Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Middle Primitive Elvish

i

root. intensive prefix

Element in

  • ᴹ✶Indise “bride” ✧ Ety/I²
  • ᴹ✶Ithil “moon” ✧ Ety/I²

Variations

  • I ✧ Ety/I²; EtyAC/I²
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/I²; EtyAC/I²] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ni

pronoun. I

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. ni “I”
  • ᴹQ. -nye “I” ✧ Ety/NI²

Element in

Variations

  • NĪ² ✧ Ety/NI²
  • NI² ✧ EtyAC/NI²
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/NI²; EtyAC/NI²; PE21/61; PE21/65; PE22/092; PE22/094; PE22/095] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ī

article. the

Derivatives

  • On. i “the” ✧ PE21/58
Middle Primitive Elvish [PE21/58] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ī

root. to be

Middle Primitive Elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. woman

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NĪ/INI “female” ✧ PE21/55

Derivatives

  • On. “woman” ✧ EtyAC/NDIS
    • N. “woman, bride, lady” ✧ Ety/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NIS
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/NĒR; EtyAC/NDIS; PE21/55] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nis

root. woman

Derivatives

  • ᴹ√NDIS “*bride” ✧ Ety/NIS
    • ᴹ✶ndīse “bride” ✧ Ety/DER; Ety/I²; Ety/NDIS
    • N. dîs “bride” ✧ EtyAC/NIS
    • On. ndīs “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
      • N. dîs “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • ᴹQ. indis “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • ᴹQ. nis “woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • N. “woman, bride, lady” ✧ Ety/BES
    • N. dîs “bride” ✧ Ety/BES
    • On. ndīs “bride” ✧ EtyAC/NIS
    • N. dîs “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • On. ndissa “young woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • N. dess “young woman” ✧ Ety/BES; Ety/NDIS; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NIS
  • ᴹ✶ndīse “bride” ✧ Ety/NIS
    • N. dîs “bride” ✧ EtyAC/NIS
    • On. ndīs “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • N. dîs “bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
  • ᴹ✶nī̆s “woman” ✧ PE21/55
  • ᴹQ. nis “woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS; Ety/NĪ¹; Ety/NIS
  • ᴹQ. nissa “lady”
  • On. “woman” ✧ EtyAC/NDIS; Ety/NIS
    • N. “woman, bride, lady” ✧ Ety/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NIS

Variations

  • NĪ/NIS ✧ Ety/DER
  • NIS/NĪ ✧ Ety/NDIS
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/DER; Ety/NDIS; Ety/NĪ¹; Ety/NIS; EtyAC/NDIS; PE21/55] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nī̆s

noun. woman

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NIS “woman” ✧ PE21/55

Variations

  • nis ✧ Ety/NĒR
  • nīs- ✧ PE21/55
  • nīs ✧ PE21/64
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/NĒR; PE21/55; PE21/64] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sī̆/sē̆

pronoun. she

Derivations

  • ᴹ√S “demonstrative stem” ✧ Ety/S

Derivatives

  • N. he “she” ✧ Ety/S
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/S] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

root. intensive prefix

An “intensive” root addition described by Tolkien in The Etymologies from the 1930s (EtyAC/A). It was one of two basic intensive mechanisms, along with the (syllabic) prefixed N- (EtyAC/N). The prefixed vowel a- seems to have been used originally in Primitive Elvish when the base vowel was a, and similarly with E and I (EtyAC/E; Ety/I²); whether this was also true of the vowels o, u is unclear, as Tolkien didn’t mention them. These various vocalic intensifications were frequently accompanied by dynamic lengthening (doubling), with the example given by Tolkien being: ᴹ✶parkā “dry” → ᴹ✶apparkā “very dry, arid” (> N. afarch).

In the case of e- and i-, the examples were dero, dise → ᴹ✶Endero, ᴹ✶Indise “groom, bride”; these examples indicate that other kinds of consonant fortifications were possible, in this case nasalization of stops, which often replaced consonant-doubling for voiced stops in Primitive Elvish.

Specifically in the case of a-, however, it seems it could be used as a general intensive that “was distinct in origin, though similar in function, to the prefixed basic vowel”. Why this was true of a- alone is not clear, but there seems to have been some complex interplay between the vocalic intensives and the intensives derived from syllabic initial ṇ-, with the net result that the intensive prefix in Q. became an-, am-, añ-, depending on the initial consonant.

See the entry on the Quenya comparative for a more detailed discussion of the conceptual development of intensives in Eldarin.

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶a- “complete” ✧ EtyAC/TALÁT
  • ᴹ✶a- ✧ EtyAC/N
    • N. a- “intensive prefix” ✧ EtyAC/N
  • ᴹQ. an- “intensive prefix” ✧ EtyAC/A

Element in

  • ᴹ✶angosse “horror” ✧ EtyAC/GOS
  • ᴹ✶oññol- “strong smell” ✧ EtyAC/A
  • ᴹ✶parkā “dry” ✧ EtyAC/A

Variations

  • a ✧ EtyAC/GOS
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/A; EtyAC/GOS; EtyAC/N; EtyAC/TALÁT] Group: Eldamo. Published by

e

root. intensive prefix

Element in

  • ᴹ✶Endero “(?virile) young bridegroom” ✧ EtyAC/E
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/E] Group: Eldamo. Published by

root. be

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶eʒ- “to be”
    • ᴹQ. ea- “to be; to exist, have being, be found extant in the real world” ✧ PE22/122; PE22/122; PE22/122; PE22/122
  • ᴹQ. ea- “to be; to exist, have being, be found extant in the real world” ✧ PE19/048
  • ᴹQ. enge “ago, once (in past), †it was” ✧ PE19/048

Variations

  • Ē ✧ PE22/122
Middle Primitive Elvish [PE19/048; PE22/122] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eʒ-

verb. to be

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ “be”

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. ea- “to be; to exist, have being, be found extant in the real world” ✧ PE22/122; PE22/122; PE22/122; PE22/122

Variations

  • eʒe ✧ PE22/122
  • eñe ✧ PE22/122
Middle Primitive Elvish [PE22/122] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kayan

root. ten

Changes

  • KĀYANKAYAN ✧ Ety/KAYAN

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. kainen “ten” ✧ Ety/KAYAN
  • N. caer “ten” ✧ Ety/KAYAN

Variations

  • KAYAR ✧ Ety/KAYAN
  • KĀYAN ✧ EtyAC/KAYAN (KĀYAN)
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/KAYAN; EtyAC/KAYAN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mat

root. eat

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶ammat- “to devour” ✧ PE18/061
  • ᴹ✶amtā “jaws, animal’s mouth” ✧ PE18/062
  • ᴹ✶ōmat- “to eat away, devour, corrode”
  • ᴹ✶maita- “to feed” ✧ PE18/046
  • ᴹ✶mat- “to eat”
    • ᴹT. mat- “to eat”
  • ᴹ✶matna “food” ✧ EtyAC/MAT
    • N. mann “food” ✧ EtyAC/MAT
  • ᴹQ. mat “food, meal, meal, [ᴱQ.] meal time; [ᴹQ.] food”
  • ᴹQ. mat- “to eat” ✧ Ety/MAT; EtyAC/MAT; PE22/102
  • N. mad- “to eat” ✧ Ety/MAT; EtyAC/MAT

Element in

  • ᴹ✶madlī “honey-eater” ✧ Ety/LIS
  • N. megli “bear, (lit.) honey-eater” ✧ Ety/MAT; EtyAC/MAT (magli)
  • N. meglivorn “blackbear” ✧ Ety/MOR
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/LIS; Ety/MAT; Ety/MOR; EtyAC/MAT; PE18/046; PE18/061; PE18/062; PE22/093; PE22/102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ta

root. that

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶tad “thither” ✧ Ety/TA
    • ᴹQ. tar “thither, beyond” ✧ Ety/TA; PE19/052; PE21/58
    • On. “thither” ✧ PE19/052; PE21/58
  • ᴹQ. ta “that, it” ✧ Ety/TA
  • ᴹQ. tana “that (anaphoric)” ✧ Ety/TA
  • On. “thither” ✧ Ety/TA

Element in

  • ᴹ√TAN “*show” ✧ PE18/033; PE18/060
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/TA; PE18/033; PE18/060] Group: Eldamo. Published by

root. to be

Changes

  • YEĒ “to be” ✧ PE22/122

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. ye- “to be” ✧ PE22/123
  • ᴹQ. -ie “stative suffix” ✧ EtyAC/YĒ

Variations

  • Ī ✧ EtyAC/YĒ
  • I ✧ PE18/060
  • YE ✧ PE18/084 (YE); PE22/123 (YE)
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/YĒ; PE18/060; PE18/084; PE22/123] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ē

root. to be

Middle Primitive Elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by