Quenya 


ill, grievously, abominably

nai (2) prefix "ill, grievously, abominably" (PE17:151), cf. naiquet-. Earlier material also lists an interjection nai "alas" _(NAY; this may be obsoleted by # 1 above; _Namárië uses ai! in a similar sense)


adverb. may, be it that, may; be it that, be it that, be it that, may it be that, it may be, perhaps, it may be, there is chance or possibility, maybe, may, maybe, perhaps, it may be, there is chance or possibility, perhaps, maybe, be it that
Quenya [Auct-Let/1963-12-18.0101; LotR/0378.0102; LotR/0378.0201; PE17/075.0102; PE17/075.0201; PE17/075.0305; PE17/075.0403; PE22/151.1702; RGEO/58.2002; RGEO/58.2101; RGEO/59.1702; RGEO/59.1901; RGEO/60.4409; UT/305.1503; UT/317.1401; VT49/19.2210-2; VT49/28.3603; VT49/38.3801; VT49/39.0405; VT49/41.2904; VT49/44.2001; VT49/47.1701] Group: Eldamo. Published by


be it that

nai (1) imperative verb "be it that", used with a verb (usually in the future tense) to express a wish. The translation "maybe" in Tolkien's rendering of Namárië is somewhat misleading; he used "be it that" in the interlinear translation in RGEO:67. Apparently this is na as the imperative "be!" with a suffix -i "that", cf. i #3. It can be used with the future tense as an "expression of wish" (VT49:39). Nai hiruvalyë Valimar! Nai elyë hiruva! "May thou find Valimar. May even thou find it!" (Nam, VT49:39). Nai tiruvantes "be it that they will guard it" > "may they guard it" (CO). Nai elen siluva parma-restalyanna "may a star shine upon your book-fair" (VT49:38), nai elen siluva lyenna "may a star shine upon you" (VT49:40), nai elen atta siluvat aurenna veryanwesto "may two stars shine upon the day of your wedding" (VT49:42-45), nai laurë lantuva parmastanna lúmissen tengwiesto "may (a) golden light fall on your book at the times of your reading" (VT49:47). Nai may also be used with a present continuative verb if an ongoing situation is wished for: Nai Eru lye mánata "God bless you" (VT49:39) or literally "be it that God is (already) blessing you". The phrase nai amanyaonnalya "be it that your child [will be] blessed" omits any copula; Tolkien noted that "imper[ative] of wishes precedes adj." (VT49:41). VT49:28 has the form nái for "let it be that"; Patrick Wynne theorizes that nái is actually an etymological form underlying nai (VT49:36)


interjection. alas
Quenya [LotR/0377.2801, PE17/061.2302, RGEO/58.0501, RGE] Group: Eldamo. Published by


to be

na (1) form of the verb "to be", evidently the imperative (or subjunctive): Tolkien stated that na airë would mean "be holy" (VT43:14), and san na (q.v.) must mean "thus be" = "let it be so"; see #1 Cf. also the sentence alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heaven be to God" (VT44:32/34). Inserted in front of a verb, na expresses a wish: aranielya na tuluva "may thy kingdom come" (ibid).


(1) vb. "is" (am). (Nam, RGEO:67). This is the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns "in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another" (VT49:28). Also in impersonal constructions: ringa ná "it is cold" (VT49:23). The copula may however be omitted "where the meaning is clear" without it (VT49:9). is also used as an interjection "yes" or "it is so" (VT49:28). Short na in airë [] na, "[] is holy" (VT43:14; some subject can evidently be inserted in the place of [].) Short na also functions as imperative: alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heaven be to God" (VT44:32/34), also na airë "be holy" (VT43:14); also cf. nai "be it that" (see nai #1). The imperative participle á may be prefixed (á na, PE17:58). However, VT49:28 cites as the imperative form. Pl. nar or nár "are" (PE15:36, VT49:27, 9, 30); dual nát (VT49:30). With pronominal endings: nányë/nanyë "I am", nalyë or natyë "you (sg.) are" (polite and familiar, respectively), nás "it is", násë "(s)he is", nalmë "we are" (VT49:27, 30). Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps to be taken as representing the aorist: nain, naityë, nailyë (1st person sg, and 2nd person familiar/polite, respectively); does a following na represent the aorist with no pronominal ending? However, the forms nanyë, nalyë, , nassë, nalme, nar (changed from nár) are elsewhere said to be "aorist", without the extra vowel i (e.g. nalyë rather than nailyë); also notice that *"(s)he is" is here nassë rather than násë (VT49:30).Pa.t. nánë or "was", pl. náner/nér and dual nét "were" (VT49:6, 9, 10, 27, 28, 30, 36). According to VT49:31, "was" cannot receive pronominal endings (though nésë "he was" is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29), and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen "I was", anel "you were", anes "(s)he/it was" (VT49:28-29). Future tense nauva "will be" (VT42:34, VT49:19, 27; another version however gives the future tense as uva, VT49:30). Nauva with a pronominal ending occurs in tanomë nauvan "I will be there" (VT49:19), this example indicating that forms of the verb may also be used to indicate position. Perfect anaië "has been" (VT49:27, first written as anáyë). Infinitive (or gerund) návë "being", PE17:68. See also nai #1.


to be

nëa (2) an optative form of the verb na- "to be"? (nëa = LotR-style Quenya nai?): ya rato nëa "which soon may (it) be" = "which I hope will be soon" (Arct)


Quenya [PE 22:116] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by



tana (1) demonstrative "that" (said to be "anaphoric") (TA). According to VT49:11, tana is the adjective corresponding to ta, "that" as a pronoun.


Quenya [VT49/11.3904] Group: Eldamo. Published by



yana demonstrative "that" (the former) (YA)


pronoun. that
Quenya [PE 22:124] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by


suffix. is

- (3) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantië "he is fallen", márië "it is good" (< *númessë "in the west", melda "beloved", *talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina "gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be", verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song. This suffix is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya: - is an infinitival or gerundial ending in CO, for ye "is" Namárië has , and the phrase "lost is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwië.



ne (2) conj. "that" (as in "I know that you are here") (PE14:54), evidently replaced by i in Tolkiens later Quenya (see i #3).


conjunction. that
Quenya [PE 22:119] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by


pronoun. that, that, there, there
Quenya [PE17/074.0903; VT49/08.0703; VT49/11.3902; VT49/12.3314; VT49/32.4411; VT49/33.0510] Group: Eldamo. Published by


that, it

ta (1) pron. "that, it" (TA); compare antaróta** "he gave it" (FS); see anta-. The forms tar/tara/tanna "thither", talo/ "thence" and tás/tassë* "there" are originally inflected forms of this pronoun: "to that", "from that" and "in that" (place), respectively. Compare "there" as one gloss of ta (see #4).



ye (2) copula "is" (FS, VT46:22); both earlier and later sources rather point to (q.v.) as the copula "is", so ye may have been an experiment Tolkien later abandoned. Future tense yéva, q.v.



úyë vb., a form occurring in Fíriel's Song (cf. VT46:22), apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")


verb. be, exist
Quenya [PE 22:122f, 124; PE 22:147] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

i, antevokaliskt in

conjunction. that
Quenya [PE 22:118] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

savin elessar ar <u>i</u> nánë aran ondórëo


i (3) conj. "that". Savin Elessar ar i nánë aran Ondórëo "I believe that Elessar really existed and that [he] was a king of Gondor" (VT49:27), savin…i E[lesarno] quetië naitë *"I believe that Elessars speaking [is] true" (VT49:28) Also cf. nai, nái "be it that" (see nai #1), which may seem to incorporate this conjunction.



tanya demonstrative "that" (MC:215; this is "Qenya", perhaps corresponding to later tana)


might, power

melehtë noun "might, power" (inherent) (PE17:115)