Quenya 

-ië

suffix. gerund suffix, -ing

Derivations

  • -iyē “gerund, -ing” ✧ VT49/48

Element in

  • ᴺQ. cesië “search”
  • Q. Emerië “?The Herding”
  • Q. ataquetië “saying again, repetition”
  • Q. enyalië “memory, (lit.) recalling”
  • Q. hentië “reading”
  • Q. nainië “lament, lament, *lamentation”
  • Q. námië “single judgment or desire”
  • Q. norië “race, running, running, race”
  • Q. nótië “*counting”
  • Q. omentië “meeting (of pathways), (lit.) coming together of journey-path, meeting or junction of the directions of two people” ✧ PE17/013
  • ᴺQ. poitië “(act of) cleaning, cleansing”
  • Q. rehtië “rescue, saving”
  • Q. tengwië “reading; language (*signing)” ✧ VT49/48
  • Q. terfantië “*temptation”
  • Q. yomenië “meeting, gathering, meeting, gathering, *congress”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
´waye > weye > -wie[-waje] > [-wie]✧ VT49/48

Variations

  • ı̯e ✧ PE17/013
  • -ie ✧ PE17/068
  • -wie ✧ VT49/48
Quenya [PE17/013; PE17/068; VT49/48] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ië

suffix. is

- (3) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantië "he is fallen", márië "it is good" (< *númessë "in the west", melda "beloved", *talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina "gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be", verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song. This suffix is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya: - is an infinitival or gerundial ending in CO, for ye "is" Namárië has , and the phrase "lost is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwië.

-ië

suffix. perfect suffix

Derivations

  • -iyē “perfect suffix”

-ië

suffix. abstract noun, adverb

Derivations

  • -(i)yē “abstract noun, adverb” ✧ PE17/058

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
-(i)ı̯ē > -ië[-ijē] > [-ie]✧ PE17/058

Variations

  • -ië ✧ LotR/1110 (-ië); PE17/058
  • -ie ✧ PE17/058; PE17/058; PE17/058; PE17/059; PE17/059
Quenya [LotR/1110; PE17/058; PE17/059] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ië

general infinitive

- (1) infinitive (or gerundial) ending, "general infinitive" (PE17:68), attested in carië (see car-), enyalië, q.v. (CO)

-ië

openness

- (2) abstract ending, often used to derive abstracts from adjectives, e.g. látië "openness" vs. láta "open", mornië "darkness" vs. morna "black, dark", vanië (for *vanyië) "beauty" vs. vanya "fair".

-lë

suffix. abstract noun, adverb

Changes

  • -leve ✧ PE17/074

Derivations

  • -(a)lē “abstract noun, adverb” ✧ PE17/058; VT39/16
  • LEÑ “*way, method, manner” ✧ PE17/074

Element in

  • ᴺQ. aitalë “reverence, worship, religion”
  • Q. cendelë “face, face, *visage”
  • Q. findelë “tress, lock [of hair]”
  • Q. findilë “head of hair”
  • Q. fintalë “trick”
  • Q. hantalë “thanksgiving” ✧ UT/214
  • Q. laitalë “praise”
  • Q. lambelë “phonetics” ✧ VT39/16
  • Q. lindalë “music” ✧ S/015
  • Q. lumbulë “dark shadow, heavy shadow; deep in shadow”
  • Q. maitalë “the act of doing [artistic] work”
  • Q. máralë “goodness” ✧ PE17/058
  • Q. nurtalë “hiding”
  • Q. oialë “forever, everlastingly, eternally, in eternity, forever, everlastingly, eternally, in eternity; [ᴹQ.] everlasting age” ✧ PE17/058; PE17/074
  • Q. ontalë “descent, descent, *derivation, ancestry”
  • Q. quellë “late autumn and early winter, (lit.) fading”
  • Q. quentalë “history, narration, history, narration, [ᴹQ.] account” ✧ VT39/16
  • Q. sillë “like this” ✧ PE17/074
  • Q. tallë “like that” ✧ PE17/074
  • Q. tengwelë “language (general term), language (general term); [ᴱQ.] sense” ✧ VT39/16
  • Q. tumbalë “depth, deep valley”
  • Q. wendelë “maidenhood”
  • Q. yallë “as, in the same way as, like” ✧ PE17/074

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
-lē > -le[-lē] > [-le]✧ PE17/058
LEŊ > -le[-leŋ] > [-leɣ] > [-le]✧ PE17/074
-lē > -lë[-lē] > [-le]✧ VT39/16

Variations

  • -le ✧ PE17/058; PE17/074
Quenya [PE17/058; PE17/074; S/015; UT/214; VT39/16] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-më

suffix. abstract noun

Derivations

  • -(u)mē “denoting a (single) action”

Element in

  • Q. carmë “art; making, production; structure”
  • Q. indómë “settled character; will of Eru”
  • Q. Nénimë “February, *Wet-ness”
  • Q. normë “race, running, race (running)” ✧ PE17/169
  • Q. Súlimë “March, *Windy-one”
  • ᴺQ. tirmë “steadfast regard, stare, *gaze”

Variations

  • -me ✧ PE17/169 (-me)

-rë

suffix. abstract noun

Derivations

Element in

Variations

  • -re ✧ MC/223 (-re)

-vë

suffix. abstract noun, adverb

Element in

  • Q. andavë “long, at great length”
  • ᴺQ. anwavë “surely, certainly”
  • Q. coivië “life, life, [ᴱQ.] liveliness; awakening” ✧ PE17/068
  • Q. cuivië “awakening” ✧ PE17/068
  • Q. ilúvë “the whole, the all, allness, the whole, the all, allness; [ᴹQ.] universe, world; Heaven”
  • Q. návë “being” ✧ PE17/068
  • Q. oialë “forever, everlastingly, eternally, in eternity, forever, everlastingly, eternally, in eternity; [ᴹQ.] everlasting age” ✧ PE17/074
  • Q. sívë “knowing, knowledge” ✧ PE17/068

Variations

  • -ve ✧ PE17/068
  • ve ✧ PE17/074
Quenya [PE17/068; PE17/074] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ssë

suffix. abstract noun

Cognates

  • S. -as “abstract noun”

Derivations

Element in

  • Q. alanessë “nicotiana, pipeweed”
  • Q. aranus(së) “kingship”
  • Q. carpassë “mouth-system; full organized language, including system, vocabulary, metre, etc.”
  • Q. celussë “freshnet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring”
  • Q. entulessë “return”
  • ᴺQ. failassë “justice, fair-mindedness”
  • Q. findessë “head of hair, person’s hair as a whole”
  • Q. incánussë “mind mastership”
  • ᴺQ. letinwessë “constellation”
  • Q. Lótessë “May, *(lit.) Flower-ness”
  • Q. nassë “nature, true-being, *essence; person, individual” ✧ VT49/30
  • ᴺQ. restassë “countryside, the country”
  • Q. táris(së) “queenship”
  • Q. tengwassë “alphabet”

Variations

  • -sse ✧ VT49/30 (-sse)

Amarië

good

Amarië fem. name; perhaps derived from mára "good" with prefixing of the stem-vowel and the feminine ending - (Silm)

látie

noun. openness

Elements

WordGloss
láta“open (not closed)”
-ië“abstract noun, adverb”

látië

openness

látië noun "openness" (VT39:23)

-a

it is said

-r nominative plural ending regularly used on nouns ending in -a, -i, -, -o, -u, e.g. Ainur, Valar, tier. Occasionally it is added also to nouns ending in -ë (that normally take the ending -I in the pl.). This seems to regularly happen in the case of nouns in - (see #fintalë, mallë, tyellë), sometimes also otherwise (see Ingwë, wendë, essë #1). This plural ending was ("it is said") first used by the Noldor (PM:402).

-o

of goodness

-o (1) genitive ending, as in Altariello, Oromëo, Elenna-nórëo, Rithil-Anamo, Rúmilo, Lestanórëo, neldëo, omentielvo, sindiëo, Valinórëo, veryanwesto, q.v. In words ending in -a, the genitive ending replaces this final vowel, hence atto, Ráno, Vardo, vorondo as the genitive forms of atta, Rána, Varda, voronda (q.v.) Following a noun in -, the ending can have the longer form -no, e.g. *máriéno "of goodness" (PE17:59, but contrast sindiëo "of greyness" in PE17:72). Where the word ends in -o already, the genitive is not distinct in form, e.g. ciryamo (q.v.) = "mariner" or "mariners". Pl. -ion and -ron, q.v.; dual -to (but possibly -uo in the case of nouns that have nominative dual forms in -u rather than -t). The Quenya genitive describes source, origin or former ownership rather than current ownership (which is rather covered by the possessive-adjectival case in -va). The ending -o may also take on an ablativic sense, "from", as in Oiolossëo "from (Mount) Oiolossë" (Nam), sio "hence" (VT49:18). In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the genitive ending was -n rather than -o, cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren "Annals of Valinor" becoming Yénië Valinórëo (MR:200).

is

(1) vb. "is" (am). (Nam, RGEO:67). This is the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns "in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another" (VT49:28). Also in impersonal constructions: ringa ná "it is cold" (VT49:23). The copula may however be omitted "where the meaning is clear" without it (VT49:9). is also used as an interjection "yes" or "it is so" (VT49:28). Short na in airë [] na, "[] is holy" (VT43:14; some subject can evidently be inserted in the place of [].) Short na also functions as imperative: alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heaven be to God" (VT44:32/34), also na airë "be holy" (VT43:14); also cf. nai "be it that" (see nai #1). The imperative participle á may be prefixed (á na, PE17:58). However, VT49:28 cites as the imperative form. Pl. nar or nár "are" (PE15:36, VT49:27, 9, 30); dual nát (VT49:30). With pronominal endings: nányë/nanyë "I am", nalyë or natyë "you (sg.) are" (polite and familiar, respectively), nás "it is", násë "(s)he is", nalmë "we are" (VT49:27, 30). Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps to be taken as representing the aorist: nain, naityë, nailyë (1st person sg, and 2nd person familiar/polite, respectively); does a following na represent the aorist with no pronominal ending? However, the forms nanyë, nalyë, , nassë, nalme, nar (changed from nár) are elsewhere said to be "aorist", without the extra vowel i (e.g. nalyë rather than nailyë); also notice that *"(s)he is" is here nassë rather than násë (VT49:30).Pa.t. nánë or "was", pl. náner/nér and dual nét "were" (VT49:6, 9, 10, 27, 28, 30, 36). According to VT49:31, "was" cannot receive pronominal endings (though nésë "he was" is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29), and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen "I was", anel "you were", anes "(s)he/it was" (VT49:28-29). Future tense nauva "will be" (VT42:34, VT49:19, 27; another version however gives the future tense as uva, VT49:30). Nauva with a pronominal ending occurs in tanomë nauvan "I will be there" (VT49:19), this example indicating that forms of the verb may also be used to indicate position. Perfect anaië "has been" (VT49:27, first written as anáyë). Infinitive (or gerund) návë "being", PE17:68. See also nai #1.

ye

is

ye (2) copula "is" (FS, VT46:22); both earlier and later sources rather point to (q.v.) as the copula "is", so ye may have been an experiment Tolkien later abandoned. Future tense yéva, q.v.

úyë

is

úyë vb., a form occurring in Fíriel's Song (cf. VT46:22), apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")

númessier

they are in the west

númessier vb. "they are in the west", a construction occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently núme(n)-ssë-ie-r "west-in-are-they"; the stative-verb suffix - is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya (FS)

ala-

good

ala- (3), also al-, a prefix expressing "good" or "well" (PE17:146), as in alaquenta (q.v.) Whether Tolkien imagined this ending to coexist with the negative prefix of the same form (#2 above) is unclear and perhaps dubious.

ná-

verb. to be, to be, [ᴱQ.] exist

Changes

  • nāner ✧ VT49/09
  • nārnăr ✧ VT49/30

Cognates

  • Ad. -n “predicate suffix”
  • S. na- “to be”

Derivations

  • “be (the same as another), exist” ✧ PE17/093

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
> [nā]✧ PE17/093

Variations

  • ✧ LotR/0377; PE17/090; PE17/093; PE22/154; PE22/167; VT42/33; VT49/09; VT49/23
  • na ✧ Minor-Doc/1955-CT; PE17/057; PE17/074; PE17/074; PE17/090; PE17/162; VT43/13; VT43/30
  • ✧ PE17/058; RGEO/59; VT49/09 (); VT49/28; VT49/30
  • nā- ✧ PE22/166; VT49/27; VT49/28 (nā-)
  • nā̀ ✧ RGEO/58
  • ✧ RGEO/60
  • nā̆ ✧ VT49/30
  • nār ✧ VT49/30 (nār)
Quenya [LotR/0377; Minor-Doc/1955-CT; PE17/057; PE17/058; PE17/059; PE17/074; PE17/090; PE17/093; PE17/126; PE17/162; PE22/154; PE22/158; PE22/166; PE22/167; PE22/168; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; RGEO/60; VT42/33; VT42/34; VT43/13; VT43/14; VT43/15; VT43/16; VT43/23; VT43/30; VT43/34; VT44/34; VT49/09; VT49/10; VT49/19; VT49/23; VT49/27; VT49/28; VT49/29; VT49/30] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lantë

fall

#lantë (1) noun "fall" in Noldolantë, q.v. Also lanta.

lantë

noun. fall

The word lasselanta “leaf-fall, autumn” (LotR/1107) indicate the form this word should be lanta, which is how it appears in The Etymologies. However, the alternate lassewinta (PM/376) seems to be formed with the infinitive of the verb winta- rather than a noun, so perhaps lasselanta is a similar formation from the verb lanta- “to fall”.

The form lantë, appearing in Noldolantë “Fall of the Noldor” (S/87), more strongly resembles other Quenya nouns, which more often end in -e rather than -a. The noun atalantë “collapse, downfall” is a similar formation from the related verb [ᴹQ.] atalta-, though it could also be the past formation “downfallen” of this TALAT-stem verb.

Derivations

  • DAT “fall down, fall to ground”

Element in

melda

beloved, dear, sweet

melda adj. "beloved, dear, sweet" (MEL, VT45:34), superlative arimelda *"dearest" (PE17:56, see ar- #2), meldielto "they are beloved" (sc. meld[a]--lto "beloved-are-they" however, both the stative verb ending - "is/are" and the ending -lto "they" may be obsolete in LotR-style Quenya) (FS) PE17:55 gives the comparative form as arimelda or ammelda and the superlative as eremelda, anamelda or once again ammelda (PE17:55).

comya-

gather, assemble

comya- ("k")vb. "gather, assemble" (transitive)(PE17:158)

enyal-

to recall

#enyal- vb. "to recall", "to commemorate", gerund/infinitive enyalië with infinitival ending -; dative enyalien "for the re-calling", "[in order] to recall" in CO.

hosta-

gather, collect, assemble

hosta- vb. "gather, collect, assemble" (Markirya), "gather hastily together, pile up" (PE17:39), hostainiéva "will be gathered", future tense of the stative verb *hostainië*, derived from hostaina "gathered", past participle of hosta- "gather". Such stative verbs are probably not conceptually valid in Tolkien's later Quenya; see -ië**. (FS)

lanta-

fall

lanta- (2) "fall" (DAT/DANT (TALÁT), Narqelion, VT45:26, VT49:54); lantar aorist tense pl. (Nam, RGEO:66); pl. pa.t. lantaner "fell" (pl.) (SD:246); lantier "they fell", a plural past tense of lanta- "fall" occurring in LR:47; read probably lantaner in LotR-style Quenya, as in SD:246. Also sg. lantië "fell" (LR:56); read likewise *lantanë? (The forms in -ier, - seem to be properly perfects.) Future tense lantuva, VT49:47. Participle lantala "falling" (with locative ending: lantalassë) in Markirya.

sanganë

gather

sanganë vb.? "gather" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

ócom-

gather, assemble

#ócom- vb. "gather, assemble" (intransitive)(PE17:157, 158). Cited in the form ócomë "gathers, assembles", evidently an endingless aorist. Perfect ócómië given.

lanta

fall

lanta (1) noun "a fall" (DAT/DANT (TALÁT) ), also lantë.

lantar

fall

-r plural ending used on verbs with a plural subject (VT49:48, 50, 51), e.g. lantar "fall" in Namárië (with the plural subject lassi "leaves"), or unduláver as the pl. form of undulávë "licked down, covered" (PE17:72). The ending is sometimes missing where we might expect it; for instance, the verb tarnë "stood" has multiple subjects and yet does not appear as *tarner in PE17:71.

mára

adjective. good

Quenya [PE 22:154, 166] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by