-osuffix. genitive ending
-o (1) genitive ending, as in Altariello, Oromëo, Elenna-nórëo, Rithil-Anamo, Rúmilo, Lestanórëo, neldëo, omentielvo, sindiëo, Valinórëo, veryanwesto, q.v. In words ending in -a, the genitive ending replaces this final vowel, hence atto, Ráno, Vardo, vorondo as the genitive forms of atta, Rána, Varda, voronda (q.v.) Following a noun in -ië, the ending can have the longer form -no, e.g. *máriéno "of goodness" (PE17:59, but contrast sindiëo "of greyness" in PE17:72). Where the word ends in -o already, the genitive is not distinct in form, e.g. ciryamo (q.v.) = "mariner" or "mariners". Pl. -ion and -ron, q.v.; dual -to (but possibly -uo in the case of nouns that have nominative dual forms in -u rather than -t). The Quenya genitive describes source, origin or former ownership rather than current ownership (which is rather covered by the possessive-adjectival case in -va). The ending -o may also take on an ablativic sense, "from", as in Oiolossëo "from (Mount) Oiolossë" (Nam), sio "hence" (VT49:18). In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the genitive ending was -n rather than -o, cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren "Annals of Valinor" becoming Yénië Valinórëo (MR:200).
-o (2), also -ó, "a person, somebody", pronominal suffix (PM:340)
-ait is said
-r nominative plural ending regularly used on nouns ending in -a, -i, -ië, -o, -u, e.g. Ainur, Valar, tier. Occasionally it is added also to nouns ending in -ë (that normally take the ending -I in the pl.). This seems to regularly happen in the case of nouns in -lë (see #fintalë, mallë, tyellë), sometimes also otherwise (see Ingwë, wendë, essë #1). This plural ending was ("it is said") first used by the Noldor (PM:402).
-n (1) dative ending, originating as a reduced form of -nă "to", related to the allative ending -nna (VT49:14). Attested in nin, men, ten, enyalien, Erun, airefëan, tárin, yondon (q.v.) and also added to the English name Elaine (Elainen) in a book dedication to Elaine Griffiths (VT49:40). The longer dative ending -na is also attested in connection with some pronouns, such as sena, téna, véna (q.v.), also in the noun mariéna from márië "goodness" (PE17:59). Pl. -in (as in hínin, see hína), partitive pl. -lin, dual -nt (Plotz). The preposition ana (#1) is said to be used "when purely dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that it can replace the dative ending, e.g. *ana Eru instead of Erun for "to God". In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the ending -n (or -en) expressed genitive rather than dative, but he later decided that the genitive ending was to be -o (cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren becoming Yénië Valinórëo, MR:200).
ana (1) prep. "to" (VT49:35), "as preposition _ana _is used when purely _dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that the preposition ana can be used instead of the dative ending -n (#1, q.v.) Also as prefix: ana- "to, towards" (NĀ1); an (q.v.) is used with this meaning in one source (PE17:127)_
ho prep. "from" (3O); cf. hó-
-lma pronominal ending "our", 1st person pl. exclusive (VT49:16), also attested (with the genitive ending -o that displaces final -a) in the word omentielmo "of our meeting" (nominative omentielma, PE17:58). Tolkien emended omentielmo to omentielvo in the Second Edition of LotR, reflecting a revision of the Quenya pronominal system (cf. VT49:38, 49, Letters:447). The cluster -lm- in the endings for inclusive "we/our" was altered to -lv- (VT43:14). In the revised system, -lma should apparently signify exclusive "our".
-lwa, possessive pronominal ending, 1st person pl. inclusive "our" (VT49:16), later (in exilic Quenya) used in the form #-lva, genitive -lvo in omentielvo (see -lv-).
-mma "our", 1st person dual exlusive possessive ending: *"my and one others" (VT49:16). At an earlier conceptual phase, Tolkien apparently intended the same ending to be plural inclusive "our" (VT49:55, RS:324), cf. Mélamarimma "Our Home" (q.v.) In the latter word, Tolkien slips in i as a connecting vowel before this ending; elsewhere he used e, as in Átaremma "our Father" (see atar).
-ngwa "our", 1st person dual inclusive possessive pronominal ending: *"thy and my", corresponding to the ending -ngwë for dual inclusive "we" (VT49:16)
-va possessive ending, presumably related to the preposition va "from". In Eldaliéva, Ingoldova, miruvóreva, Oroméva, rómeva, Valinóreva (q.v. for references), Follondiéva, Hyallondiéva (see under turmen for references). Following a consonant, the ending instead appears as -wa (andamacilwa "of the long sword", PE17:147, rómenwa *"of the East", PE17:59). Pl. -vë when governing a plural word (from archaic -vai) (WJ:407), but it seems that -va was used throughout in late Exilic Quenya (cf. miruvóreva governing the plural word yuldar in Namárië). Pl. -iva (-ivë*), dual -twa, partitive pl. -líva**.
-wë a suffix occurring in many personal names, generally but not exclusively masculine (Elenwë is the sole certain example of a fem. name with this ending); it is derived from a stem simply meaning "person" (PM:340, WJ:399). In Etym, -wë is simply defined as an element that is frequent in masculine names, and it is there derived from a stem (WEG) having to do with "(manly) vigour".
ló, lo (2) prep. "from", also used = "by" introducing the agent after a passive construction: nahtana ló Turin *"slain by Túrin" (VT49:24). A similar and possibly identical form is mentioned in the Etymologies as being somehow related to the ablative ending -llo, but is not there clearly defined (VT45:28). At one point, Tolkien suggested that lo rather than the ending -llo was used with proper names (lo Manwë rather than Manwello for "from Manwë"), but this seems to have been a short-lived idea (VT49:24).
menya (pl. menyë is attested) possessive pron. "our", 1st person pl. exclusive independent possessive pronoun (VT43:19, 35). Evidently derived from the dative form men "for us" by adding the adjectival ending -ya. Compare ninya, q.v.
sio adv. "hence" (from here), also silo (VT49:18)
tó 2) adv. "thence" (for *tao, the pronoun ta "that, it" with the genitive ending -o, here used in an ablativic sense). Also talo, with -lo as a short form of the ablative ending -llo. (VT49:29, 11)
-nnato, at, upon
-nna "to, at, upon", allative ending, originating from -na "to" with fortified n, VT49:14. Attested in cilyanna, coraryanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, númenórenna, parma-restalyanna, rénna, senna, tielyanna, q.v. If a noun ends in -n already, the ending -nna merges with it, as in Amanna, formenna, Elenna, númenna, rómenna as the allative forms of Aman, formen, elen, númen, rómen (q.v.). Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.
estoeven the two of them
esto emphatic pronoun (?), apparently 3rd person dual, "even the two of them" (VT49:48). The word comes from a conceptual phase where Tolkien let dual pronouns end in the vowel -o, an idea that was apparently abandoned; also, -st- is associated with the second rather than the third person dual in later sources (see -stë). The ending may have been conceived as -sto at an earlier stage (VT49:49).
silo adv. "hence" (from here), also sio (VT49:18). The words seem to incorporate -lo, a shorter version of the ablative ending -llo, and -o, the genitive ending that may also be used in an ablativic sense. Compare talo, tó "thence".
Variations of the word: tō.
Word Gloss Source ta thence VT49/11.3902
talo adv. "thence". Also tó. Basically these are simple ablative/genitive forms of ta (#1) "that"; compare silo, sio. (VT49:11)
va prep. "from" (VT43:20; prefixed in the form var- in var-úra "from evil", VT43:24). In VT49:24, va, au and o are quoted as variants of the stem awa "away from".
námo (2) noun "a person, somebody" (PM:340 writers may prefer the synonym quén to avoid confusion with # 1)
sundobase, root, root-word
sundo (þ) noun "base, root, root-word" (SUD), sc. a Quendian consonantal "base". According to VT46:16, Tolkien changed the root to STUD, thereby implying that sundo was earlier þundo (compare Sindarin thond "root"). PE18:95 gives the pl. form as sundur, seemingly implying a stem-form sundu-. It is not, however, used in the compound sundocarmë "base-structure" (PE18:84 not **sunducarmë), a term used in the description of the structure of the various Quendian "bases" or roots.
sundonoun. base, base, root, root-word
Melkor (spelt Melcor in VT49:6, 24, MR:362), masc. name: the rebellious Vala, the devil of the Silmarillion mythos. Older (MET) form Melkórë "Mighty-rising" (hence the interpretation "He that arises in power"), compare órë #2. Oldest Q form *mbelekōro (WJ:402). Ablative Melkorello/Melcorello, VT49:7, 24. Compounded in Melkorohíni "Children of Melkor", Orcs ("but the wiser say: nay, the slaves of Melkor; but not his children, for Melkor had no children") (MR:416). The form Melkoro- here occurring may incorporate either the genitive ending -o or the otherwise lost final vowel of the ancient form ¤mbelekōro. For Melkors later name, see Moringotto / Moricotto (Morgoth) under mori-.
armaro noun "neighbour"; also asambar, asambaro (VT48:20, VT49:25)
-lv- element in pronominal endings for inclusive plural "we/our" (VT43:14). Iincludes the old 1st pl. inclusive stem we (VT48:10). Omentielvo "of our meeting" (q.v.) includes the ending #-lva "our" with the genitive ending -o attached. The corresponding ending for inclusive "we" is perhaps normally -lvë in late exilic Quenya; the variant form -lwë occurs in the verbs carilwë "we do" (VT49:16), navilwë "we judge" (VT42:34); according to VT48:11 this may simply be the older (pre-Exilic) form of *-lvë (VT49:51 lists the ending for "we" as "-lwe, -lve", apparently the older and the younger form).
Valinorthe land (or people) of the valar
Valinor place-name "the land (or people) of the Valar", *"Vali-land" (Vali = Valar), land of the Gods in the West (BAL, NDOR); cf. Valandor. Full form Valinórë (BAL; Vali-nórëunder NDOR).Said to be "the true Eldarin name of Aman", the latter name being explained as a borrowing from Valarin in some versions of the linguistic scenario (VT49:26). In the early "Qenya Lexicon", Valinor, Valinórë is glossed "Asgard", the name of the city of the gods in Norse mythology (LT1:272). It seems that in such more restricted use, Valinor is not the entire Blessed Realm but rather the specific region beyond the Pelóri where (most of) the Valar dwelt, with Val(i)mar as the chief city. Thus it is said of Eärendil that he "went into Valinor and to the halls of Valimar" only after he had already left his ship and ventured as far as Tirion (Silmarillion, chapter 24). Possessive Valinóreva in Nurtalë Valinóreva, the "Hiding of Valinor", the possessive case here assuming the function of object genitive (Silm); genitive Valinórëo in Yénië Valinórëo "Annals of Valinor" (MR:200; the last word was changed from Valinóren, Tolkien revising the genitive ending from -n to -o)
ciryamo noun "mariner", nominative and genitive are identical since the noun already ends in -o, cf. Indis i-Ciryamo "the Mariner's Wife" (UT:8)
Fëanárospirit of fire
Fëanáro masc. name "Spirit of Fire", in Sindarized form Fëanor(SA:nár, PHAY, MR:206). The word apparently includes the masculine ending -o. Compare fëa, nár.
Núaran noun "West-king"; Núaran Númenoren "West-king of Númenor"; changed (according to LR:71) to Núraran Númenen, *"West-king of the West" (all of this is "Qenya" with genitive in -n instead of -o, as in Tolkien's later Quenya) (LR:60)
asambar, asambaro noun "neighbour"; also armaro (VT48:20). Since the ending -o is associated with the masculine gender, the form asambar may be gender-neutral whereas the other forms are gender-marked as masculine.
Ilúvatar masc. name "All-father", God (SD:401, FS, IL; Ilúv-atar, ATA, Iluvatar with a short u, SD:346). Often in combination with the divine name as Eru Ilúvatar, "Eru Allfather", cf. MR:112. "Qenya" genitive Ilúvatáren "of Ilúvatar" in Fíriel's Song, LR:47 and SD:246, the genitive ending is -en instead of -o as in LotR-style Quenya. Cf. the later genitive Ilúvataro in the phrase Híni Ilúvataro (see "Children of Ilúvatar" in the Silmarillion Index)
Kementári noun "Earth-queen", title of Yavanna (SA:tar). The Kemen- of this name was at one stage intended as the genitive of kén, kem- "earth", so that Kementári meant "Earth's Queen", but Tolkien later changed the Quenya genitive ending from -(e)n to -o. Apparently so as to maintain the name Kementári, he turned kemen into the nominative form; see cemen.
na (2) prep. "to, towards", possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for clarity writers may use the synonym ana instead (NĀ1). Originally, Tolkien glossed na as "at, by, near"; the new meaning entered together with the synonyms an, ana (VT45:36).
eärendurmasculine name. Mariner, Mariner, (lit.) *Servant of the Sea
Several people had this name in Tolkien’s legendarium: (1) the second son of Tar-Amandil (UT/208, 210), (2) a lord of Andúnië and uncle of lady Inzilbêth (UT/223) and (3) the 10th and final king of the combined kingdom of Arnor (LotR/1038). The name was a compound of ëar “sea” and the suffix -(n)dur “-servant”. Tolkien translated the name as “Mariner” (Let/386), but a more exact translation might be “*Servant of the Sea”.
númeherulord of the west
#númeheru noun "Lord of the West" (númë + heru), attested in these inflected forms: 1) númeheruen "of [the] Lord of the West" (Manwë) (SD:290); this is "Qenya" with genitive in -en instead of -o as in LotR-style Quenya; 2) pl. númeheruvi "Lords-of-West" ("West-lords" = Valar) in SD:246.
nassëperson, an individual
nassë (1) "a person, an individual" (VT49:30). Also translated "true-being" (pl. nasser is attested), the inner "true" being of a person. With a pronominal suffix in the form nassentar "their true-being" (PE17:175, cf. -nta #2), in the source referring to the "true" spiritual nature of the Valar, as hidden within their visible shapes. The word nassentar would seem to be plural, *"their true-beings". Not to be confused with the verb nassë/násë "he/she is"; see ná #1.
talmabase, foundation, root
talma noun "base, foundation, root" (TALAM), also translated "bottom" in the expression "top to bottom", see below.% Talmar Ambaren (place-name, *"Foundations of the World" - this is pre-classical "Qenya" with genitive in -en instead of -o as in LotR-style Quenya) (TALAM). Allative talmanna in the phrase telmello talmanna** "from hood to base**, top to bottom" _(VT46:18; notice misreading "telmanna" in the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry TEL-, TELU-)_
#Valariandë place-name "Beleriand" (genitive in the phrase Nyarna Valarianden "the annals of Beleriand" in LR:202; Tolkien later changed the genitive ending from -n to -o; hence read *Nyarna Valariandëo) In the essay Quendi and Eldar, Heceldamar turns up as another Quenya term for Beleriand.
Veleriandeplace name. Beleriand
nár noun "flame", also nárë (NAR1).Translated "fire" in some names, see Aicanár(o), Fëanáro (where nár apparently has the masculine ending -o added to it). According to PE17:183, nár- is "fire as an element" (a concrete fire or blaze is rather called a ruinë).
nárë, also short nár, noun "flame" (NAR1, Narqelion). Translated "fire" in some names, see Aicanáro, Fëanáro (where nár apparently has the masculine ending -o, though in the latter name it may also be the genitive ending since Fëa-náro** is translated "Spirit of Fire"). At one point, Tolkien mentioned "nār-" as the word for "fire (as an element)" (PE17:183). Cf. ruinë** as the word for "a fire" (a concrete instance of fire) in the same source.
velca ("k") noun "flame" (LT1:260; nár, nárë would be the normal word in Tolkien's later Quenya)