base". According to VT46:16, Tolkien changed the root to STUD, thereby implying that sundo was earlier þundo (compare Sindarin thond "root"). PE18:95 gives the pl. form as sundur, seemingly implying a stem-form sundu-. It is not, however, used in the compound sundocarmë "base-structure" (PE18:84 not **sunducarmë), a term used in the description of the structure of the various Quendian "bases" or roots.

sundo

noun. base

base

[PE 18:33, 60 PE 18:84, 95] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

Melkor

mighty-rising

Melkor (spelt Melcor in VT49:6, 24, MR:362), masc. name: the rebellious Vala, the devil of the Silmarillion mythos. Older (MET) form Melkórë "Mighty-rising" (hence the interpretation "He that arises in power"), compare órë #2. Oldest Q form *mbelekōro (WJ:402). Ablative Melkorello/Melcorello, VT49:7, 24. Compounded in Melkorohíni "Children of Melkor", Orcs ("but the wiser say: nay, the slaves of Melkor; but not his children, for Melkor had no children") (MR:416). The form Melkoro- here occurring may incorporate either the genitive ending -o or the otherwise lost final vowel of the ancient form ¤mbelekōro. For Melkors later name, see Moringotto / Moricotto (Morgoth) under mori-.

armaro

neighbour

armaro noun "neighbour"; also asambar, asambaro (VT48:20, VT49:25)

omentielvo

we/our

-lv- element in pronominal endings for inclusive plural "we/our" (VT43:14). Iincludes the old 1st pl. inclusive stem we (VT48:10). Omentielvo "of our meeting" (q.v.) includes the ending #-lva "our" with the genitive ending -o attached. The corresponding ending for inclusive "we" is perhaps normally -lvë in late exilic Quenya; the variant form -lwë occurs in the verbs carilwë "we do" (VT49:16), navilwë "we judge" (VT42:34); according to VT48:11 this may simply be the older (pre-Exilic) form of *-lvë (VT49:51 lists the ending for "we" as "-lwe, -lve", apparently the older and the younger form).

Valinor

the land (or people) of the valar

Valinor place-name "the land (or people) of the Valar", *"Vali-land" (Vali = Valar), land of the Gods in the West (BAL, NDOR); cf. Valandor. Full form Valinórë (BAL; Vali-nórëunder NDOR).Said to be "the true Eldarin name of Aman", the latter name being explained as a borrowing from Valarin in some versions of the linguistic scenario (VT49:26). In the early "Qenya Lexicon", Valinor, Valinórë is glossed "Asgard", the name of the city of the gods in Norse mythology (LT1:272). It seems that in such more restricted use, Valinor is not the entire Blessed Realm but rather the specific region beyond the Pelóri where (most of) the Valar dwelt, with Val(i)mar as the chief city. Thus it is said of Eärendil that he "went into Valinor and to the halls of Valimar" only after he had already left his ship and ventured as far as Tirion (Silmarillion, chapter 24). Possessive Valinóreva in Nurtalë Valinóreva, the "Hiding of Valinor", the possessive case here assuming the function of object genitive (Silm); genitive Valinórëo in Yénië Valinórëo "Annals of Valinor" (MR:200; the last word was changed from Valinóren, Tolkien revising the genitive ending from -n to -o)

ciryamo

mariner

ciryamo noun "mariner", nominative and genitive are identical since the noun already ends in -o, cf. Indis i-Ciryamo "the Mariner's Wife" (UT:8)

Fëanáro

spirit of fire

Fëanáro masc. name "Spirit of Fire", in Sindarized form Fëanor(SA:nár, PHAY, MR:206). The word apparently includes the masculine ending -o. Compare fëa, nár.

Núaran

west-king

Núaran noun "West-king"; Núaran Númenoren "West-king of Númenor"; changed (according to LR:71) to Núraran Númenen, *"West-king of the West" (all of this is "Qenya" with genitive in -n instead of -o, as in Tolkien's later Quenya) (LR:60)

asambar

neighbour

asambar, asambaro noun "neighbour"; also armaro (VT48:20). Since the ending -o is associated with the masculine gender, the form asambar may be gender-neutral whereas the other forms are gender-marked as masculine.

Ilúvatar

all-father

Ilúvatar masc. name "All-father", God (SD:401, FS, IL; Ilúv-atar, ATA, Iluvatar with a short u, SD:346). Often in combination with the divine name as Eru Ilúvatar, "Eru Allfather", cf. MR:112. "Qenya" genitive Ilúvatáren "of Ilúvatar" in Fíriel's Song, LR:47 and SD:246, the genitive ending is -en instead of -o as in LotR-style Quenya. Cf. the later genitive Ilúvataro in the phrase Híni Ilúvataro (see "Children of Ilúvatar" in the Silmarillion Index)

Kementári

earth-queen

Kementári noun "Earth-queen", title of Yavanna (SA:tar). The Kemen- of this name was at one stage intended as the genitive of kén, kem- "earth", so that Kementári meant "Earth's Queen", but Tolkien later changed the Quenya genitive ending from -(e)n to -o. Apparently so as to maintain the name Kementári, he turned kemen into the nominative form; see cemen.

na

to, towards

na (2) prep. "to, towards", possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for clarity writers may use the synonym ana instead (NĀ1). Originally, Tolkien glossed na as "at, by, near"; the new meaning entered together with the synonyms an, ana (VT45:36).

eärendur

masculine name. mariner, (lit.) *servant of the sea

Several people had this name in Tolkien’s legendarium: (1) the second son of Tar-Amandil (UT/208, 210), (2) a lord of Andúnië and uncle of lady Inzilbêth (UT/223) and (3) the 10th and final king of the combined kingdom of Arnor (LotR/1038). The name was a compound of ëar “sea” and the suffix -(n)dur “-servant”. Tolkien translated the name as “Mariner” (Let/386), but a more exact translation might be “*Servant of the Sea”.

Elements

WordGlossSource
ëarsea-
-(n)dur-servant-
EärendurMarinerLet/386.3705-1
ndur-PE17/152.1507

Element in: Q. Eärendur

[PE17/152.1910; Let/386.3705; LotRI/Eärendur.001; PMI/Eärendur.001; SA/(n)dur.006; SI/Eärendur¹.001; SI/Eärendur².001; UT/210.0402; UTI/Eärendur.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

númeheru

lord of the west

#númeheru noun "Lord of the West" (númë + heru), attested in these inflected forms: 1) númeheruen "of [the] Lord of the West" (Manwë) (SD:290); this is "Qenya" with genitive in -en instead of -o as in LotR-style Quenya; 2) pl. númeheruvi "Lords-of-West" ("West-lords" = Valar) in SD:246.

nassë

person, an individual

nassë (1) "a person, an individual" (VT49:30). Also translated "true-being" (pl. nasser is attested), the inner "true" being of a person. With a pronominal suffix in the form nassentar "their true-being" (PE17:175, cf. -nta #2), in the source referring to the "true" spiritual nature of the Valar, as hidden within their visible shapes. The word nassentar would seem to be plural, *"their true-beings". Not to be confused with the verb nassë/násë "he/she is"; see #1.

talma

base, foundation, root

talma noun "base, foundation, root" (TALAM), also translated "bottom" in the expression "top to bottom", see below.% Talmar Ambaren (place-name, *"Foundations of the World" - this is pre-classical "Qenya" with genitive in -en instead of -o as in LotR-style Quenya) (TALAM). Allative talmanna in the phrase telmello talmanna** "from hood to base**, top to bottom" _(VT46:18; notice misreading "telmanna" in the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry TEL-, TELU-)_

#Valariandë

beleriand

#Valariandë place-name "Beleriand" (genitive in the phrase Nyarna Valarianden "the annals of Beleriand" in LR:202; Tolkien later changed the genitive ending from -n to -o; hence read *Nyarna Valariandëo) In the essay Quendi and Eldar, Heceldamar turns up as another Quenya term for Beleriand.

Veleriande

place name. Beleriand

[PE 22:126] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

nár

flame

nár noun "flame", also nárë (NAR1).Translated "fire" in some names, see Aicanár(o), Fëanáro (where nár apparently has the masculine ending -o added to it). According to PE17:183, nár- is "fire as an element" (a concrete fire or blaze is rather called a ruinë).

nárë

noun. flame

nárë

flame

nárë, also short nár, noun "flame" (NAR1, Narqelion). Translated "fire" in some names, see Aicanáro, Fëanáro (where nár apparently has the masculine ending -o, though in the latter name it may also be the genitive ending since Fëa-náro** is translated "Spirit of Fire"). At one point, Tolkien mentioned "nār-" as the word for "fire (as an element)" (PE17:183). Cf. ruinë** as the word for "a fire" (a concrete instance of fire) in the same source.

velca

flame

velca ("k") noun "flame" (LT1:260; nár, nárë would be the normal word in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Sindarin iT2#7T5

-o

suffix. imperative

Variations of the word: o.

[PE17/040.2702; WJ/365.2206; WJ/372.0202] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-o

imperative ending

_ suff. _imperative ending.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:54] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

an

preposition. to the, for, to/for, to us, to

Variations of the word: an, ’ni, ann.

Elements

WordGlossSource
an-PE17/038.2603
menusPE17/038.2605

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
AelidedtoSD/129.0801
amassimilatedtoLB/354.2803-1; SD/129.0804
amassimilated*toVT44/27.3701-1
ammen1st-plfor usLotR/0290.3703; LotR/0299.1804; LotR/0307.1305; PE17/045.2002
ammen1st-pl*to usVT50/23.1305
anim1st-sgfor myselfLotR/1061.4008; PE17/117.1602
anim1st-sgto selfVT47/37.4413
annin1st-sg-PE17/147.0413

Element in: S. an, S. anann, S. anglenna-, S. aníra-

[Let/448.3502; LotR/0953.2006; SD/129.0801; LB/354.2803-1; VT44/27.3701-1; SD/129.0804; PE17/045.2002; PE17/038.2602; VT50/23.1305; LotR/0307.1305; LotR/0299.1804; LotR/0290.3703; PE17/038.2102; PE17/147.0202; LotR/0299.1802; UT/039.1202; LotR/0290.3701; PE17/038.2603; VT47/37.4413; PE17/117.1602; LotR/1061.4008; VT44/22.1303; PE17/147.0413; LB/354.2803-1|SD/129.0804; LotR/0290.3703|LotR/0299.1804|LotR/0307.1305|PE17/045.2002; LotR/1061.4008|PE17/117.1602] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an

to

_ prep. _to, for. naur an edraith ammen! 'fire [be] for rescue/saving for us'. aglar an|i Pheriannath  'glory to all the Halflings'.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:38:102:147] < _ana _< ANA/NĀ to, towards – added to, plu-. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

na

preposition. towards, at (a point of time or place), to, at

Variations of the word: na.

[LotR/0209.3110; PE17/016.1302; PE17/025.2102; PE17/025.2112; PE17/147.0701; PE17/147.1314; LotR/0238.0601; RGEO/63.0601; RGEO/64.0601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na

preposition. to

prep. to Na-chaered palan-díriel lit. "To-distance (remote) after-gazing" na-chaered, nan 2

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20-1:25] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

na

to

e _ prep. _to, towards (of spacetime). n' before vowels. nan 2

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:147] < _nā _< ANA/NĀ to, towards – added to, plu-. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-enc

suffix. our

_1st pl. poss. suff. _our.Maybe the incl. form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-main

suffix. our

_1st pl. poss. suff. our.Maybe the excl. form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Earlier -em_. -em, -men

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-men

suffix. our

_1st pl. poss. suff. our.Maybe the excl. form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Earlier -em_. -em, -main

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

min

adjective. our

[VT/44:21,22,28] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

mín

pronoun. our

Variations of the word: min, mín.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
vinsoft-mutation*ourVT44/22.1005
vínsoft-mutation*ourVT44/28.1902

[VT44/22.1005; VT44/28.1902; VT44/24.4213; VT44/28.1701] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mín

adjective. our

[VT/44:21,22,28] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

-weg

suffix. a person or being, individual, person, being, individual; active in doing, active in doing

Element in: S. Bronwë, S. carweg, S. madweg, S. pedweg

[PE17/189.3310; PE17/190.1518-1; PE17/190.0807; PE17/190.1110; PE17/144.4201; PE17/189.2307] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thonnas

noun. root-word, base, root

lacho

verb. flame!

[UT/65] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

lacha-

verb. to flame

Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

uin

preposition. of the

[SD/129-31] o+i. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

ahamar

noun. neighbour

[VT/48:20] "one who dwells beside" = OE. neah+gebur. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

sammar

noun. neighbour

[VT/48:20] "one who dwells beside" = OE. neah+gebur. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

samarad

noun. two neighbours

[VT/48:20] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

lach

noun. (leaping) flame

[S/433, X/LH] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

an

preposition. to, towards, for

With suffixed article and elision in aglar'ni Pheriannath

[LotR/II:IV, UT/39, SD/129-31] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

Beleriand

noun. the land of Balar

Balar (the name of the island, from PQ *balāre) + iand (-and commonly used suffix in the names of regions and countries)

[Tolkiendil] Group: Tolkiendil Compound Sindarin Names. Published by

Beleriand

Beleriand

Beleriand translates to "The Country of Balar" with the ending -ian(d) for places and countries. The OS form could have been *Balariande (a slid to e because of the following i). The element Beler/Balar is believed to refer to the Maia Ossë, who often dwelt at the shores of the island. In the The Book of Lost Tales Part One, there is also the Quenya name "Valariandë".

[Tolkien Gateway] Published by

Beleriand

Beleriand

topon. -.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:29] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

lach

flame

(noun) 1) lach (leaping flame), pl. laich; 2) naur (in compounds nar-, -nor) (fire, sun), pl. noer, coll. pl. norath, 3) rill (construct ril) (brilliance, glittering reflected light), no distinct pl. form except with article (idh rill).

lacha

flame

(verb) *lacha- (i lacha, i lachar). Only the imperative form lacho is attested.

naur

noun. fire

[Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

naur

noun. flame

[Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

an

to

(adverbial prefix) an-. 3)

an

to

(prep.) an (+ nasal mutation), with article ni "to the" (+ nasal mutation in plural).

vín

our

vín; see WE

sammar

neighbour

sammar (i hammar, o sammar), pl. semmair (i semmair). Also ahamar (pl. ehemair). Dual samarad, 2 neighbours (VT48:20)

Beleriand

The Country of Balar

Beleriand translates to "The Country of Balar" with the ending -ian(d) for places and countries. The OS form could have been *Balariande (a slid to e because of the following i).

In the The Book of Lost Tales Part One, there is also the Quenya name "Valariandë".

[Tolkien Gateway "Beleriand"] Published by

Telerin 1RjR7T5

-o

suffix. of

[WJ/369.1904] Group: Eldamo. Published by

pa

preposition. to, on

[PE13/151.5403] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Khuzdûl

-u

suffix. in/of, of, in, of/in

Element in: KH. Bundushathûr

[PE17/036.2504; TI/174.2705; PE17/047.2702-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ul

suffix. genitive ending, of

Variations of the word: -ul, |ul.

Element in: KH. Azanulbizar

[PE17/047.3206; PE17/047.2402; PE17/047.3103; RC/269.1111] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Adûnaic

suffix. genitive (draft)

The suffix used for the draft-genitive case, with a plural form -ōm (SD/438). In a later conceptual stage, it became the ordinary prepositional suffix .
Variations of the word: ō.

[SD/438.3209] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-n

suffix. is, predicate suffix

A suffix appearing at the end of several words in the first draft of [Lament of Akallabêth](/w/Lament of Akallabêth (first draft)), variously glossed with different forms of the verb “to be”: burudan “heavy-is”, rōkhī-nam “bent-are”, īdōn “now is” (SD/312). Evidentally the suffix -n “is” is the singular form and -nam “are” is plural. The plural form probably includes the plural verbal suffix -m. This use of the suffix -n is probably no longer be valid in later versions of Adûnaic, as discussed below.

Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (VSH/36) that -nam maybe related to Q. ná- “to be”, but they fail to analyze the singular forms of the suffix. Andreas Moehn (LGtAG) does connect the singular instances of the suffix -n to the plural -nam, but without connecting it to Q. ná-. I think both authors got part of the story right: the suffixal form -na is mostly likely derived from the same Elvish root √ as Q. ná-, losing its final a in the singular form but preserving it in the plural form when the plural suffix -m is added.

In its first two appearances in the draft version of the Lament, this suffix is attached to the predicate of a copula (a linguistic term for a “to be” expression). For that reason, this lexicon uses the term “predicate suffix” for this use of the -n suffix:

<ul> <li><a l="ad" v="agannūlo burudan nēnum">agannūlo buruda<u>n</u> nēnum</a> “death-shade heavy-<u>is</u> on-us”<br/>subject agannūlo “death-shade”, predicate buruda “heavy” + -n “is”.</li> <li><a l="ad" v="īdō kathī batānī rōkhī-nam">īdō kathī batānī rōkhī-<u>nam</u></a> “lo! now all ways bent-<u>are</u>”<br/>subject batānī “ways”, predicate rōkhī “bent” + -nam “are”.</li> </ul> The suffix’s second two appearances in the draft version of the Lament are more ambiguous.

<ul> <li><a l="ad" v="ēphalek īdōn akallabēth">ēphalek īdō<u>n</u> akallabēth</a> “far away lo!now <u>is</u> She-that-is-fallen”.</li> <li><a l="ad" v="ēphal ēphalek īdōn athanātē">ēphal ēphalek īdō<u>n</u> athanātē</a> “far far away <u>is</u> now the Land of Gift”.</li> </ul> Going by word order alone, it seems that the -n is attached to the predicate in both of these sentences as well. However, as Andreas Moehn points out (LGtAG), īdō could be the subject of both sentences if the predicates are the final word of each sentence, which is more consistent with the later subjective inflection.

In the later version of Adûnaic described in Lowdham’s Report, the suffix -n has a new function, namely as the common subjective suffix: -an/-n. This new use differs from the older one in that it applies to the subject of a copula instead of the predicate. Despite this grammatical change from draft-Adûnaic, the word form īdōn appears in all later versions of the Lament of Akallabêth except the final manuscript version.

<ul> <li>[Ēphalak īdōn Yōzāyan](/w/êphalak îdô Yôzâyan) “far away now (is) Land of Gift” (SD/247).</li> <li>[Ēphal ēphalak īdōn hi-Akallabēth](/w/êphal êphalak îdô hi-Akallabêth) “far far away now (is) She-that-hath-fallen” (SD/247).</li> </ul> These later appearances of īdōn still have the gloss “now (is)”, so it seems possible that these they are remnants of the predicate suffix from draft Adûnaic. Moehn, Hostetter and Wynne all suggested (LGtAG, AAD/16) that these later appearances of īdōn can be reinterpreted as a subjective inflection. However, this interpretation is still problematic, since îdô would surely be a neuter instead of a common noun, whose subjective form would therefore be *îdôwa.

The suffix -n did not appear after īdō in the final manuscript version of the Lament, and the gloss “is” was removed as well:
<ul> <li>[Ēphalak īdō Yōzāyan](/w/êphalak îdô Yôzâyan) “far away now Gift-land” (VT24/12).</li> <li>[Ēphal-ēphalak īdō hi Akallabēth](/w/êphal êphalak îdô hi-Akallabêth) “far far away now She that hath Fallen” (VT24/12).</li> </ul> It is my belief that Tolkien eventually decided that the suffix -n could no longer be used in this context and removed it.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-nampluralareSD/312.0503

[SD/247.25021; SD/312.01041; SD/312.07011; SD/312.09031; SD/312.0503] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-s

suffix. dative (draft)

The suffix used for the draft-dative case (SD/438). It is attested in the Lament of Akallabêth (first draft) in a plural form: [avalōi-si](/w/arpharazōn azgaranādu avalōi-{men >>}si) “Powers on” (SD/311). In a later conceptual stage, it may have become the ordinary prepositional suffix -zê “at”.
Variations of the word: -s/-se.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-sipluralonSD/311.36041

[SD/438.3303; SD/311.36041] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an-

prefix. genitive prefix, of, of; genitive/adjectival prefix

A prefix translated as “of” (SD/247) and one of the ways that genitive relationships are expressed in Adûnaic (SD/429). According to Tolkien, “it is not a preposition ... it is the equivalent of an inflexion or suffix” (SD/435). As such, it is used to form adjectives from nouns, as anadûni “western, *of the West” from adûni “the West”. When following another noun, it is often elided so that the a is lost, as in Ârû ’nAdûnâi “King of the Númenóreans” (SD/429) and [Bâr ’nAnadûnê](/w/Ar-Pharazônun Bâr ’nAnadûnê) “Lord of Númenor” (SD/428). This elision occurs in most examples, but seems not to happen in some cases:

<ul> <li>When the an- is separated from the modified noun: [balîk hazad an-Nimruzîr](/w/balîk hazad an-Nimruzîr azûlada) “ships seven of-Nimruzîr” (SD/247).</li> <li>When the modified nouns is declined into the subjective case: [Bârim an-Adûn](/w/Bârim an-Adûn yurahtam dâira sâibêth-mâ Êruvô) “Lords of the West” (SD/247).</li> <li>However, when the subjective noun ends in a vowel, elision still occurs: [narîka ’nBâri ’nAdûn](/w/narîka ’nBâri ’nAdûn yanâkhim) “Eagles of the Lords of the West” (SD/251).</li> </ul> Tolkien used a dash to separate an- from the noun to which it is prefixed but omitted the dash when the prefix was elided. Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (AAD/10) that Ad. an- may be related to the Sindarin genitive marker S. na “with, by”

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
’nelidedofSD/251.0302; SD/428.3905

Element in: AD. Zen’namân, AD. Zen’nabâr

[SD/251.0302; SD/428.3905; SD/247.0803; SD/247.1403; SD/429.3202; SD/435.2004; SD/251.0302|SD/428.3905] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a-

suffix. subjective suffix, subjective inflection

The inflection used to put neuter nouns into the subjective case (SD/430), used either as a suffix (for weak-nouns) or augmenting the last vowel (for strong-nouns). See the entry on the subjective case for further details.

[SD/430.0402] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-an

suffix. common subjective suffix

The subjective suffix for singular common-nouns, reduced to -n when the noun ends in a vowel (SD/430, 436).

Element in: AD. anadûni

[SD/436.1512; SD/430.0602] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-at

suffix. dual suffix

The suffix for dual-nouns in Adûnaic, with the a lengthened to â in subjective duals (SD/428-430). In later (Exhilic?) Adûnaic, the â was long in all cases (SD/431). See the entry on dual-nouns for further details. Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (AAD/11) that -at is derived from the same Primitive Elvish form ✶ata as the Quenya dual.
Variations of the word: -āt.

[SD/428.0702; SD/429.3806; SD/431.2604] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-im

suffix. gendered plural subjective suffix

A suffix used in plural subjective inflections of gendered-nouns, in most cases blending with the plural ending to become -îm (SD/430).

[SD/430.0706] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-in

suffix. feminine subjective suffix

The subjective suffix for singular feminine-nouns, reduced to -n when the noun ends in a vowel (SD/430, 436).

[SD/430.0508; SD/436.1510] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ma

suffix. with, instrumental (draft)

The suffix used for the draft-instrumental case, translated “with” (SD/438). In a later conceptual stage, it became the ordinary prepositional suffix -mâ. Carl Hostetter and Partick Wynne suggested (VSH/33, AAD/19) that the deleted form -men on SD/311 is a separate prepositional suffix “on” related to ᴹQ. men “place”, but I believe it is a variant of the plural instrumental form -main.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-mainpluralwithSD/438.3312
-menplural-SD/311.3603

[SD/438.3310; SD/438.3312; SD/311.3603] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-u-

suffix. objective suffix, objective inflection

The inflection used to mark nouns in the objective case (SD/430), used either as a suffix (for weak-nouns) or replacing the last vowel (for strong-nouns). Feminine nouns sometimes use -i- instead for their objective forms (SD/432), owing to the association of the final vowel -u with masculinity.

[SD/430.0906] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-un

suffix. masculine subjective suffix

The subjective suffix for singular masculine-nouns (SD/430, 436), reduced to -n when the noun ends in a vowel.

[SD/430.0501; SD/436.1508] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-î-

suffix. plural suffix, plural inflexion, plural inflection

The inflection used to mark nouns as plural (S/429), used either as a suffix (for weak-nouns) or replacing the last vowel (for strong-nouns). According to Tolkien, the primitive form of this suffix was most likely ✶-yī (SD/424). See the entry on the plural-nouns case for further details.

[SD/429.3606; SD/424.2512] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech

u

preposition. to

[LotR/0445.1707; PE17/078.3902; PM/083.0909] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

thonn

noun. base, root, root-word

Element in: N. Morthond, N. thonnas

[EtyAC/SUD.013; EtyAC/SUD.004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thonnas

noun. root-word, root, base

Elements

WordGlossSource
thonnbase, root, root-wordEtyAC/SUD.004
sunn-EtyAC/SUD.013

[EtyAC/SUD.014; EtyAC/SUD.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

heltha-

verb. to strip

The form helta- in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/46:14

[Ety/386, VT/46:14] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

lhach

noun. (leaping) flame

[S/433, X/LH] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

cûl

noun. flame

[EtyAC/KUL.020] Group: Eldamo. Published by

naur

noun. flame

[Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

naur

noun. fire

[Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

an

preposition. of

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
aelided-WR/287.0703; WR/388.0411

Element in: N. Rath a Chelerdain

[WR/287.0703; WR/388.0411; WR/287.0703|WR/388.0411] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive adûnaic

-yī

noun. plural inflexion, plural inflection

The likely primitive form of the Classical Adûnaic plural inflection -î- (SD/429), appearing in a few examples of primitive plurals in the form -yi: manaw+yi, izray+yi (SD/424). Tolkien gave no indication of whether the primitive inflection was also used as an infix, as was the case for Classical Adûnaic plurals of strong-nouns.

[SD/429.3706; SD/424.2510] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Primitive elvish

suffix. genitive

Variations of the word: ā, i+ām, .

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
iōmplural-PE17/097.2804

[PE17/097.3206; PE17/097.3210; PE17/097.2809; PE17/097.2804; WJ/370.0802; WJ/407.1411] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ō̆

suffix. pronominal suffix

[PM/340.2502] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-na

suffix. to

Element in: P. ndakna

[VT49/14.2113] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. person

[VT47/35.2705] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na/ana

root. to(wards), towards, alongside, to (of movement that reached an object), plus, in addtion, besides; moreover, allative, to, at side of, allative base, plu-, towards; added to, motion to

Variations of the word: ANA, NA, , an.

Element in: P. anta-

[PE22/168.1701; PE22/157.1905; PE18/085.3015; VT48/25.3408; PE18/088.0909; PE17/147.2001; PE17/147.3101; PE17/040.1111; PE17/091.3616; PE22/163.1017; PE17/147.3107; PE17/091.3101; PE21/79.1815; PE17/147.3103; PE17/145.4110; PE17/082.0401; PE17/146.4201; PE18/085.3017; PE17/166.0101; PE17/166.0102; PE18/088.1106] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kwēn

noun. speaking, user of articulate sounds, one using vocal language, speaker, (some)body, person (m. and f.), one, person

Variations of the word: kwen, kwēn.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-kwensuffix-WJ/360.0709
kwenīsuffixpersons, (some) peopleWJ/360.0709

Element in: P. rokokwēn

[WJ/375.1702; WJ/360.0710; WJ/360.0709; WJ/407.2404; WJ/416.1811; WJ/392.3908; WJ/360.0801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

talam

root. ground, foundation; floor, root, base

Elements

WordGlossSource
TALfoot; *flat-

stud

root. ground, base

phāy

noun. ray of light, flame

[PE19/102.1909] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ā

particle. imperative particle, a brief call to attention, imperative

Element in: P. lḗ tuli, tuli lḗ, āle tuli!, P. sē tuli, tuli sḗ, āse tuli!

[PE22/139.2202; PE22/140.0706-1; WJ/365.2010; WJ/371.1408; WJ/372.0203] Group: Eldamo. Published by

talmā

noun. base

[PE21/80.2604; PE21/71.3907] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya zR5Ì#

-o

suffix. old partitive

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-onpluralold partitiveEty/ƷŌ̆.018

[Ety/ƷŌ̆.018] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-o

suffix. genitive ending

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ionplural-GG/10.2006
-ronplural-GG/10.2006

[GG/10.1905; GG/10.2006; GG/10.2105] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-inen

suffix. partitive adj., partitive, out of, of, out of; partitive suffix

Variations of the word: -ĭnen.

[PE14/078.0603; PE14/046.1101; PE14/047.0109; PE14/078.0601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-nta

suffix. to, at, towards; allative suffix, towards, allative

Variations of the word: -tta, -inta, -itta, -ta, -anta, -atta.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-intarplural-PE14/047.1010

[PE14/047.0214; PE14/078.1101; PE14/078.1103; PE14/047.0107; PE14/047.1010; PE14/047.0108; PE14/046.1001; PE14/078.0501; PE14/047.0209; PE14/078.1601; PE14/046.1002; PE14/078.0502] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an(a)

preposition. near, by, towards, at, to, at hand

[SD/290.1110; Ety/NĀ¹.005; SD/290.1310; EtyAC/NĀ¹.003] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ana-

prefix. to, towards

[Ety/NĀ¹.011] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar

noun. to

Also glossed as “against”, “next”, “on (wall)”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
as-stem-QL/033.0801
asa-prefix-QL/033.0801

[QL/033.0801; QL/033.0802; QL/033.0901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar

noun. to, against, next, on (wall)

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
as-stem-QL/033.0801
asa-prefix-QL/033.0801

[QL/033.0801; QL/033.0802; QL/033.0901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na

preposition. towards, to

enno

noun. being, a person, person

Elements

WordGlossSource
ea-a personPE22/122.2907

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ennorpluralpersonsPE22/124.0807

[PE22/123.0813; PE22/124.0807] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kulo

noun. flame

[EtyAC/KUL.017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sundo

noun. base, root, root-word

Element in: MQ. sundóma

[Ety/SUD.004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

talma

noun. base, foundation, root

Variations of the word: telmanna.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
talmannaallativeto base, to foot, to bottomEty/TEL.011

Element in: MQ. Martalmar, MQ. Talmar Ambaren

[Ety/TAL.026; Ety/TEL.011; EtyAC/TEL.008] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nár(e)

noun. flame

Variations of the word: náre, Nar.

Element in: MQ. Nárie

[PM/134.1501-1; Ety/NAR¹.005; Ety/NAR¹.006] Group: Eldamo. Published by

velka

noun. a flame, flame

[GL/22.5504; LT1A/Melko.028] Group: Eldamo. Published by

veniel

noun. mariner

[QL/100.8201] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

-a(n)

suffix. genitive

The Ilkorin genitive suffix (Ety/NAUK), attested in Dor. Tor Tinduma “King of Twilight” (Ety/TIN). It might have developed from the root ᴹ√NĀ/ANA, which is the source of the Quenya genitive suffix ᴹQ. -n and the Noldorin preposition N. na “of”. Helge Fauskanger suggested instead that it developed from a suffixal form of ᴹ✶ʒō (AL-Ilkorin/-a). This second derivation seems more plausible given its plural form -ion, though the plural could also have developed from (plural) ✶ī + (genitive) ✶āna > *✶-iān(a) > -iōn > -ion. See the entry on the genitive inflection for further discussion.

Conceptual Development: This suffix and its plural are the same as the Gnomish genitive suffix -a with plural -ion (GG/10). The derivation of the Gnomish genitive is closer to Mr. Fauskanger’s suggested etymology of the Ilkorin genitive, giving further support to his theory.

[Ety/NAUK.029] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-in

suffix. plural suffix

A suffix appearing in almost all attested Ilkorin plurals.

Conceptual Development: This suffix is the same as the most common Gnomish plural suffix -in (GG/10).

[Ety/BAL.088-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-th

suffix. plural suffix

A suffix appearing in one Ilkorin plural: Eglath “Elves” ← Egla (Ety/ELED). This example is notable as the only attested plural of an Ilkorin noun ending in a vowel. It may have the same origin as the Noldorin class-plural suffix -ath.

Conceptual Development: This suffix is the same as the common Gnomish plural suffix -th, also used with nouns ending in vowels (GG/10, 13-14).

[Ety/ELED.087-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

nā¹/ana

root. towards, to

Variations of the word: NĀ¹, ANA¹.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ANinversion-Ety/YAB.013
ANAinversion-Ety/ANA¹.003; Ety/AR¹.025; Ety/NĀ¹.001; Ety/RIG.024

[Ety/YAB.013; Ety/ANA¹.001; Ety/AR¹.025; Ety/NĀ¹.003; Ety/RIG.024; EtyAC/YAB.019; Ety/ANA¹.003; Ety/NĀ¹.001; Ety/ANA¹.003|Ety/AR¹.025|Ety/NĀ¹.001|Ety/RIG.024] Group: Eldamo. Published by

talam

root. foundation, floor, ground, foundation; floor, root, base

Elements

WordGlossSource
TALfloor, base, groundEty/TAL.001

[Ety/TAL.017; PE21/56.0507] Group: Eldamo. Published by

stud

root. ground, base

[EtyAC/SUD.019; Ety/SUD.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nar

root. fire, flame

Element in: MP. Narsil

[Ety/ANÁR.001; Ety/ANÁR.005; Ety/NAR¹.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Old Noldorin

-o

suffix. old partitive

[EtyAC/ƷŌ̆.022] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

ô

preposition. to, on

[PE13/151.5301] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nebmerion

noun. neighbour

Elements

WordGlossSource
nebneighbourPE13/164.2601

[PE13/164.2801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nebweb

noun. neighbour

Elements

WordGlossSource
nebneighbourPE13/164.2601

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
nebwaithplural-PE13/164.2901

[PE13/164.2905; PE13/164.2901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lhacha

noun. flame

[PE13/148.4601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

an

noun. creature, one, anyone, someone, -body, person, they, they; creature

Element in: G. anos, G. anoth, G. Cûm an-Idrisaith

[GG/09.1309; GL/19.5301] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

preposition. with, of, genitive prefix, of the, to, at

Variations of the word: , an, a.

Element in: G. Cris a Teld Quing Ilon, G. Falas-a-’Wilb, G. gwidh-a-ging, G. Cûm a Gumlaith, G. Cûm a Thegranaithos, G. Tôn a Gwedrin

[LT1A/Cûm a Gumlaith.002; LT2A/Falasquil.029; LT2A/Teld Quing Ilon.009; LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin.002; PE13/093.1504; PE13/108.0101; GG/07.0911; GL/17.1101; GL/49.5808; LT1A/Uolë Kúvion.074; LT1I/Gilfanon.003; LT2A/Cûm an-Idrisaith.002] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a(n)

preposition. of, from

Variations of the word: a, a(n), an.

[GG/11.2308; GL/34.3008; GL/64.5005; GG/12.0301; GG/12.1401; GL/17.2301; GG/11.0207; GL/26.5606; GL/26.5702; PE13/115.2701] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cantha

noun. flame

Elements

WordGlossSource
KṆÐṆshine-
-t(h)averb suffix-

Element in: G. cantharol, G. Canthil, G. canthor

[GL/25.3101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tang

noun. a flame, flame, a flash, flash

Element in: G. Tanfa

[GL/69.2101; LT1A/Tanyasalpë.043] Group: Eldamo. Published by

to

proper name. to

[PE15/07.1301] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Primitive Elvish

apa

preposition. on, to

[PE13/151.5304] Group: Eldamo. Published by

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