ya (2) or yan, prep. "as" (VT43:16, probably abandoned in favour of sívë)
yapronoun. which, that (relative pronoun)
ya (1) relative pronoun "which, what" (attested in VT43:28, 34 and in the Arctic sentence), with locative suffix in Namárië: see #yassë. According to VT47:21, ya is impersonal, "which" rather than "who(m)" (compare the personal form ye). The dative form yan (q.v.) is however used for "to whom" (rather than "to which") in one text, indicating that Tolkien did not always distinguish between personal and impersonal forms. In the phrase lúmessë ya [variant: yá**] firuvammë, "in [the] hour that we shall die", the relative pronoun is not explicitly marked for case and is evidently understood to share the case of the preceding noun (hence not lúmessë yassë**... "in [the] hour in which"...) (VT43:27-28) Presumably, ya has the plural form *yar* (e.g. i nati yar hirnen** "the things that/which I found").
yan relative pronoun in dative "for/to which" or "for/to whom" (PE16:90, 92, 96). Used for "to whom" in the poem Nieninque; according to the system described elsewhere, which distinguishes personal ye "who" from impersonal ya "which", "to whom" would be *yen instead. A wholly distinct ya(n) seems to appear as an ephemeral word for "as" in one version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer; see ya #2 (VT43:16, VT49:18)
yar inflected relative pronoun "to whom" (MC:215; this may be "Qenya", but on the other hand both the relative pronoun ya and an allativic ending -r are still valid in Tolkien's later Quenya, cf. mir "into". Later versions of the text in question however use yan [q.v.], with the common dative ending -n.) Likely, yar could also be the plural form of the relative pronoun ya, q.v.
yá (1) adv.? "formerly", also postposition (?) "ago" (YA). The form yá also appears as a variant of the relative pronoun ya, q.v.
atya (2) noun "daddy", supposedly a word in "actual 'family' use" (VT47:26, PE17:170), also used in children's play for "thumb" and "big toe" (VT47:10, 26, VT48:4, 6); reduction of at(an)ya "my father" (or, as explained in VT48:19, reduction of at-nya of similar meaning). Compare atto.
atya¹noun. daddy, (my) father
yallëadverb. as, in the same way as, like
#yassë (1) relative pronoun in locative "in which", pl. yassen referring back to a plural noun (relative pronoun ya + locative ending) (Nam, RGEO:66)
arconjunction. and, *[ᴱQ., *ᴹQ.] but
o (1) conj. "and", occurring solely in SD:246; all other sources give ar.
ar (1) conj. "and" (AR2, SA, FS, Nam, RGEO:67, CO, LR:47, 56, MC:216, VT43:31, VT44:10, 34; see VT47:31 for etymology, cf. also VT49:25, 40). The older form of the conjunction was az (PE17:41). Ar is often assimilated to al, as before l, s (PE17:41, 71), but "in written Quenya ar was usually written in all cases" (PE17:71). In one case, Tolkien altered the phrase ar larmar "and raiments" to al larmar; the former may then be seen as representing the spelling, whereas the latter represents the pronunciation(PE17:175). More complex schemes of assimilation are suggested to have existed in "Old Quenya", the conjunction varying between ar, a and as depending on the following consonant (PE17:41, 71). An alternative longer form of the conjunction, arë, is said to occur "occasionally in Tolkien's later writings" (VT43:31, cf. VT48:14). In the Etymologies, the word for "and" was first written as ar(a) (VT45:6). In one source, Tolkien notes that Quenya used ar "as preposition beside, next, or as adverb = and" (PE17:145); compare ara.
az, archaic form of the conjunction ar "and"; see ar #1.
ier prep. "as" (VT43:16, probably rejected in favour of sívë, q.v.). In an abandoned version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer, Tolkien used ier...ter for "as...so" (VT43:17).
sívë (1) prep. "as", apparently ve of similar meaning with the prefix sí- "this, here, now"; sívë therefore makes a comparison with something close, whereas tambë (q.v.) refers to something remote. Sívë...tambë "as...so" (VT43:17). Elided sív' in VT43:12, since the next word begins in the vowel e-.
taso, like that, also
ta (2) adv. "so, like that, also", e.g. ta mára "so good" (VT49:12)
ta (5) adv. "there" (VT49:33; this may be an Elvish root or "element" rather than a Quenya word; see tanomë; see however also tar, tara, tanna under ta #1).
ta³adverb/conjunction. so, like that, also, and also, then
ve¹preposition. as, like, similar, after the manner [of], *[ᴹQ.] with
ye (1) singular personal relative pronoun "who", maybe also object "whom" (plural form i). Compare the impersonal form ya. Also attested in the genitive and the ablative cases: yëo and yello, both translated "from whom" (though the former would also mean *"whose, of whom"). (VT47:21)
[ye (3), also yé, prep. "as" (VT43:16, struck out; in the text in question Tolkien finally settled on sívë, q.v.)]
yo conj. "and", "often used between _two _items (of any part of speech) that were by nature or custom clearly associated, like the names of spouses (Manwë yo Varda), or "sword and sheath" (*macil yo vainë*), "bow and arrows" (quinga yo pilindi), or groups like "Elves and Men" (Eldar yo Fírimor but contrast eldain a fírimoin [dative forms] in FS, where Tolkien joins the words with a, seemingly simply a variant of the common conjunction ar). In one source, yo is apparently a preposition "with" (yo hildinyar* = "with my heirs", SD:56).
-yë (4) conj. "and" as a suffix added to the second of a pair, as Menel Cemenyë "Heaven and Earth" (VT47:30, 31, VT49:25). Other "pairs" are mentioned as examples but not actually translated into Quenya by Tolkien: Sun and Moon (*Anar Isilyë), Land and Sea (*Nór Eäryë), fire and water (*nárë nenyë, or *úr nenyë).
a (2) conj. "and", a variant of ar occurring in Fíriel's Song (that also has ar; a seems to be used before words in f-, but contrast ar formenna "and northwards" in a late text, VT49:26). According to PE17:41, "Old Quenya" could have the conjunction a (as a variant of ar) before n, ñ, m, h, hy, hw (f is not mentioned), PE17:71 adding ty, ny, hr, hl, ñ, l, r, þ, s. See ar #1. It may be that the a or the sentence nornë a lintieryanen "he ran with his speed" (i.e. as quickly as he could) is to be understood as this conjunction, if the literal meaning is "he ran and [did so] with his speed" (PE17:58).
arë conj. "and", longer form of ar, q.v. (VT43:31)
man pron. "who" (Nam, RGEO:67, FS, LR:59, Markirya, MC:213, 214); cf. PM:357 note 18, where a reference is made to the Eldarin interrogative element ma, man). However, man is translated "what" in LR:59: man-ië? "what is it?" (LR:59; the stative-verb suffix -ië_ is hardly valid in LotR-style Quenya) _Either Tolkien later adjusted the meaning of the word, or man covers both "who" and "what". Cf. also mana, manen.
manpronoun. who, *[ᴹQ.] what
san (2) adv. ephemeral word for "so" (ya(n)...san "as...so"; san na "thus be" = let it be so, "amen"); this form was apparently quickly abandoned by Tolkien (VT43:16, 24, VT49.18)
yó ("yô"), yond- see yondo. The genitive form of the relative pronoun ya "which" would likely also appear as yó "of which, from which" (for ya-o, cf. tó "thence" from ta-o).
attonoun. daddy, father (familiar/family)
i²pronoun. who, what, which, that
tás adv. "there" (VT49:11); also tassë, q.v.
ataryo, also taryo (cited as (a)taryo), noun "daddy", also used as a name for the thumb in children's play, but Tolkien emended it to atto/atya (VT48:4). Compare atar "father".
tambë prep. (1) "so" or "as" (referring to something remote; contrast sívë). Sívë...tambë "as...so" (VT43:17).
tassë adv. "there" (VT49:11), short form tás. These seem to be properly locative forms of ta "that, it", hence "in that [place]". Compare allative tanna "thither" and ablative talo "thence".
sanomë adv. "there" (PE17:71). Cf. sinomë, tanomë.
tanomëadverb. there, (lit.) in the place (referred to)
-vë, (3) apparently an ending used to derive adverbs from adjectives (see andavë under anda and oiavë under oia). May be related to the preposition ve "as, like".
ve (1) prep. "as, like" (Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya, MC:213, 214, VT27:20, 27, VT49:22); in Narqelion ve may mean either "in" or "as". Ve fírimor quetir *"as mortals say" (VT49:10), ve senwa (or senya) "as usual" (VT49:10). Followed by genitive, ve apparently expresses "after the manner of": ve quenderinwë coaron ("k") "after the manner of bodies of Elven-kind" (PE17:174). Tolkien variously derived Quenya ve from older wē, bē or vai(VT49:10, 32, PE17:189)
i eru i or ilyë mahalmar ëa(the one/they) who; (that) which
i (2) relative pronoun "(the one/they) who; (that) which" (both article and relative pronoun in CO: i Eru i or ilyë mahalmar ëa: the One who is above all thrones", i hárar "(they) who are sitting"); cf. also the phrase i hamil mára "(that) which you deem good" (VT42:33). Notice that before a verb, i means "the one who", or, in the case of a plural verb, "those who"; e.g. i carir quettar ómainen "those who form words with voices" (WJ:391). According to VT47:21, i as a relative pronoun is the personal plural form (corresponding to the personal sg. ye and the impersonal sg. ya). This agrees with the example i carir..., but as is evident from the other examples listed above, Tolkien in certain texts also used i as a singular relative pronoun, both personal (Eru i...) and impersonal (i hamil). In the sense of a plural personal relative pronoun, i is also attested in the genitive (ion) and ablative (illon) cases, demonstrating that unlike the indeclinable article i, the relative pronoun i can receive case endings. Both are translated "from whom": ion / illon camnelyes "from whom you received it" (referring to several persons) (VT47:21).
enthere, look! yon (yonder)
en (1) interjection "there, look! yon (yonder)" (EN, VT45:12)
men (3) pron. "who", evidently a misreading or miswriting for man (MC:221, in Markirya)
ter (2), also tér, prep. (?) ephemeral word for "so" (see ier), abandoned by Tolkien in favour of tambë (VT43:17)