: The verb ”to be” is poorly attested. Apparently the root is na-. The imperative is attested as no, and nad (used = ”thing”) may be seen as an original gerund *”a being”. It seems that the copula ”is, are” (and ”was, were”?) can be omitted altogether, as in the ”Noldorin” sentence lheben teil brann i annon ”five feet high [is] the door” (AI:92), in Sindarin perhaps *leben tail brand i annon.
na-verb. to be
tíra-verb. to see
tíradgerund noun. to see, for the seing
* na-verb. to be
* cenverb. see
cen- (i gên, i chenir), also tíra- (i díra, i thírar), the latter rather meaning “watch”. SEEING #cened (i gened) (sight), pl. cenid (i chenid) if there is a pl. Isolated from cenedril, see mirror, SEEING STONE *gwachaedir (*i 'wachaedir) (palantír), no distinct pl. form. except with article (in gwachaedir); coll. pl. ?gwachaediriath or ?gwachadirnath (the latter assuming that -dir is reduced from older -dirn) The form occurring in the primary source, gwahaedir, must represent the late Gondorian pronunciation with h for ch (PM:186)
cûn (bowed, bowshaped), lenited gûn; pl. cuin