Sindarin 

abonnen

proper name. After-born

A term for Men as the second-born children of Ilúvatar, after the Elves, also attested in its plural form Eboennin (WJ/387). It seems to be a compound of ab “after” and onnen “born”.

Cognates

  • Q. Apanónar “After-born” ✧ WJI/Abonnen; WJ/387; WJI/Apanónar

Elements

WordGloss
ab“after”
onnen“born”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Eboenninplural-✧ WJ/387; WJI/Apanónar
Sindarin [WJ/387; WJI/Abonnen; WJI/Apanónar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

and

adjective. long

Variations

  • ann ✧ PE17/012; PE17/040; PE17/121
  • ann- ✧ PE17/090
  • an(d) ✧ SA/an(d)
  • an(n)- ✧ VT42/28

Derivations

  • ANAD “long; far” ✧ PE17/040
  • andā “long, far” ✧ PE17/090
    • ANAD “long; far” ✧ PE17/090

Cognates

  • Q. anda “long, far” ✧ PE17/040; PE17/090

Element in

  • S. Anach “?Long Neck”
  • S. anann “(for) long”
  • S. andaith “long-mark”
  • S. Andram “Long Wall” ✧ SA/an(d)
  • S. Andras “Long Cape”
  • S. Andrast “Long Cape”
  • S. Angast “Long Cape” ✧ VT42/28
  • S. Andrath “Long Climb”
  • S. andreth “long-suffering, patience”
  • S. Androth “*Long Cave”
  • S. Anduin “Great River, (lit.) Long River” ✧ PE17/012; PE17/040; RC/765; SA/an(d)
  • S. Anfalas “Langstrand, (lit.) Long Beach” ✧ SA/an(d)
  • S. Anfang “Longbeard”
  • S. angerthas “runic alphabetic, (lit.) long rune-rows” ✧ SA/an(d)
  • ᴺS. annas “length”
  • S. Ann-thennath “*Long-shorts”
  • S. Cair Andros “Ship of Long Foam” ✧ SA/an(d)
  • S. i arben na megil and “Knight of the Long Sword” ✧ PE17/147

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
andā > ann-[andā] > [anda] > [and] > [ann]✧ PE17/090
Sindarin [PE17/012; PE17/040; PE17/090; PE17/121; PE17/147; RC/765; SA/an(d); VT42/28] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ang

noun. iron

Derivations

  • angā “iron” ✧ PM/347

Cognates

  • Q. anga “iron” ✧ PM/347; SA/anga

Element in

  • S. Angband “Iron Prison” ✧ SA/anga
  • S. Angbor “*Iron-fist”
  • S. Anghabar “Iron-delvings” ✧ SA/anga
  • S. Anglachel “*Iron-of-the-flaming-star” ✧ SA/anga
  • S. Angmar “*Iron Home” ✧ RC/020
  • S. angren “of iron” ✧ SA/anga
  • S. Angrist “Iron-cleaver” ✧ SA/anga
  • S. Angrod “*Iron Champion” ✧ SA/anga
  • S. Angruin “Iron Fire”
  • S. Anguirel “*Iron-of-the-fiery-star” ✧ SA/anga
  • S. Gurthang “Iron of Death” ✧ SA/anga
  • ᴺS. hadang “javelin, (lit.) hurling iron”
  • ᴺS. thornang “steel”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
angā > ang[aŋgā] > [aŋga] > [aŋg] > [aŋ]✧ PM/347
Sindarin [PM/347; RC/020; SA/anga] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anghabar

place name. Iron-delvings

A mine in the Echoriath (S/138), translated as “Iron-delvings” by Christopher Tolkien in the Silmarillion Appendix (SI/Anghabar). Its initial element is clearly ang “iron” (SA/ang), so its second element must mean “delving”, possibly a lenited form habar of the word *sabar (attested only in compounds).

Elements

WordGloss
ang“iron”
sabar“delving”
Sindarin [SA/anga; SI/Anghabar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andaith

noun. long-mark

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
taith“sign, symbol, mark, sign, symbol; mark, [N.] stroke; [G.] letter”
Sindarin [PE17/123] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angbor

masculine name. *Iron-fist

The lord of Lamedon during the War of the Ring (LotR/875). His name was not translated by Tolkien, but it appears to be a compound of ang “iron” and the suffixal form -bor of paur “fist” (also seen in Celebrimbor), as suggested by Hammond and Scull (RC/588) among others.

Conceptual Development: The name N. Angbor already had its final form when it first appeared in Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s (WR/419).

Elements

WordGloss
ang“iron”
paur“fist, (closed) hand”
Sindarin [LotRI/Angbor] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angruin

masculine name. Iron Fire

A proposed alternate name of Glaurung, but the change was rejected (PE17/183). This name is a combination of ang “iron” and ruin “fiery red”.

Elements

WordGloss
ang“iron”
ruin“red flame; fiery red”
Sindarin [PE17/183] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anglachel

proper name. *Iron-of-the-flaming-star

A sword “made of iron that fell from heaven as a blazing star” (S/201). Given its origin, its name might be a combination of ang “iron”, lach “flame” and êl “star” (SA/ang, lhach).

Elements

WordGloss
ang“iron”
lach“(leaping) flame”
êl“star”
Sindarin [S/201; SA/anga; SA/lhach; SI/Anglachel; UTI/Anglachel; WJI/Anglachel] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anann

adverb. (for) long

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
an“to, for, to, for; [N. and G.] of”
and“long”
Sindarin [Let/448; LotR/0953; PE17/102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adbed-

verb. to rephrase

Variations

  • adbed ✧ PE17/167
Sindarin [PE17/167] Group: Eldamo. Published by

air

adjective. lonely

Variations

  • îr ✧ VT50/18; VT50/18

Derivations

  • eryā “isolated, lonely” ✧ PE17/028; VT50/18
    • ER “one, single, alone, one, single, alone; [ᴹ√] be alone, deprived; [ᴱ√] remain alone”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
eryā > eir > air[erjā] > [erja] > [eria] > [eri] > [eir] > [air]✧ PE17/028
eryā > erı̯a > erı̯ > irı̯ > îr[erja] > [erja] > [eria] > [eri] > [iri] > [ir] > [īr]✧ VT50/18
Sindarin [PE17/028; VT50/18] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alf

noun. flower

Derivations

  • GALAB “flower” ✧ PE17/153
    • GAL “grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, grow (like plants), flourish, be healthy, be vigorous, bloom, [ᴹ√] thrive” ✧ PE17/153

Cognates

  • Q. alba “flower” ✧ PE17/153

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
GAL-AB > alf[alba] > [alva] > [alv]✧ PE17/153
Sindarin [PE17/153] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ann-thennath

proper name. *Long-shorts

A mode of Elvish verse, possibly a combination of and “long”, thent “short” and the class-plural suffix -ath, as suggested by Patrick Wynne and Carl Hostetter (Tolkien’s Legendarium, p. 115).

Variations

  • ann-thennath ✧ LotR/0193

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
thent“short”
-ath“collective or group plural”
Sindarin [LotR/0193; LotRI/Ann-thennath] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar(a)-

prefix. noble, royal, high

Variations

  • ara ✧ Let/426; PE22/148
  • ar(a) ✧ LotR/1038
  • ara- ✧ PE17/113
  • ar- ✧ PE17/139
  • aran/ar(a) ✧ PM/193
  • Ar(a)- ✧ RC/347

Derivations

  • RĀ/ARA “noble, high, royal”
  • S. aran “king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)” ✧ Let/426
    • ARAN “good, excellent, noble” ✧ PE17/147

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
S. aran > ara[aran-] > [ara-]✧ Let/426
Sindarin [Let/426; LotR/1038; PE17/113; PE17/139; PE22/148; PM/193; RC/347] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aranel

masculine name. Aranel

A name of Dior. The meaning of the name is unclear, but it might be a combination aran “king” and the suffixal form -el of Ell “elf” (as suggested by David Salo, GS/341).

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
Ell“Elf”
Sindarin [SI/Aranel; SI/Dior; WJI/Aranel] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cund

noun. *prince

This word is only directly attested in The Etymologies, appearing as N. †cunn “prince” (Ety/KUNDŪ) and marked as an archaic form (EtyAC/KUNDŪ). It still appears in later writings as a element in some first-age Sindarin names from The Silmarillion: Baragund, Belegund and (perhaps) Felagund. Its Quenya cognate Q. cundo also appears in later writings (PM/260, PE17/117-8), indicating that †cund may have remained conceptually valid. Elsewhere, the third-age Sindarin word for “prince” is said to be caun (PE17/102), so it seems likely the older form †cund fell out use.

Derivatives

  • S. caun “prince, chief, head”

Derivations

  • kundō “prince, leader, lord”
    • KUN(DU) “to lead; lord, to lead; lord, [ᴹ√] prince” ✧ PE17/113

Cognates

  • Q. cundo “lord, guardian, lord, guardian, [ᴹQ.] prince”

Element in

  • S. Baragund “*Fiery-prince”
  • S. Belegund “*Great-prince”
  • S. felagund “den-dweller; brock, badger” ✧ NM/304
  • S. Felagund “Lord of Caves; Hewer of Caves; Den Dweller” ✧ NM/304

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-gundsoft-mutation-✧ NM/304

anguirel

proper name. *Iron-of-the-fiery-star

A companion sword to Anglachel, constructed from the same fiery meteor (S/202). Its initial element is probably ang “iron” (SA/eng) and its final element may be êl “star”. Its middle element may be related to the root √UR “heat, be hot”, perhaps an otherwise unattested adjective ?uir “fiery”, though David Salo suggested it might be (N.) uir “eternity” (GS/359).

Variations

  • Anguriel ✧ SA/anga

Elements

WordGloss
ang“iron”
uir“*fiery”
êl“star”
Sindarin [S/202; SA/anga; SI/Anguirel] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ancalagon

masculine name. Biting-Storm

Greatest of the dragons, slain by Eärendil (S/252). His name is translated “Biting-Storm”, possibly a combination of anc “jaw” and a variant of (N.) alagos “storm of wind”.

Conceptual Development: This name first appeared in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (SM/160). The name is translated in The Etymologies from the 1930s (Ety/NAK) but not in later writings. The decomposition above is derived from the entries in The Etymologies (Ety/ÁLAK, ÁNAK, NAK).

Elements

WordGloss
anc“jaw, row of teeth”
alagos“storm (of wind)”
Sindarin [LotRI/Ancalagon; PMI/Ancalagon; SA/alqua; SA/anca; SI/Ancalagon; WJI/Ancalagon] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angrist

proper name. Iron-cleaver

Beren’s knife (S/177), translated in the Silmarillion Index as “Iron-cleaver” (SI/Angrist), a combination of ang “iron” and the lenited form grist of crist “cleaver” (SA/anga, ris).

Conceptual Development: In Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s, this name was already as N. Angrist at its first appearance (LR/303).

Elements

WordGloss
ang“iron”
crist“cleaver, cleaver; [N.] sword; [G.] knife; slash, slice”
Sindarin [LT2I/Angrist; SA/anga; SA/ris; SI/Angrist] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angren

adjective. of iron

Variations

  • Angren ✧ PE17/032; UT/318; UTI/Isen

Cognates

  • Roh. Isen ✧ UTI/Isen

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
engrinplural-✧ SA/anga
Engrinplural-✧ UT/264
Sindarin [PE17/032; SA/anga; UT/264; UT/318; UTI/Isen] Group: Eldamo. Published by

annúnaid

proper name. Westron

The Sindarin name for the “Westron” language (PM/316). Its initial element is clearly annûn “west”, but the meaning of the suffix -aid is unclear. It might be some variation on the gerund-suffix -ed/-ad seen in nouns like genediad “reckoning”, though this suffix usually forms nouns from verbs, not adjectives.

Cognates

  • Wes. Adûni “Westron” ✧ PM/316

Elements

WordGloss
annûn“sunset, west; (lit.) going down”
?
Sindarin [PM/316; PMI/Annúnaid] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arahadhw

noun. throne, (lit.) high seat

Variations

  • arahaðm ✧ PE22/148
  • arahaðw ✧ PE22/148
  • archaf ✧ PE22/148

Cognates

  • Q. tarhanwa “throne, (lit.) high seat” ✧ PE22/148

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
hadhu“seat, seat, *chair”
Sindarin [PE22/148] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cened

noun. looking, looking, *seeing

Variations

  • Cened ✧ PE17/037 (Cened)

Element in

  • S. cenedril “mirror, looking-glass, (lit.) looking-crystal” ✧ PE17/037

Elements

WordGloss
cen-“to see, perceive, look”
-ed“gerund”
Sindarin [PE17/037] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aglarond

place name. Glittering Cavern

The caverns of Helm’s Deep, translated “Glittering Caves” (LotR/548) or “Glittering Cavern” (RC/421). It is a compound of aglar “brilliance” and rond “vault, high roofed cavern” (RC/421; SA/aglar, rond).

Conceptual Development: This name first appeared as N. Aglarond “Caves of Splendour” in Lord of the Ring drafts from the 1940s (WR/76), probably already with the etymology given above.

Cognates

  • Roh. Glæ̂mscrafu “Caves of Radiance” ✧ UT/371; UTI/Glæ̂mscrafu

Elements

WordGloss
aglar“glory, brilliance, splendour, radiance”
rond“(vaulted or arched) roof; vaulted chamber or cavern; heavens [as a roof of the world]”
Sindarin [Let/282; LotR/0548; LotRI/Aglarond; LotRI/Glittering Caves; RC/421; SA/aglar; SA/rond; SI/Aglarond; UT/371; UTI/Aglarond; UTI/Glæ̂mscrafu] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon hen

place name. Hill of Sight, (lit.) Hill of the Eye

A hill on the shore of Nen Hithoel, companion to Amon Lhaw. This name was usually translated “Hill of Sight” (LotR/393), but more literally meant “Hill of the Eye” (LotR/400, PE17/77). It is a combination of amon “hill” and hen “eye”.

Conceptual Development: In Lord of the Rings drafts, this hill was first named ᴹQ. TirmindonWatch Tower” (TI/364), but was soon changed to N. Amon Hen(n)* (TI/364, WR/128).

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
hen“eye”
Sindarin [LotR/0393; LotR/0400; LotRI/Amon Hen; LotRI/Hill of the Eye; PE17/077] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aphadon

noun. follower

Variations

  • Aphadon ✧ WJ/387

Element in

  • S. Aphadon “Men, (lit.) Followers” ✧ WJ/387

Elements

WordGloss
aphad-“to follow”
-on“masculine suffix”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Ephedynplural“Followers”✧ WJ/387
Aphadrimclass-plural-✧ WJ/387

aderthad

noun. reuniting

Variations

  • Aderthad ✧ S/113

Element in

aeg

adjective. sharp, sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing

Variations

  • Aeg ✧ SA/nár (Aeg)

Element in

  • S. aeglir “line of peaks, line of peaks, [N.] range of mountain peaks; [ᴱN.] peak, mountain top”
  • S. Aeglos “Snow-point”
  • S. aeglos “icicle, (lit.) snow-point; snowthorn (a plant)”
  • S. Aegnor “Fell Fire, Sharp Flame” ✧ SA/nár
  • S. Crissaegrim “*Cleft Mountain Peaks”
  • S. Ecthelion “?One with Sharp Will”
  • S. Egalmoth “Pointed Helm-crest”
Sindarin [PM/347; SA/nár] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a elbereth gilthoniel

A Elbereth Gilthoniel

A Sindarin song in praise of Elbereth, from the Fellowship of the Ring (LotR/238), generally known by its first line: A Elbereth Githoniel. There is a related invocation spoken by Samwise in the Two Towers (LotR/729), which is often treated as a “second verse” of this poem. Both verses are untranslated in The Lord of the Rings, but Tolkien wrote extensive commentary on the poem(s) in RGEO/63-67. A translation of Sam’s invocation also appears on Let/278.

Elements

WordGloss
a Elbereth Gilthoniel“o Elbereth who lit the stars”
silivren penna míriel“from glittering crystal slanting falls with light like jewels”
o menel aglar elenath“from heaven on high the glory of the starry host”
na-chaered palan-díriel“to lands remote I have looked afar”
o galadhremmin ennorath“from tree-tangled middle-lands”
Fanuilos, le linnathon“and now to thee, Fanuilos, bright spirit clothed in ever-white, I will ... sing”
nef aear, sí nef aearon“here ... beyond the Sea, beyond the wide and sundering Sea”
a Elbereth Gilthoniel“o Elbereth who lit the stars”
o menel palan-diriel“from heaven gazing far”
le nallon sí di’nguruthos“here overwhelmed in dread of Death I cry”
a tiro nin, Fanuilos“o guard me, Elbereth”

a elbereth gilthoniel

o Elbereth who lit the stars

Element in

a elbereth gilthoniel

o Elbereth who lit the stars

Variations

  • [A Elbereth Gilthoniel] ✧ Let/278; RGEO/64
  • A Elbereth Gilthoniel ✧ LotR/0238; LotR/0729; LotR/1028; PE17/020; PE17/021; PE17/021; PE17/021; PE17/021; PE17/021; RGEO/63; RGEO/64
  • Gilthoniel, A! Elbereth ✧ LotR/1028
  • A Elbereth Gil-thoniel ✧ RGEO/64

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
a“O!”
Elbereth“Queen of Stars, (lit.) Star-queen”
Gilthoniel“Star-kindler”
Sindarin [Let/278; LotR/0238; LotR/0729; LotR/1028; PE17/020; PE17/021; RGEO/63; RGEO/64] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amarthan

masculine name. Fated One

A Sindarin translation of Q. Umbarto, derived from amarth “fate, doom” (VT41/10).

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
amarth“fate, doom”
Sindarin [VT41/10] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amloth

noun. uprising flower

Cognates

Element in

  • S. Egalmoth “Pointed Helm-crest” ✧ WJ/318

Elements

WordGloss
am“up, up, [G.] upwards, towards head of, above”
loth“flower, single blossom; inflorescence, head of small flowers”

amon ereb

place name. Lonely Hill

A hill in East Beleriand where Denethor died (S/122), translated “Lonely Hill” (LR/143, WJ/185). This name is a combination of amon “hill” and ereb “lonely” (SA/er, Ety/ERE).

Conceptual Development: In Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s, this hill was briefly named N. Amon Thoros (of unclear meaning), but this was changed to Amon Ereb, translated “Lonely Hill” (LR/56). The name also appeared in The Etymologies with the derivation given above (Ety/ERE).

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
ereb“single, alone, lonely, single, alone, lonely, [N.] isolated”
Sindarin [SA/er; SI/Amon Ereb; UTI/Amon Ereb; WJI/Amon Ereb] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon lhaw

place name. Hill of Hearing, (lit.) *Hill of Ears

A hill on the shore of Nen Hithoel, companion to Amon Hen. This name was usually translated “Hill of Hearing” (LotR/393), but more literally meant “Hill of Ears” (LotR/400, PE17/77). It is a combination of amon “hill” and lhaw “ears”, the plural of lheweg* “ear”.

Conceptual Development: The first mention of these hills in Lord of the Rings drafts were a collection of experimental names like N. Lhawhen that combined the elements of hearing and sight (TI/387). When the hills were separated, this one was named ᴹQ. LarmindonListen Tower” (TI/364), but it was soon changed to N. Amon Lhaw* (TI/364).

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
lheweg“ear”
Sindarin [LotR/0393; LotRI/Amon Lhaw; LotRI/Hill of Hearing; PE17/077] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon obel

place name. Amon Obel

The hill on which Ephel Brandir was built (S/216). The first element is amon “hill”, but the meaning of the second element is unclear. It might be a lenited form ’obel of gobel “walled house or village, town”, but in Tolkien’s later writings, nouns were not usually lenited in this position. A likelier explanation is that the second element might be the Halathian word obel “town”.

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
obel“town”
Sindarin [LRI/Amon Obel; LT2I/Amon Obel; SI/Amon Obel; UTI/Amon Obel; WJI/Amon Obel] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an-

prefix. intensive prefix

Cognates

  • Q. an- “intensive prefix”

Element in

anach

place name. ?Long Neck

A pass between the Crissaegrim and Ered Gorgoroth (S/201). The meaning of the name is unclear, but it might be a compound of and “long” and ach “neck”.

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
ach“neck, neck, *spine”
Sindarin [LT2I/Anach; SI/Anach; UTI/Anach; WJI/Anach] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andram

place name. Long Wall

A wall of hills in Beleriand from Nargothrond to Ramdal, translated “Long Wall” (S/122). This name is a combination of and “long” and ram “wall” (SA/an(d), ram).

Conceptual Development: The name N. Andram first appeared in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s with the same translation “Long Wall” (LR/262). It also appeared in The Etymologies from the 1930s with the same derivation as above (Ety/ÁNAD, RAMBĀ).

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
ram“wall”
Sindarin [S/122; SA/an(d); SA/ram; SI/Andram; WJI/Andram] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andras

place name. Long Cape

A cape south of Brithombar. This name is similar in form and has the same translation (“Long Cape”) as Andrast (WJ/189, note #56). It is also a combination of and “long” and ras(t) “cape”.

Conceptual Development: This name appeared on Tolkien’s private map of Beleriand (WJ/184) but not in the maps published in The Silmarillion. It is also mentioned in Tolkien’s Quendi and Eldar essay from 1959-60 (WJ/379).

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
ras(t)“cape, shore”
Sindarin [WJI/Andras] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andrast

place name. Long Cape

A cape in southwest Gondor translated “Long Cape” (UT/214, note #6). This name is a combination of and “long” and ras(t) “cape”.

Conceptual Development: An earlier form of this name Angast appeared in Tolkien’s essay on the “Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor” (VT42/8, 15), composed between 1967-9 (VT42/5). The revised name Andrast is mentioned in notes for the posthumously published story “Aldarion and Erendis” (UT/214, note #6). The name was first published in the Pauline Baynes poster map of Middle Earth, made in consulation with Tolkien in 1969 (RC/lxiv).

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
ras(t)“cape, shore”
Sindarin [RC/lxiv; UT/214; UTI/Andrast; WJI/Andrast] Group: Eldamo. Published by

androth

place name. *Long Cave

Caves where Tuor dwelled in his youth (S/238). The name was not translated, but it is most likely a compound of and “long” and the lenited form roth of groth “cave”.

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
groth“large excavation, delving, underground dwelling, large excavation, delving, underground dwelling; [N.] cave, tunnel, [G.] grot”
Sindarin [SI/Androth; UTI/Androth; WJI/Androth] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anfang

proper name. Longbeard

The Dwarvish tribe of northwestern Middle Earth, also known as Durin’s Folk (PM/321). The name translates as “Longbeard”, a compound of and “long” and fang “beard” (PM/321). The name also appears in its plural form Enfeng and its class-plural Anfangrim (PM/321, WJ/10).

Conceptual Development: In the Lost Tales and the earliest Silmarillion drafts this tribe was called the G. Indrafang (LT2/68, SM/104). In the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s, the variant form G. Surfang or Fangsur also appeared (GL/68). The name was later changed to N. Enfeng (plural) in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/274), and the singular form N. An(d)fang appeared in The Etymologies (Ety/ÁNAD, SPÁNAG).

The name S. Enfeng appeared in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (WJ/10, 75), but did not appear in the published version of The Silmarillion. The name was referenced in some notes to Tolkien’s essay “Of Dwarves and Men”, composed around 1969, along with Khuzdul and Quenya translations (PM/321).

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
fang“beard, beard, [G.] long beard”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Anfangrimclass-plural“Longbeards”✧ PM/321; PMI/Anfangrim; WJI/Anfangrim
Enfengplural“Longbeards”✧ WJ/010; WJI/Enfeng
Ennfengplural-✧ WJI/Enfeng
Sindarin [PM/321; PMI/Anfangrim; WJ/010; WJI/Anfangrim; WJI/Enfeng] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anglenna-

verb. to approach

Cognates

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
an“to, for, to, for; [N. and G.] of”
glenna-“*to travel”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
anglennathafuture“will approach”✧ SD/129

annon-in-gelydh

place name. Gate of the Noldor

Entrance to a tunnel leading from Dor-lómin to Cirith Ninniach, translated “Gate of the Noldor” (S/238). It is a combination of annon “gate”, the plural in of the definite article i, and the plural Gelydh of Golodh “Noldo”.

Elements

WordGloss
annon“(great) gate, door”
i“the”
Golodh“one of the wise folk, Noldo”
Sindarin [S/238; SA/annon; SA/golodh; SI/Annon-in-Gelydh; SI/Golodhrim; SMI/Annon-in-Gelydh; UTI/Annon-in-Gelydh; WJI/Annon-in-Gelydh] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anwar

noun. awe

Variations

  • Anwar ✧ UT/301; UTI/Anwar

Element in

Sindarin [UT/301; UTI/Anwar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar-

prefix. without; by; **beside, [N.] outside; [S.] without; by, beside, [G.] along with, compared with

Derivations

  • AR “beyond, further than; outside; beside, along side, beyond, further than; outside; beside, along side; [ᴱ√] spread, extend sideways”
  • ÑAR “by, beside, near” ✧ PE17/169; PE17/169

Cognates

  • Q. ar- “by-, beside, near, by-, beside, near; [ᴹQ.] outside” ✧ PE17/169; PE17/169

Element in

  • S. arnediad “unnumbered, unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
  • S. arnoediad “unnumbered, without reckoning”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ÑAR > ar-[ŋar-] > [ar-]✧ PE17/169
Sindarin [PE17/169; VT42/17] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aradan

masculine name. *Noble-man

The Sindarin name of Malach (S/143), a combination of the prefix ar(a)- “noble” and the noun Adan “Man” (SA/ar(a), adan).

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
Adan“Man (as a species)”
Sindarin [SA/adan; SA/ar(a); SI/Aradan; WJI/Aradan; WJI/Malach] Group: Eldamo. Published by

araglas

masculine name. *Royal-joy

The 6th chieftain of the Dúnedain (LotR/1038). The initial element of his name is the prefix ar(a)- “noble” and its final element might be (N.) glass “joy” (as suggested by David Salo, GS/341).

Conceptual Development: In the draft of Appendix A of the Lord of the Rings, his name was first given as Arallas, revised to Araglas (PM/211).

Variations

  • Arallas ✧ PMI/Araglas (Arallas)

Changes

  • ArallasAraglas ✧ PMI/Araglas

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
glass“joy, *happiness”
Sindarin [LotRI/Araglas; PMI/Araglas] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ad-

prefix. back, again, re-

Derivations

  • AT “two, double, bi-, di-; back, re-; across, over, lying from side to side, two, double, bi-, di-; back, re-, [ᴹ√] again, twice; [ᴱ√] dual; [√] across, over, lying from side to side” ✧ PE17/167

Cognates

  • Q. at(a)- “double, second time, double, [repeat a] second time; [ᴱQ.] bi-, twi-; [ᴹQ.] back, again, re-”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ATA > ad-[at-] > [ad-]✧ PE17/167
Sindarin [PE17/167] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aeglos

proper name. Snow-point

Spear of Gil-galad (S/294), translated “Snow-point” (SI/Aeglos), a compound of aeg “point” and loss “snow” (SA/los). In editions of The Lord of the Rings prior to 2005, this name was spelled Aiglos (RC/231), but Tolkien commented that this was only a variant spelling for English speakers who would have difficulty distinguishing [ae] and [ai] (VT42/11). The word aeglos was also the Sindarin name for a plant, translated “snowthorn”.

Variations

  • Aiglos ✧ VT42/11 (Aiglos)

Changes

  • AiglosAeglos ✧ VT42/11

Elements

WordGloss
aeg“sharp, sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”
loss“snow”
Sindarin [LotRI/Aeglos; SA/los; SI/Aeglos; UT/148; UTI/Aeglos; VT42/11] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon anwar

place name. Hill of Awe

The Gondorian name for Roh. Halifirien, translated “Hill of Awe” (UT/301). It is a combination of amon “hill” and anwar “awe”, sometimes referred to simply as Anwar, as in the “Woods of Anwar” and the “wardens of Anwar” (UT/306).

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
anwar“awe”
Sindarin [UT/301; UTI/Amon Anwar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon ethir

place name. Hill of Spies

An artificial hill near Nargothrond from which the Elves could observe the surrounding country. It was translated “Hill of Spies” (S/217, WJ/149), a combination of amon “hill” and ethir “spy”.

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
ethir“spy”
Sindarin [LT2I/Amon Ethir; S/217; SI/Amon Ethir; UTI/Amon Ethir; WJ/149; WJI/Amon Ethir] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andrath

place name. Long Climb

A defile crossing the Greenway between the Barrow-downs and the South Downs, translated by Christopher Tolkien as “long climb” (UT/278, 348). This name is a combination of and “long” and rath “(climbing) street”.

Conceptual Development: This location first appeared in Lord of the Rings drafts with the name N. Amrath (perhaps “?up-course”), soon changed to Andrath (TI/72, 79). It also appeared on draft maps for the Lord of the Rings (TI/298, 305), but the name did not appear in the published book or its maps. The location was mentioned again in Tolkien’s private essays on “The Hunt for the Ring” (UT/348). In a different essay on “The Disaster at Gladden Fields”, the name Andrath was applied to the “high-climbing pass” over the Misty Mountains, the pass that Bilbo and the Dwarves used in the Hobbit, more fully Cirith Forn en Andrath (UT/271, 278 note #4).

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
rath“street, street; [N.] course, river-bed”
Sindarin [UT/278; UTI/Andrath] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arador

masculine name. *Noble-lord

The 14th chieftain of the Dúnedain, grandfather of Aragorn (LotR/1038). The initial element of his name is the prefix ar(a)- “noble” and its final element might be -dor “lord”.

Conceptual Development: In the draft of Appendix A of the Lord of the Rings, his name was first given as Arv[or]eg (4th and 5th letters unclear), revised to Arador (PM/211).

Variations

  • ?Arvoreg ✧ PMI/Arador (?Arvoreg)

Changes

  • ?ArvoregArador ✧ PMI/Arador

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
-dor“*king, lord”
Sindarin [LotRI/Arador; PMI/Arador] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ach

noun. neck, neck, *spine

Variations

  • ach ✧ PE17/092

Derivations

  • AKAS “neck, ridge” ✧ PE17/092

Cognates

  • Q. acas “neck (vertebrae), rock ridge, neck [vertebrae], *spine; rock ridge” ✧ PE17/092

Element in

  • S. achad “rock ridge, neck (geographically)” ✧ PE17/092
  • S. Anach “?Long Neck”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
AKAS > aks > ach[akse] > [axxe] > [axx] > [ax]✧ PE17/092
Sindarin [PE17/092] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon

noun. hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope

The basis Sindarin word for “hill”. In one set of notes from around 1967, Tolkien said it could be applied also to any “lump, clump, mass” (PE17/93). In this same note Tolkien said it was “often applied to (especially isolated) mountains”, the most notable example being S. Amon Amarth “Mount Doom”. Its plural form emyn “hills” also appears in many names.

Conceptual Development: This word had a long history in Tolkien’s Elvish languages. It first appeared as G. amon “hill, mount, steep slope” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/19), where it was probably a derivative of the early root ᴱ√AM(U) “up(wards)”. ᴱN. amon “hill” also appears in Early Noldorin Word-lists from the 1920s again connected to am- “up” (PE13/137, 159), and was given as N. amon “hill” in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of the root ᴹ√AM “up” (Ety/AM²).

Its Quenya cognate Q. ambo was given as derivative of √AM “go up” in notes from 1967, but in other 1967 notes on the comparative, Tolkien coined some different roots as the basis for this S. amon “hill”, first √MAB “lump, mass” (PE17/90) and then √MBON, the latter being the basis for the alternate meanings “lump, clump, mass” mentioned above (PE17/90-93). Tolkien’s motivation for this change was that he wanted √AMA to have a new meaning “addition, increase, plus” to serve as the basis for the intensive.

Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I would assume S. amon was derived from √AM “up”, since I prefer Q. an- for intensives, but it may have been influenced by √MBON and this was the reason for its alternate meanings “lump, clump, mass”.

Variations

  • Amon ✧ PE17/033; RC/772; S/204; S/217; SA/er; UT/280; UT/301; VT42/17; WJ/187

Derivations

  • ambu(na) “*hilly” ✧ PE17/092
    • AM “go up, go up, [ᴹ√] up”
  • ṃbono “hill, lump, clump, mass” ✧ PE17/093
    • MBON “*lump, mass” ✧ PE17/093

Cognates

  • Q. ambo “hill, rising ground, mount” ✧ PE17/093
  • Q. umbo(n) “hill, lump, clump, mass, lump, clump, mass, hill” ✧ PE17/093

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ambuna > amon[ambuna] > [ambona] > [ambon] > [ammon] > [amon]✧ PE17/092
ṃbono > amon[ṃbono] > [ambono] > [ambon] > [ammon] > [amon]✧ PE17/093

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Emynplural“hills”✧ LotR/1097; LotRI/Emyn Uial; PE17/033; RC/334; UT/280; UTI/Emyn-nu-Fuin; VT42/17
emynplural-✧ LotR/1115; PE17/061; PE17/121
-Emynplural-✧ PM/186
Sindarin [LotR/1097; LotR/1115; LotRI/Emyn Uial; PE17/015; PE17/033; PE17/061; PE17/093; PE17/121; PM/186; RC/334; RC/772; S/204; S/217; SA/er; UT/255; UT/280; UT/301; UTI/Emyn-nu-Fuin; VT42/17; WJ/187] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aran

noun. king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)

Variations

  • Aran ✧ LotR/0305; PM/358
  • ara[n] ✧ PE17/147

Derivatives

  • S. ar(a)- “noble, royal, high” ✧ Let/426

Derivations

  • ARAN “good, excellent, noble” ✧ PE17/147

Cognates

  • Q. aran “king” ✧ PE17/147

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ARAN > aran[aran]✧ PE17/147

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
erainplural-✧ PE17/040; PE17/111
Erainplural“kings”✧ SA/ar(a)
Sindarin [Let/426; LotR/0305; PE17/040; PE17/111; PE17/113; PE17/147; PM/358; SA/ar(a); SD/128; SD/129] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bal-

verb. *to have power

Derivations

  • BAL “power; powerful, mighty; have power”

Cognates

  • Q. vala- “to have [divine] power”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
avalpast-✧ PE17/131
Sindarin [PE17/131] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dae-

prefix. dreadful, abominable, detestable

Element in

  • S. daebeth “blasphemy” ✧ PE17/151
  • S. daedelos “horrible fear” ✧ PE17/151

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ndae-soft-mutation-✧ PE17/151
Sindarin [PE17/151] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aglon

place name. Narrow Pass

A pass between Himring and Dorthonion (S/123). This name seems to be a compound of (N.) agor “narrow” and lond “strait, pass” (Ety/AK, LOND). This name sometimes appeared as Aglond, probably an older form of the name (WJ/338, Ety/AK).

Conceptual Development: The name ᴱN. Aglon first appeared in the Lays of Beleriand from the 1920s (LB/227) and N. Aglon was used in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/127, 265). In The Etymologies, it was translated as “defile, pass between high walls”, and this was the source of the derivation given above (Ety/AK, LOD).

Variations

  • Aglond ✧ WJI/Aglon

Elements

WordGloss
agor“narrow”
lond“(land-locked) haven, (land-locked) haven; [N.] narrow path, strait, pass”
Sindarin [SI/Aglon; WJI/Aglon] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angband

place name. Iron Prison

The fortress of Morgoth in the North, translated “Iron Prison” (WJ/15), a compound of ang “iron” and band “prison” (SA/ang, band).

Conceptual Development: The name G. Angband appeared in the earliest Lost Tales, but in these early stories it was translated “Hells of Iron” (LT2/77, GL/19). This translation persisted into Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (SM/13, LR/259). However, N. Angband was translated “Iron Prison” in The Etymologies (Ety/MBAD), and this was the usual interpretation in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (MR/305, WJ/15). Christopher Tolkien gave both translations in the Silmarillion Index (SI/Angband).

Cognates

  • Q. Angamando “Iron Prison, Iron-gaol” ✧ MR/350; MRI/Angband; SA/band

Elements

WordGloss
ang“iron”
band“prison, custody, duress, prison, custody, [N.] duress; [ᴱN.] hell”
Sindarin [LotRI/Angband; MR/350; MRI/Angband; PMI/Angband; SA/anga; SA/band; SI/Angband; UTI/Angband; WJ/015; WJI/Angband] Group: Eldamo. Published by

achad

noun. rock ridge, neck (geographically)

A noun mentioned in several places as a translation of “neck” as in Tarlang’s Neck (LotR/790), in Sindarin properly S. Achad Tarlang (PE17/92, 146; RC/537). It was a derivative of √AKAS “neck, ridge” (PE17/146). Somewhat curiously, S. lang “neck” was also an element in the name S. Tarlang. As Tolkien explained it:

> It is not certain whether this was named after some ancient man with the Sindarin name Tarlang (“stiff-neck” sc. “proud”) or was due to the obsolescence of Tarlang “the stiff, tough, passage” to which S achad had been prefixed in explanation, so that Achad Tarlang “the crossing called Tarlang” was interpreted as “Tarlang’s Neck”. Achad is another word for “neck”, referring properly only to the vertebrae (the bony part of the neck not including throat). √AKAS: Q akas (later akse) pl. aksi, S ach, geographically achad (< aks). This was also applied geographically to rock ridges. The Neck was not the name of the passage but of the lower, narrower ridge (crossed by the road) between the main mountains, and the mountainous region at southern end of the spur (PE17/92).

Hence S. lang refers to the entire throat, the passage from the mouth to the lungs/stomach, whereas S. ach was the vertebrae and upper spine, and achad was for geographic features resembling the spine, hence rock ridges.

Variations

  • achas ✧ PE17/146 (achas)
  • Achad ✧ RC/537

Changes

  • achasachad ✧ PE17/146

Derivations

  • AKAS “neck, ridge” ✧ PE17/146

Cognates

  • Q. acas “neck (vertebrae), rock ridge, neck [vertebrae], *spine; rock ridge” ✧ PE17/146; RC/537

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
AKAS > achad[akas] > [axad]✧ PE17/146
Sindarin [PE17/092; PE17/146; RC/537] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aewen

adjective. of birds

This is apparently an adjectival form of aew “(small) bird” appearing in the name Linaewen “Lake of Birds” (S/119, SA/lin¹, UT/401), formed using the adjective suffix -en.

Element in

  • S. Linaewen “Lake of Birds” ✧ SA/lin¹
Sindarin [SA/lin¹] Group: Eldamo. Published by

agar

noun. blood

Element in

  • S. Agarwaen “Blood-stained” ✧ S/210

aglor

adjective. brilliant, glorious

Derivations

  • aklāra “brilliant, glorious” ✧ PE18/087
    • KALAR “*be radiant, [ᴹ√] be radiant” ✧ PE18/087
    • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden” ✧ PE18/087

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
aklā́ra > aklōra > aglaur > aglor[aklāra] > [aklǭra] > [aklaura] > [aklaur] > [aglaur] > [aglor]✧ PE18/087
Sindarin [PE18/087] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon gwareth

place name. Amon Gwareth

The hill upon which Gondolin was built (S/126). The first word is clearly amon “hill”, but the meaning of the second word is unclear.

Conceptual Development: In the earliest Lost Tales, G. Amon Gwareth was translated “Hill of Watch” (LT2/158), and appeared in the Gnomish Lexicon as the lenited form Amon ’Wareth “Hill of Ward”. Similar translations of N. Amon Gwareth appeared early drafts of the Silmarillion from the beginning of the 1930s (SM/34, 137, 139), but the name was left untranslated in Tolkien’s later writings. It is unclear whether the name retained its original meaning. The closest forms in The Etymologies from the 1930s is N. gwarth “betrayer” < ᴹ√WAR “give way, betray” (Ety/WAR), but it seems unlikely this was connected.

According to Christopher Tolkien, this name was at one point revised to Amon Gwared (WJ/200) in the his father’s later writings, but this form did not appear in the published Silmarillion.

Variations

  • Amon Gwared ✧ WJ/200; WJI/Amon Gwareth

Changes

  • Amon GwarethAmon Gwared ✧ WJ/200

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
gwareth“watch, guard, ward; vigilance”
Sindarin [SI/Amon Gwareth; WJ/200; WJI/Amon Gwareth] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amrod

masculine name. *High and Lofty

Twin brother of Amras and youngest(?) of the sons of Fëanor (it is unclear which of the twins was born first). The name is a compound of am “up” and the suffixal form -rod of raud “lofty, noble” (PM/353, VT41/10), an adaption of his Quenya name Q. Ambarto (PM/353).

Conceptual Development: In the earliest Lost Tales, this character was first named G. Damrod (LT2/251), and the name remained N. Damrod in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/223). It appeared in The Etymologies with the gloss “hammerer of copper”, a combination of N. dam “hammer” and the lenited form of N. rhaud “metal” (Ety/NDAM, RAUTĀ).

The name was changed to S. Amrod in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (WJ/197). Elsewhere Tolkien said that Amrod would also have been the proper Sindarin adaption for the name of Ambarto’s cousin Q. Ambaráto, but that Noldorin Elf chose the Sindarin name Aegnor instead (PM/347).

Cognates

  • Q. Ambaráto “*High Champion” ✧ PM/347; PMI/Aegnor
  • Q. Ambarto “*High and Lofty” ✧ PM/353; PMI/Amrod; VT41/10

Elements

WordGloss
am“up, up, [G.] upwards, towards head of, above”
raud“noble, eminent; lofty, high, tall; excellent”
Sindarin [LT2/251; LT2I/Amrod; MRI/Amrod; PM/347; PM/353; PMI/Aegnor; PMI/Amrod; SI/Amrod; SMI/Amrod; SMI/Damrod; VT41/10; WJ/197; WJI/Amrod] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anna-

verb. to give, †add to

Variations

  • anha- ✧ PE17/093
  • anta- ✧ PE17/147

Derivations

  • NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/091; PE17/146
  • antā- “to give, cause a thing/person to go to an object, send, to give, cause a thing/person to go to an object, send, [ᴹ✶] present” ✧ PE17/093
    • NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/091; PE22/163

Cognates

  • Q. anta- “to give, present; †to add to” ✧ PE17/093; PE17/147

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ANA > antha- > anha-[anta-] > [antʰa-] > [anθa-] > [anna-]✧ PE17/091
ānē- > ōn-[ānē] > [āne] > [ǭne] > [ōne] > [ōn]✧ PE17/093
ANA/NĀ > anta-[anta-] > [antʰa-] > [anθa-] > [anta-]✧ PE17/146

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Ónenpast 1st-sg“I gave”✧ LotR/1061
ōn-past-✧ PE17/093
Onenpast 1st-sg“I gave”✧ PE17/093
-ōnenpast 1st-sg-✧ PE17/093
-ónenpast 1st-sg-✧ PE17/093
ōnenpast 1st-sg“I gave”✧ PE17/117
ónenpast 1st-sg-✧ PE17/147
ōnpast-✧ PE17/147
anedgerund-✧ PE22/163
ónenpast-✧ PE22/163
Annoimperative“*give”✧ VT44/27
Sindarin [LotR/1061; PE17/093; PE17/117; PE17/147; PE22/163; VT44/27] Group: Eldamo. Published by

annon

noun. (great) gate, door

Variations

  • Annon ✧ LotR/0307; S/238
  • annō/annon(d) ✧ PE17/040
  • ann(on) ✧ PE17/090

Derivations

  • NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/040

Cognates

  • Q. ando “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches” ✧ PE17/040

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ANA > Ennyn[andondi] > [andundi] > [endyndi] > [endynd] > [endynn] > [ennynn] > [ennyn]✧ PE17/040
ANA > annō/annon(d)[andondo] > [andond] > [andonn] > [annonn] > [annon]✧ PE17/040

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Ennynplural“Doors”✧ LotR/0305; PE17/040; PE17/040
ennynplural-✧ SA/annon
Sindarin [LotR/0305; LotR/0307; PE17/040; PE17/045; PE17/087; PE17/090; S/238; SA/annon] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aníra-

verb. to desire, to desire, *long for

Variations

  • aníra ✧ VT39/34

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
an“to, for, to, for; [N. and G.] of”
IR“desire, long for, desire, long for; [ᴹ√] desirable, beautiful”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
anírapresent“desires”✧ SD/129; SD/129
Sindarin [SD/129; VT39/34] Group: Eldamo. Published by

barad

noun. tower, great towering building, tower, great towering building, [N.] fort, fortress

Derivations

  • M(B)ARAT “doom, fate” ✧ NM/228
    • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live”
  • BARAT “lofty, high, height combined with strength/size/majesty” ✧ PE17/022; PE17/065; PE17/066
    • BAR “[ᴹ√] raise; uplift, save, rescue(?)”

Cognates

  • Q. marto “tower” ✧ NM/228; PE17/066

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
BARAT > barad[barata] > [barat] > [barad]✧ PE17/022
BARAT > barad[barata] > [barat] > [barad]✧ PE17/065
BAR-AT > barad[barata] > [barat] > [barad]✧ PE17/066

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Beraidplural“tower[s]”✧ LotR/1097; SA/barad
Sindarin [LotR/1097; NM/228; PE17/022; PE17/065; PE17/066; PE17/085; RC/274; SA/barad] Group: Eldamo. Published by

brass

noun. great cliff

A noun glossed “great cliff”, derived from the root √BARAS (PE17/22-23).

Derivations

  • BARAS “height combined with strength/majesty” ✧ PE17/022
    • BAR “[ᴹ√] raise; uplift, save, rescue(?)”

Cognates

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
BARAS > brass[barássē] > [brassē] > [brasse] > [brass]✧ PE17/022
Sindarin [PE17/023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bâr

noun. home, house, dwelling, home, house, dwelling; [N.] earth

Variations

  • bar ✧ PE17/163 (bar); PE17/164; PE17/164; SA/bar
  • Bar ✧ S/203; UT/100; WJ/379; WJ/414; WJ/418

Derivations

  • mbar(ă) “dwelling, habitation” ✧ PE17/109; PE17/109; PE17/163; PE17/164; SA/bar
    • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live”

Cognates

  • Q. már “home, dwelling, habitation, home, dwelling, habitation; [ᴹQ.] house; earth” ✧ PE17/164; SA/bar
  • Q. mar(da) “house, dwelling, residence, mansion, a thing or place dwelt in, home, house, dwelling, residence, mansion, a thing or place dwelt in, home; [ᴱQ.] world” ✧ PE17/163; PE17/164

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
mbar(ă) > bâr[mbara] > [mbar] > [bar]✧ PE17/109
mbar(ă) > bâr[mbara] > [mbar] > [bar]✧ PE17/109
mbar > bar[mbara] > [mbar] > [bar]✧ PE17/163
mbā̆r > bar[mbara] > [mbar] > [bar]✧ PE17/164
mbā̆r > bair[mbarī] > [mbari] > [bari] > [beri] > [beir] > [bair]✧ PE17/164
mbár > bar[mbar] > [bar]✧ SA/bar

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
mbarmixed-mutation-✧ MR/373; UT/040; UT/054
m(b)airnasal-mutation plural“houses”✧ PE17/097
bairplural-✧ PE17/164
†-barsuffix-✧ PE17/164
Mbairnasal-mutation plural“lands”✧ SD/129
Sindarin [MR/373; PE17/097; PE17/109; PE17/163; PE17/164; S/203; SA/bar; SD/129; UT/040; UT/054; UT/100; WJ/379; WJ/414; WJ/418] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cared

noun. action

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
car-“to do, make”
-ed“gerund”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
garedsoft-mutation“action”✧ PE17/014
Sindarin [PE17/014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ablad

noun. prohibition, refusal

Derivations

  • ap’lata “prohibition, refusal” ✧ VT47/13

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ap’lata > ablad[aplata] > [aplat] > [aplad] > [ablad]✧ VT47/13
Sindarin [VT47/13] Group: Eldamo. Published by

achad tarlang

place name. Tarlang’s Neck

The full Sindarin name of Tarlang’s Neck, a combination of achad “neck, rock ridge” and the name Tarlang (RC/537, PE17/92).

Elements

WordGloss
achad“rock ridge, neck (geographically)”
Tarlang“Stiff Neck; Stiff/Tough Passage”
Sindarin [PE17/092; RC/537] Group: Eldamo. Published by

agarwaen

masculine name. Blood-stained

A name adopted by Túrin in Nargothrond to hide his identity (S/210). It is translated “Blood-stained”, and seems to be a compound of agar “blood” and the lenited form waen of gwaen “stained”, but neither of these words are otherwise attested.

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies this name appeared as N. Iarwath, a compound of N. iâr “blood” and gwath “stain” (Ety/YAR, WAƷ). Another variant, N. iârvael, appeared in some orthography notes from a slightly later period (PE22/67). A third variant form Iarwaeth appeared in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s, but it was later rejected and changed to Agarwaen as in the published Silmarillion (WJ/83, 256).

Elements

WordGloss
agar“blood”
gwaen“stained”
Sindarin [LBI/Agarwaen; LT2I/Agarwaen; S/210; SI/Agarwaen; UTI/Agarwaen; WJI/Agarwaen; WJI/Iarwaeth] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angrod

masculine name. *Iron Champion

Sindarin name of the second youngest son of Finarfin (S/61), an adaption of his Quenya father-name Q. AngarátoIron Champion” (PM/346-7). His name is a combination of ang “iron” (SA/anga) and the suffixal form -rod of raud* “lofty, noble” seen in many names (PE17/49).

Conceptual Development: In the Lays of Beleriand from the 1920s, his name was first given as ᴱN. Angrod (LB/80, 213), though in the very earliest Silmarillion drafts his name appeared as G. Anrod (SM/15). In The Etymologies from the 1930s, the name N. Angrod was derived from a combination of ang “iron” and rhaud “metal” (Ety/RAUTĀ). The derivation from his Quenya name did not emerge until after Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (PM/346).

Cognates

  • Q. Angaráto “*Iron Champion” ✧ PM/346; PMI/Angrod; SA/ar(a)

Elements

WordGloss
ang“iron”
raud“noble, eminent; lofty, high, tall; excellent”
Sindarin [MRI/Angrod; PM/346; PMI/Angrod; SA/anga; SA/ar(a); SI/Angrod; UTI/Angrod; WJI/Angrod] Group: Eldamo. Published by

norn

noun/adjective. hard; dwarf

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-Nornwaithclass-plural“Dwarves”✧ MR/093
Nornwaithclass-plural“Dwarves”✧ MRI/Nornwaith; WJI/Nornwaith
-Nyrnplural-✧ NM/373
Nyrnplural“the Hard, Dwarves”✧ WJI/Nyrn
Sindarin [MR/093; MRI/Nornwaith; NM/373; WJI/Nornwaith; WJI/Nyrn] Group: Eldamo. Published by

achar-

verb. to avenge, do back, react, requite

A verb meaning “to avenge”, derived from the Sindarin-only root √AK “hostile return” (PE17/167), probably in combination with ✶kar- “to do” and hence literally “do back with hostility”.

Conceptual Development: The initial element of this word was first derived from √AT “again” (PE17/166). Apparently the prefix ✶at- (also meaning “twice”) did not have the connotation Tolkien wanted, because he rejected this etymology, and went on to explore several different possible primitive forms meaning “back (again)”. Among these discussions, he coined the new root √AK, from which he derived the related Sindarin words acharn “(act of) revenge” and achared “vengeance”. The latter is clearly the gerund of achar-, so it seems this was also the new derivation of this verb.

Cognates

  • Q. ahtar- “to do back, react; to requite, avenge” ✧ PE17/166

Element in

  • S. achared “vengeance” ✧ PE17/167
  • S. acharn “vengeance, (an act of) revenge”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
acharedgerund“vengeance”✧ PE17/167
Sindarin [PE17/166; PE17/167] Group: Eldamo. Published by

acharn

noun. vengeance, (an act of) revenge

Variations

  • achar ✧ PE17/166 (achar)

Element in

  • S. tôl acharn “vengeance comes” ✧ PE17/166; WJ/254

Elements

WordGloss
achar-“to avenge, do back, react, requite”
Sindarin [PE17/166; PE17/167; WJ/254] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adanel

feminine name. Adanel

A maiden of the house of Marach who married the Bëorian Belemir (WJ/233). She was described as a “Wise-woman” (MR/305). The name of her brother Magor “The Sword” is Sindarin, so it seems likely her name is as well. If so, it is probably is a compound of Adan “man” and the feminine suffix -el.

Elements

WordGloss
Adan“Man (as a species)”
-iel“daughter; feminine suffix”
Sindarin [MRI/Adanel; WJI/Adanel] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adu

adjective. double

Derivations

  • AT “two, double, bi-, di-; back, re-; across, over, lying from side to side, two, double, bi-, di-; back, re-, [ᴹ√] again, twice; [ᴱ√] dual; [√] across, over, lying from side to side”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. atwa “double”

Element in

  • S. Adurant “Double Stream” ✧ SA/rant
Sindarin [SA/rant] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aeglir

noun. line of peaks, line of peaks, [N.] range of mountain peaks; [ᴱN.] peak, mountain top

A word for a mountain range, a compound of S. aeg “sharp” and S. lîr “line”, or more literally “line of (mountain) peaks”, as in S. Hithaeglir “Misty Mountains, (lit.) Line of Misty Peaks” (Let/180; RC/11).

Conceptual Development: The earliest iteration of this word was ᴱN. aiglir “peak, mountain top” in Early Noldorin Word-lists from the 1920s, but there it was a singular rather than collective noun, an elaboration of ᴱN. aig “high, steep” (PE13/136, 158). In this period it had a distinct plural form eiglir as in ᴱN. Eiglir Engrin “Iron Mountains” (LB/33, 49). In The Etymologies of the 1930s it appeared as N. oeglir “range of mountain peaks” with essentially the same etymology as given above, except with the Noldorin word N. oeg “sharp” instead of later Sindarin word S. aeg.

Element in

  • S. Hithaeglir “Misty Mountains, (lit.) Line of Misty Peaks” ✧ RC/011

Elements

WordGloss
aeg“sharp, sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”
lîr“line, line, [N.] row”

aeglos

noun. icicle, (lit.) snow-point; snowthorn (a plant)

A species of plant mentioned in one version of the Narn i Chîn Húrin (UT/99), translated “snowthorn” and described as “like furze (gorse), but larger, and with white flowers” (UT/148 note #14). Aeglos was also the name of the spear of Gil-galad, translated as “Icicle” in The Lord of the Rings index (LotRI/Aeglos); it is possible this word can be used for ordinary icicles as well. In the Silmarillion index, it was translated more literally as “Snow-point” (SA/Aeglos), a combination of aeg “sharp” and loss “snow”.

Conceptual Development: G. helfingl or helfin(n) was the word for “icicle” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/48), probably a combination of ᴱ√HELE “freeze” with G. fingl “tress”.

Variations

  • Aeglos ✧ LotRI/Aeglos; UT/148

Elements

WordGloss
aeg“sharp, sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”
loss“snow”
Sindarin [LotRI/Aeglos; UT/099; UT/148; UTI/aeglos] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aegnor

masculine name. Fell Fire, Sharp Flame

Fourth son of Finarfin (S/61), variously translated “Fell Fire” and “Sharp Flame”. His name is an adaption of his Quenya mother name Aicanáro (PM/346). This name seems to be a compound of aeg “point” and the suffixal form -nor of naur “fire” (SA/nár).

Possible Etymology: His Quenya name was translated “Fell Fire”, from the element Q. aica “fell”, but Tolkien said that Aegnor was not a true Sindarin name, since there was no Sindarin word **aeg meaning “fell” (PM/347). Rather, a true translation of his name would be Goenor (PM/363).

There is, however, a Sindarin word aeg meaning “point; sharp, pointed, piercing”, attested in the name Aeglos “Snow-point” and in the word aeglir “range of mountain peaks” as in Hithaeglir “Misty Mountains”. Thus “Sharp Flame” might be a false etymology for this name. This alternate translation appeared in the Silmarillion Appendix (SA/nár) and some early writings from the 1950s (MR/323), but it may be that this was simply an earlier, rejected translation rather then a false etymology.

Conceptual Development: In Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s, his name was N. Egnor (SM/15, 88; LR/116, 223), and at this stage the initial element of his name was N. êg “thorn” from the root ᴹ√EK “spear” (Ety/EK, NAR¹). In draft notes associated with the “Shibboleth of Fëanor”, Tolkien considered changing this name to S. Eignor (VT41/19 note #19), but this seems to have been a transient idea.

Variations

  • Eignor ✧ VT41/19

Changes

  • AegnorEignor ✧ VT41/19

Derivations

Cognates

  • Q. Aicanáro “Fell Fire; Sharp Flame” ✧ MR/323; MRI/Aikanár; PM/346; PM/347; PMI/Aegnor; SA/nár; WJI/Aikanáro; VT41/19

Elements

WordGloss
aeg“sharp, sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”
naur“fire, fire, [N.] flame”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
Aika-nār- > Aegnor[aikanāro] > [aikanǭro] > [aikanauro] > [aikanaur] > [aiganaur] > [aignaur] > [aegnaur] > [aegnor]✧ PM/347
Sindarin [MR/323; MR/327; MRI/Aegnor; MRI/Aikanár; PM/346; PM/347; PMI/Aegnor; SA/nár; SI/Aegnor; UTI/Aegnor; VT41/19; WJI/Aikanáro; WJI/Egnor] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alae

interjection. ?behold

Variations

  • Alae ✧ UT/040

Cognates

  • Q. ela “behold!”

Element in

amroth

masculine name. Up-climber, High Climber

Sindarin king of Lórien for the first half of the Third Age, lover of Nimrodel. His name was Silvan in origin, adapted into Sindarin (LotR/1127). This name is translated as “upclimber”, referring to the high talan on which he (and other Elves of Lórien) dwelled (UT/245; NM/367). The name is a compound of am “up” and a derivative of the root √RATH “climb” (UT/255), derived from (Ancient) Telerin Ambarātho (NM/367).

Conceptual Development: In first drafts of the “Fall of Númenor” from the early 1930s, the name N. Agaldor > N. Amroth was used for the character who would eventually become Q. Elendil (LR/12, 31). In Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, the lover of Nimrodel was first named N. Ammalas >> Amaldor before Tolkien settled on the name Amroth (TI/223).

Variations

  • amroth ✧ NM/367 (Nan. amroth)

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
am“up, up, [G.] upwards, towards head of, above”
RATH“climb (with hands and feet, as in a tree or up a rocky slope)”
Sindarin [LotR/1127; LotRI/Amroth; NM/367; PM/036; PMI/Amroth; RC/309; UT/245; UT/255; UT/257; UTI/Amroth] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angren

place name. Isen, (lit.) Iron

Sindarin name of the river Isen (UT/318), it is simply the adjective angren “iron” used as a name.

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
angren“of iron”
Sindarin [UT/318; UTI/Angren] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dannen

noun. ebb, lowtide

Cognates

  • Q. nanwë “ebb, lowtide” ✧ VT48/26

Elements

WordGloss
dan“back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
nen“water; lake, pool; (lesser) river, water; lake, pool; (lesser) river, [ᴱN.] stream”

eb

preposition. ?before

Variations

  • Eb ✧ PM/136 (Eb)

Derivations

  • epe “after of time; after or behind of place”

Cognates

  • Q. epë “after (of time), following; before (in all relations but time)”

Element in

  • S. Eblaer “June, ?Before-summer” ✧ PM/136

aer

adjective. *hallowed, holy

This word appears in the phrase no aer i eneth lín “hallowed by thy name”, the second line of Ae Adar Nín, Tolkien’s Sindarin translation of the Lord’s Prayer. It is untranslated, but in context clearly means “hallowed, holy”. It is apparently the Sindarin cognate of Q. airë of similar meaning, which appears in the Quenya translation of the same prayer: Q. Átaremma*.

Possible Etymology: David Salo suggested that aer may be a lenited form of the Sindarin adjective gaer (GS/231). Although N. gaer was glossed “dreadful” in The Etymologies (Ety/GÁYAS), in later writings Tolkien derived Q. airë “holy” from a similar root √GAY(AR) “awe, dread” (PM/363). The sense “dread” did not necessarily connote terribleness, but could also imply awe and respect. It was from this meaning of the root that words with the connotation “holy” arose, at least in Quenya (PM/363).

Bill Welden instead connected S. aer “holy” with the word aerlinn in the phrase Aerlinn in Edhil o Imladris (RGEO/62). This phrase is untranslated, but it is widely believed that aerlinn means “holy song” (VT44/24). Since aer cannot be lenited in aerlinn, this indicates that aer is the normal form of the word. In other writings, Tolkien derived Q. airë from primitive ✶airē “holiness, sanctity” (PE17/149), which could also be the origin of S. aer*. That is the theory used here.

It is possible that this word appears in the name Aerandir, but that is rather speculative.

Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s, there was a word G. air(in) “holy, sacred” (GL/18) marked archaic (†); this is probably the earliest precursor to S. aer. The form air reappeared in the Gnomish Lexicon slips, besides a new form eirin “holy” (PE13/113), reflecting Tolkien’s ongoing vacillation on the development of the diphthong ai.

Derivations

  • AYA(N) “blessed; treat with awe/reverence, blessed; treat with awe/reverence; [ᴱ√] honour, revere”

Cognates

  • Q. airë “holy; sanctity, holiness”
  • Q. aira “holy, sanctified, holy, sanctified, [ᴱQ.] worshipful”

Element in

Sindarin [VT44/24] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amdir

noun. hope [based on reason], (lit.) looking up, hope [based on reason], *expectation, (lit.) looking up

Variations

  • Amdir ✧ MR/320

Cognates

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
am“up, up, [G.] upwards, towards head of, above”
tir-“to look (towards), watch (over), guard, to look (towards), watch (over), guard; [G.] to look (out) for, watch for, await, expect”
Sindarin [MR/320; MR/470] Group: Eldamo. Published by

achared

noun. vengeance

Elements

WordGloss
achar-“to avenge, do back, react, requite”
Sindarin [PE17/167] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adanedhel

masculine name. Elf-man

A name given to Túrin in Nargothrond for his noble, Elf-like nature, translated “Elf-man” (S/210). It is a compound of Adan “man” and Edhel “Elf” (SA/adan, edhel).

Elements

WordGloss
Adan“Man (as a species)”
Edhel“Elf”
Sindarin [S/210; SA/adan; SA/edhel; SI/Adanedhel; UTI/Adanedhel] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adaneth

noun. (mortal) woman

A term for a mortal woman appearing in Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth written around 1959 (MR/349), a feminized form of Adan “Man (as as species)”.

Variations

  • Adaneth ✧ MR/349

Elements

WordGloss
Adan“Man (as a species)”
-eth“feminine ending”
Sindarin [MR/323; MR/349; MR/470] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adurant

place name. Double Stream

One of the seven streams from which Ossiriand got its name (S/123). The stream divided around the island Tol Galen, and was thus named “Double Stream” (SI/Adurant), a compound of adu “double” and rant “course” (SA/rant). Given the river’s location in Ossiriand, this name might be Nandorin instead.

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies from the 1930s, the name Adurant was designated Ilkorin, but otherwise had the same meaning (Ety/AT(AT)). Like many of the river names in Ossiriand, Tolkien did not give a new etymology of the name after he abandoned the Ilkorin language.

Elements

WordGloss
adu“double”
rant“course, water-channel; lode, course, water-channel; lode, [N.] vein”
Sindarin [SA/rant; SI/Adurant; WJI/Adurant] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alfirin

noun/adjective. immortal, (lit.) not dying; a species of flower

Variations

  • Alfirin ✧ Let/402; LotRI/Alfirin

Derivations

  • alfirīne “not dying” ✧ PE17/101
    • PHIR “exhale, expire, breathe out, exhale, expire, breathe out; [ᴹ√] die of natural causes”

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
al-“no, not”
firin“mortal, dying, dying, mortal”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
alfirīne > alfirin[alpʰirīne] > [alɸirīne] > [alfirīne] > [alfirīn] > [alfirin]✧ PE17/101
Sindarin [Let/248; Let/402; LotR/0875; LotRI/Alfirin; PE17/100; PE17/146; PE22/153; PE22/156; UT/055; UTI/alfirin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alphros

proper name. Alphros

24th prince of Dol Amroth, 2nd in the Fourth Age (PM/221, 223). The language and meaning of this name are not clear, but unlike the names of earlier princes, this name appears to be Sindarin instead of Adûnaic. His name seems to a compound of alph “swan” and ross “foam”, hence: “*Swan Foam” (as suggested by David Salo, GS/340).

Elements

WordGloss
alph“swan”
ross“rain; spindrift, spray, foam, rain; spray, spindrift, foam”
Sindarin [PMI/Alphros] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amrûn

noun. sunrise, east, (lit.) of the uprising

Variations

  • Amrûn ✧ LotR/1116

Cognates

  • Q. Ambaróna “Eastern (Land)” ✧ PE17/091
  • Q. rómen “east, uprising, sunrise” ✧ LotR/1123; PE17/018; SA/rómen

Elements

WordGloss
am“up, up, [G.] upwards, towards head of, above”
rhûn“east, east, [N.] eastern; †rising”
Sindarin [LotR/1116; LotR/1123; PE17/018; PE17/091; PE17/122; SA/rómen] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andreth

noun. long-suffering, patience

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
reth-“to remain in same place”
Sindarin [PE17/182] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andreth

feminine name. *Patience

A wise-woman of the House of Bëor (MR/305). The Sindarin meaning of her name is andreth “patience” (PE17/182), perhaps aluding to her long unrequited love of Aegnor (MR/323). She was also known as Saelind “Wise-heart”.

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
andreth“long-suffering, patience”
Sindarin [MR/305; MR/329; MRI/Andreth; PMI/Andreth; WJI/Andreth] Group: Eldamo. Published by

annui

adjective. west[ern]

Variations

  • Annui ✧ SD/129

Element in

aphadon

proper name. Men, (lit.) Followers

The Sindarin form of Q. Hildor “Men, (lit.) Followers” (WJ/387). It is a translation of the Quenya name rather than a true cognate, a combination of the Sindarin verb aphad- “to follow” and the personal suffix -on. A truer Sindarin cognate of Hildor is Echil.

Cognates

  • Q. Hildor “Men, Aftercomers, (lit.) Followers” ✧ WJI/Aphadon; WJI/Hildor

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Ephedynplural-✧ WJI/Aphadon
Aphadrimclass-plural-✧ WJI/Aphadon
Sindarin [WJ/387; WJI/Aphadon; WJI/Hildor] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aragorn

masculine name. Revered King, Kingly Valour

The hero of the War of the Ring and first king of the reunited Arnor and Gondor.

Possible Etymology: Tolkien consider several etymologies of this name. Its initial element was clearly ar(a)- “noble” (Let/426). Tolkien variously indicated that the meaning of the second element was either S. gorn “revered" (PE17/31, 113) or “valour” (PM/xii), so that his name meant either “Revered King” or “Kingly Valour”. Of the two, the etymological discussion for the meaning “Revered King” is more complete, giving the older form †Arangorn (PE17/113).

In another place Tolkien gave the Quenya equivalent of this name as Q. Aracorno (PE17/71), but does not seem to match either of the etymologies dissussed above, so this perhaps represents a third conception of the origin of the name.

Conceptual Development: In Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, this character was initially a hobbit by the name of “Trotter” (RS/138). Tolkien eventually changed the character into a man, at which point the name N. Aragorn was given to the character (TI/6-7). Before the character became a man he briefly had the Elvish names N. Rimbedir >> Padathir (RS/198), Du-finnion (RS/361) and Ethelion (RS/395).

Variations

  • Ara(n)gorn ✧ PE17/031

Derivations

Cognates

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
gorn“revered”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
Os. ára-ngorn > Aragorn[araŋgorn] > [aragorn]✧ PE17/113
Sindarin [LBI/Aragorn; Let/426; LotRI/Aragorn; MRI/Aragorn; PE17/031; PE17/070; PE17/113; PM/xii; PMI/Aragorn; RSI/Aragorn; SD/128; SI/Aragorn; UTI/Aragorn; WJI/Aragorn] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aragost

masculine name. Aragost

The 8th chieftain of the Dúnedain (LotR/1038). The initial element of his name is the prefix ar(a)- “noble” and its final element might be (N.) gost “terror” (as suggested by David Salo, GS/341).

Conceptual Development: In the draft of Appendix A of the Lord of the Rings, his name was first given as Arandost, revised to Aragost (PM/211).

Variations

  • Arandost ✧ PMI/Aragost (Arandost)

Changes

  • ArandostAragost ✧ PMI/Aragost

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
gost“dread, terror”
Sindarin [LotRI/Aragost; PMI/Aragost] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arahael

masculine name. Arahael

The 2nd chieftain of the Dúnedain (LotR/1038). The initial element of his name is the prefix ar(a)- “noble” and its final element might be the lenited form hael of the adjective sael “wise”.

Conceptual Development: In the draft of Appendix A of the Lord of the Rings, his name was first given as Araha[n]til (6th letter illegible), revised to Arahail (PM/211). The name was changed to Arahael for the published version of The Lord of the Rings.

Variations

  • Arahail ✧ PMI/Arahail
  • Arahantil ✧ PMI/Arahail (Arahantil)

Changes

  • ArahantilArahail ✧ PMI/Arahail

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
sael“wise”
Sindarin [LotRI/Arahael; PMI/Arahail] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aramund

masculine name. Kingly Bull

A name coined by Tolkien as a possible Elvish name for a bull (Let/423). The initial element of the name is the prefix ar(a)- “noble” and its final element is mund “bull”.

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
mund“bull”
Sindarin [Let/423] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aranuir

masculine name. Aranuir

The 3rd chieftain of the Dúnedain (LotR/1038). The initial element of his name may be aran “king” and its final element might be (N.) uir “eternity” (as suggested by David Salo, GS/341).

Conceptual Development: In the draft of Appendix A of the Lord of the Rings, his name was first given as Aranuil, revised to Aranuir (PM/211).

Variations

  • Aranuil ✧ PMI/Aranuir (Aranuil)

Changes

  • AranuilAranuir ✧ PMI/Aranuir

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
uir“eternity”
Sindarin [LotRI/Aranuir; PMI/Aranuir] Group: Eldamo. Published by

araphor

masculine name. Araphor

The 9th king of Arthedain (LotR/1038). The initial element of his name may be aran “king” and its final element might be the nasal mutation phor of paur “fist” (as suggested by David Salo, GS/342).

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
paur“fist, (closed) hand”
Sindarin [LotRI/Araphor; PMI/Araphor] Group: Eldamo. Published by

annûn

noun. sunset, west; (lit.) going down

Variations

  • Annûn ✧ LB/354; Let/448; LotR/0674; LotR/0953; LotR/1116; PE17/064; PE17/088; PE17/102; PE17/121
  • Annû(n) ✧ RC/473

Derivations

  • NDU “down, under, below; sink, descend, go down, down, under, below; sink, descend, go down, [ᴹ√] set (of Sun)” ✧ PE17/064; SA/andúnë

Cognates

  • Q. andúnë “sunset, evening, (orig.) going down; west” ✧ PE17/064; SA/andúnë
  • Q. númen “west, direction or region of the sunset, occident, (lit.) going down” ✧ LotR/1123; PE17/018

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
NDŪ > Annûn[ṇdūnē] > [andūnē] > [andūne] > [andūn] > [annūn]✧ PE17/064
Sindarin [LB/354; Let/448; LotR/0674; LotR/0953; LotR/1116; LotR/1123; PE17/018; PE17/064; PE17/088; PE17/102; PE17/121; RC/473; SA/andúnë] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angerthas daeron

proper name. Angerthas of Daeron

The usual method of using the Runic Cirth to render Sindarin, attributed to the minstrel Daeron (LotR/1123).

Elements

WordGloss
angerthas“runic alphabetic, (lit.) long rune-rows”
Daeron
Sindarin [LotR/1123; LotRI/Angerthas Daeron] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adertha-

verb. to reunite

Variations

  • Adertha- ✧ S/113 (Adertha-)

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
ad-“back, again, re-”
ertha-“to unite”

amartha-

verb. to define, decree, destine

Derivations

  • mbartā- “to define, decree, destine” ✧ PE17/104
    • M(B)ARAT “doom, fate”
    • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live”
    • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live” ✧ PE17/104

Cognates

  • Q. marta- “to define, decree, destine, to define, decree, destine; [ᴱQ.] to happen (impers.), chance” ✧ PE17/104

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
mbartā > ṃbartā > amartha-[ṃbartā] > [ambartā] > [ambarta] > [ambartʰā] > [ambarθa] > [ammarθa] > [amarθa]✧ PE17/104
Sindarin [PE17/104] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amrothos

masculine name. Amrothos

Third son of Imrahil and 24th prince of Dol Amroth (PM/221, 223). His name probably derived from Amroth.

Elements

WordGloss
Amroth“Up-climber, High Climber”
Sindarin [PMI/Amrothos] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angolodh

masculine name. The Noldo

A hypothetical Sindarization of the name Q. Ingoldo “The Noldo”, mother-name of Finarfin (PM/360). The second element is clearly S. Golodh “Noldo”. The first element probably has no particular meaning, but rather is an example of how primitive [[os|initial syllabic [ŋg] became [aŋg]]] in Sindarin (PE17/124), while it became [iŋg] in Quenya (PE19/77).

Variations

  • Angoloð ✧ PM/360; SMI/Angoloð

Derivations

  • ñgolodō “lore-master, sage” ✧ PM/360
    • ÑGOLOD “*one of the wise folk, Gnome, [ᴹ√] one of the wise folk, Gnome”
    • ÑGOL “knowledge, wisdom, lore, knowledge, wisdom, lore; [ᴹ√] wise, be wise” ✧ PM/360; WJ/383

Cognates

  • Q. Ingoldo “The Noldo” ✧ PM/360

Elements

WordGloss
?
Golodh“one of the wise folk, Noldo”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ñgolodō > Angoloð[ŋ̣golodō] > [aŋgolodo] > [aŋgolodō] > [aŋgoloðo] > [aŋgoloð]✧ PM/360
Sindarin [PM/360; SMI/Angoloð] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anórien

place name. Sunlending, (lit.) *Sun-lands

The region of Gondor between Minas Tirith and Rohan (LotR/750), translated “Sunlending” (RC/776). Its initial element is clearly Anor “Sun”, and its final element is the plural -ien of the suffix -ian(d) “land”, common in place names. Thus, the literal meaning of the name is “*Sun-lands”.

Conceptual Development: On the draft maps for the Lord of the Rings from the 1940s, this name first appeared as (Quenya?) Anarion (TI/310) and once (rejected) in the draft texts as Anárion (TI/282), but this was changed to N. Anórien on both the maps (TI/318) and later drafts (WR/141).

Elements

WordGloss
Anor“Sun”
-ian(d)“-land, country”
Sindarin [LotR/1115; LotRI/Anórien; LotRI/Sunlending; MRI/Anórien; PE17/042; PMI/Anórien; RC/776; SA/nár; UTI/Anórien; WJI/Anórien] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aranarth

masculine name. Aranarth

The 1st chieftain of the Dúnedain (LotR/1038). The initial element of his name is aran “noble”. The meaning of the final element is unclear. It might be related to the initial element of the name of the fallen realm Arthedain. David Salo suggested that the final element is *arth “noble”, cognate to Q. arta (GS/240, 341).

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
?
Sindarin [LotRI/Aranarth; PMI/Aranarth] Group: Eldamo. Published by

araphant

masculine name. Araphant

The 14th king of Arthedain (LotR/1038). The initial element of his name may be aran “king” and its final element might be the nasal mutation phant of pant “full” (as suggested by David Salo, GS/341).

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
pant“full, full; [G.] (with article) the whole, all the”
Sindarin [LotRI/Araphant; PMI/Araphant] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon uilos

place name. Hill of Ever-snow

The Sindarin name of the mountain Q. Oiolossë (S/37). The first element is amon “hill” and the second element Uilos “Ever-snow” is the cognate of its Quenya name.

Conceptual Development: The earliest form of this name was N. Amon Uilas with an a corresponding to earlier ᴹQ. Ialasse (SM/81), but it was revised to N. Amon Uilos in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/210). This form of the name also appeared in The Etymologies (Ety/OY).

Variations

  • Amon-Uilos ✧ WJ/403

Cognates

  • Q. Oiolossë “Ever (Snow) White” ✧ Let/278; SI/Oiolossë; SI/Amon Uilos; UT/055; UTI/Amon Uilos; UTI/Oiolossë; S/037; WJ/403

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
Uilos“Ever-snow”
Sindarin [Let/278; MRI/Amon Uilos; S/037; SA/los; SI/Amon Uilos; SI/Oiolossë; UT/055; UTI/Amon Uilos; UTI/Oiolossë; WJ/403; WJI/Amon Uilos] Group: Eldamo. Published by

annúminas

place name. Tower of the West

The capital of Arnor (LotR/244). Christopher Tolkien translated it as “Tower of the West” (SI/Annúminas), a combination of annûn “west” and minas “tower” (SA/andúnë, minas).

Conceptual Development: When this city first appeared in Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, it was named N. Torfirion “Westermanton” (TI/144). In an early version of the Tale of Years the city was called N. Dunhirion (PM/167). Both of these variants were eventually replaced by Annúminas.

Elements

WordGloss
annûn“sunset, west; (lit.) going down”
minas“tower, fort, city (with a citadel and central watch tower)”
Sindarin [LotRI/Annúminas; PMI/Annúminas; SA/andúnë; SA/minas; SDI1/Annúminas; SI/Annúminas; TI/145; TI/304; TII/Annúminas; UTI/Annúminas] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a hîr annûn gilthoniel

*oh Lady of the West, Star-kindler

The fourth phrase of Lúthien’s Song (LB/354). Three translations of this phrase are:

  • Patrick Wynne: “*O Lord of the West, star-kindling” (NTTLS/11)

  • David Salo: “*O Lady of the West, star-kindler” (GS/211)

  • Bertrand Bellet and Benjamin Babut: “*O Lady of the West, Starkindler” (GTLC)

The first word is the vocative particle a “O”. The second word hîr is typically translated as masculine “lord”, but since in this case it is addressing Elbereth, I think (like Salo, Bellet and Babut) it is better to translate it as “lady”, even though elsewhere the Sindarin word for “lady” is given as híril or heryn. The third word is annûn “west” and the last word is Gilthoniel “Star-kindler”, one of the names of Elbereth (Varda).

Patrick Wynne instead suggested (NTTLS/10) that the fact that the word gilthoniel is lower case might mean it is an adjectival form “star-kindling” applied to the Moon rather than Varda, and he is addressed as “Lord” (the Elves considered the Moon to be male). This does explain the masculine form Hîr, but I find it difficult to believe that Lúthien would address the Moon by one of Varda’s name, and follow Salo, Bellet and Babut in assuming the words are spoken to Elbereth.

Variations

  • A Hîr Annûn gilthoniel ✧ LB/354

Element in

adan

noun. Man (as a species)

The usual Sindarin word for “Man” as a species, borrowed from Q. Atan after the Sindar first encountered the men of the west (PE17/18). It often appeared in its plural form Edain “Men” (LotR/1061; PE17/117; WJ/219). Like in Quenya, this word was biased towards considering the houses of the Elf-friends and their descendants as the “true Men”, but the proper term for such men was a Dúnadan “Man of the West”, and strictly speaking Adan applied to all kinds of Men, such as the RhúnedainEasterlings” (PE17/18) or the Drúedain “Woses” (UT/385). Unlike English, this word has no association with the male gender, and originally meant “the Second”, referring to Men as the second-born children of Eru. For a further discussion of its conceptual development, see the entry for Q. Atan* “Man”.

Variations

  • adan ✧ PE17/018; PE17/127; PM/324; SA/adan; UT/385; UTI/Drúedain

Derivations

  • Q. Atan “Man, (lit.) the Second (People)” ✧ WJ/387

Cognates

  • Q. Atan “Man, (lit.) the Second (People)” ✧ LotR/1034; LotR/1128; LotRI/Atani; LotRI/Edain; PE17/018; PM/324; SI/Atani; SI/Atani; UTI/Atani; UTI/Edain; WJ/219; LRI/Atani; MR/007; WJI/Atani

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
Q. Atan > Adan[atan] > [adan]✧ WJ/387
Q. Atan > Edain[atani] > [edeni] > [edein] > [edain]✧ WJ/387

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Edainplural“fathers of men”✧ Let/282; LotR/1034; LotR/1061; LotR/1128; LotRI/Atani; LotRI/Edain; LRI/Atani; LRI/Edain; LT1I/Edain; LT2I/Edain; MR/007; MRI/Edain; PE17/089; PE17/117; PMI/Edain; RGEO/66; SA/adan; SI/Atani; SI/Edain; SMI/Edain; UTI/Atani; UTI/Edain; WJ/219; WJ/387; WJI/Adan; WJI/Atani; WJI/Edain; WRI/Edain
Adanathclass-plural-✧ MR/373
edainplural-✧ PE17/127; VT50/14; VT50/18
Sindarin [Let/282; LotR/1034; LotR/1061; LotR/1128; LotRI/Atani; LotRI/Edain; LRI/Atani; LRI/Edain; LT1I/Edain; LT2I/Edain; MR/007; MR/373; MRI/Edain; PE17/018; PE17/089; PE17/117; PE17/127; PM/324; PMI/Edain; RGEO/66; SA/adan; SI/Atani; SI/Edain; SMI/Edain; UT/385; UTI/Atani; UTI/Drúedain; UTI/Edain; VT50/14; VT50/18; WJ/219; WJ/387; WJI/Adan; WJI/Atani; WJI/Edain; WRI/Edain] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aduial

noun. (evening) twilight, (evening) twilight, *evening

Cognates

  • Q. undómë “twilight, time near evening” ✧ LotR/1111

Elements

WordGloss
ad-“back, again, re-”
uial“twilight, evendim”
Sindarin [LotR/1111] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ai

pronoun. *those who

Variations

  • ayath ✧ VT44/22 (ayath)
  • ay ✧ VT44/22 (ay)
  • ai ✧ VT44/30

Changes

  • ayathay ✧ VT44/22
  • ayai ✧ VT44/30

Element in

Sindarin [VT44/22; VT44/30] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon lanc

place name. Naked Hill

The hill upon which Dol Guldur was built, translated “Naked Hill” (UT/280). It is a combination of amon “hill” and lanc “naked”.

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
lanc“naked”
Sindarin [UT/280; UTI/Amon Lanc] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anfauglir

masculine name. Jaws of Thirst

Another name for Carcharoth, translated “Jaws of Thirst” (S/180). The name is a combination of anc “jaw” and faug “thirsty” (SA/faug), though the function of the final -ir is unclear.

Conceptual Development: In Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s, the name appeared as N. Anfauglin with the same translation (SM/115).

Elements

WordGloss
anc“jaw, row of teeth”
faug“gape, [N.] thirsty, [S.] gape”
?
Sindarin [S/180; SA/faug; SI/Anfauglir; SI/Carcharoth; SMI/Anfauglin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angerthas

noun. runic alphabetic, (lit.) long rune-rows

Variations

  • Angerthas ✧ LotR/1123; LotR/1126; PE22/150; PMI/Angerthas; RSI/Angerthas; SA/an(d); SA/kir; TII/Angerthas

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
certhas“runes-rows, runic alphabet”
Sindarin [LotR/1123; LotR/1126; PE17/122; PE22/150; PMI/Angerthas; RSI/Angerthas; SA/an(d); SA/kir; TII/Angerthas] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angrenost

place name. Isengard, (lit.) Iron Fortress

Sindarin name of Isengard (LotR/473), a combination of angren “iron” and ost “fortress” (SA/anga, os(t); PE17/32).

Conceptual Development: In Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, this name first appeared as N. Angrobel (TI/71), variously revised to N. Angost or Angrenost (TI/420; WR/44, 72), eventually settling on the latter.

Variations

  • Angren/ost ✧ PE17/032

Cognates

  • Roh. Isengard “Iron-court, Iron-enclosure” ✧ PMI/Isengard; LotRI/Isengard; RC/772

Elements

WordGloss
angren“of iron”
ost“fort, fortress, stronghold, citadel; fortified town; enclosure, fort, fortress, stronghold, citadel; (fortified) town, [N.] city; [orig.] [S.] enclosure, [G.] yard”
Sindarin [LotR/0473; LotRI/Angrenost; LotRI/Isengard; PE17/032; PMI/Isengard; RC/772; SA/anga; SA/os(t); SI/Angrenost; SI/Isengard; UT/318; UTI/Angrenost] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aphad-

verb. to follow

Derivations

  • ap-pata “to walk behind on a track or path” ✧ WJ/387

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
ab“after”
pad-“to step, walk”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ap-pata > aphad-[appat-] > [appʰat-] > [aɸɸat-] > [affat-] > [affad-]✧ WJ/387

aranrúth

proper name. King’s Ire

The name of Thingol’s sword (S/201), translated by Christopher Tolkien as “King’s Ire” (SI/Aranrúth), a combination aran “king” and rûth “anger, wrath” (SA/ar(a), rûth).

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
rûth“wrath, anger”
Sindarin [SA/ar(a); SA/rûth; SI/Aranrúth; UTI/Aranrúth] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dorgannas

noun. shapes of the lands, *geography

Variations

  • Dorgannas ✧ WJ/192

Element in

  • S. Dorgannas Iaur “[Account of the] Shapes of the Lands of Old” ✧ WJ/192

anfalas

place name. Langstrand, (lit.) Long Beach

A coastal region in Gondor translated “Langstrand” (LotR/770), a compound of and “long” and falas “beach” (SA/an(d), falas), and thus literally meaning “Long Beach” (VT42/15).

Conceptual Development: This region was named as N. Anfalas “Langstrand” in the drafts of the Lord of the Rings as well (TI/310, WR/287).

Variations

  • An-falas ✧ VT42/15 (An-falas)

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
falas“beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”
Sindarin [LotR/0770; LotRI/Anfalas; LotRI/Langstrand; PE17/073; PE17/097; PE17/135; PMI/Anfalas; RC/773; SA/an(d); SA/falas; UTI/Anfalas; VT42/15] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aglareb

adjective. glorious, brilliant, glorious, brilliant, *radiant

Variations

  • Aglareb ✧ S/115

Derivations

Cognates

  • Q. alcarin(qua) “glorious, brilliant, glorious, brilliant, [ᴹQ.] radiant” ✧ PE17/024; WJ/412
  • Q. Alcarinquë “Glorious” ✧ SA/aglar

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
aglar“glory, brilliance, splendour, radiance”
-eb“adjective suffix”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
aklariquā > aglareb[aklarikwā] > [aklaripā] > [aklaripa] > [aklarepa] > [aklarep] > [aklareb] > [aglareb]✧ PE17/024
Sindarin [PE17/024; S/115; SA/aglar; WJ/412] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aelin-uial

place name. Meres of Twilight

Region where the river Aros flowed into the Sirion, translated “Twilight Meres” or “Meres of Twilight” (S/114, 122). This name seems to be a compound of the plural aelin of ael “lake, pool” and the noun uial “twight” (SA/aelin, uial).

Conceptual Development: In the earliest Lost Tales these pools were named G. Umboth-muilin (LT2/225). This name remained in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s as an Doriathrin [Ilkorin] name: Umboth Muilin (LR/262; Ety/KHIS, MBOTH). In The Etymologies, Tolkien considered several several Noldorin equivalents for this name, as described in the entry for N. Oelinuial. In the narratives, he used Aelin-uial as the Noldorin name (LR/262). This was the form that appeared in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s and the published Silmarillion, while Umboth Muilin was removed (WJ/194).

Elements

WordGloss
ael“lake, pool”
uial“twilight, evendim”
Sindarin [LT2I/Aelin-uial; S/122; SA/aelin; SA/uial; SI/Aelin-uial; SI/Meres of Twilight; SI/Twilight Meres; UTI/Aelin-uial; WJI/Aelin-uial] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon dîn

place name. Silent Hill

One of the beacon hills of Gondor (LotR/747), translated “Silent Hill” (UT/319). This name is a combination of amon “hill” and dîn “silence” (PE17/95, 98).

Conceptual Development: In Lord of the Ring drafts from the 1940s, this name first appeared as N. Amon Thorn (WR/232).

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
dîn“silence; silent, quiet”
Sindarin [LotRI/Amon Dîn; PE17/095; PE17/098; SA/dîn; SDI1/Amon Dîn; UT/319; UTI/Amon Dîn; WR/233; WRI/Amon Dîn] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon sûl

place name. Weathertop, (lit.) Hill of the Wind

The Sindarin name of Weathertop (LotR/185), more literally “Hill of the Wind” (RC/778). It is a combination of amon “hill” and sûl “wind”.

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
sûl“wind, [strong] wind, *gust”
Sindarin [LotR/0185; LotRI/Amon Sûl; LotRI/Weathertop; PE17/116; PMI/Amon Sûl; RC/778; SA/sûl; SI/Amon Sûl; UTI/Amon Sûl] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amras

masculine name. Top-russet

Twin brother of Amrod and second(?) youngest of the sons of Fëanor (it is unclear which of the twins was born first). The name is a compound of am “up” and ross “red-haired” (PM/353, VT41/10), an adaption of his Quenya nickname Q. Ambarussa. In a few places the name appears as Amros (PM/366, VT41/10), closer to its Sindarin elements.

Conceptual Development: In the earliest Lost Tales, this character was first named G. Dinithel (LT2/251), revised in the Lays of Beleriand to ᴱN. Durithel, then ᴱN. Díriel (LB/86). The name remained N. Díriel in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s, and the form Diriel (with a short i) appeared in The Etymologies (Ety/DER, GYEL). The name was revised to Amras in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (WJ/197).

Variations

  • Amros ✧ PM/366; PMI/Ambarussa; PMI/Amros; VT41/10

Cognates

  • Q. Ambarussa “Top-russet” ✧ PM/353; PMI/Ambarussa; PMI/Amros; VT41/10

Elements

WordGloss
am“up, up, [G.] upwards, towards head of, above”
ross“red-haired, copper-coloured”
Sindarin [LT2/251; LT2I/Amras; MRI/Amrod; PM/353; PM/366; PMI/Ambarussa; PMI/Amras; PMI/Amros; SI/Amras; SMI/Amras; SMI/Díriel; VT41/10; WJ/197; WJI/Amras] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anduin

place name. Great River, (lit.) Long River

The “Great River” of northwestern Middle Earth (LotR/52), a compound of and “long” and duin “river”, and thus literally meaning “Long River” (RC/765, VT48/23).

Conceptual Development: This river was first mentioned as N. Anduin in the earliest versions of the “Fall of Númenor” from the 1930s (LR/33). In the earliest drafts of the Lord of the Rings from the 1940s this river was named N. Beleghir “Great River”, but it was quickly changed to Anduin (RS/410). As he composed the Lord of the Rings, Tolkien considered other variants: Sirvinya “New Sirion” (TI/119) and Andon (TI/298), but all were rejected in favor of Anduin.

Variations

  • anduin ✧ PE17/012; PE17/040

Cognates

  • Q. Anduinë “Long River” ✧ PE17/040

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
duin“(large) river, (large) river; [N.] water”
Sindarin [LotR/0052; LotRI/Anduin; LotRI/Great River; MRI/Anduin; PE17/012; PE17/040; PMI/Anduin; RC/350; RC/765; S/291; SA/an(d); SA/duin; SI/Anduin; SI/Great River; SMI/Anduin; UTI/Anduin; VT48/23; WJI/Anduin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anfauglith

place name. Gasping Dust

The name of the plain of Ard-galen after it was devastated by the fires of Morgoth, translated “Gasping Dust” (S/150). The name includes of faug “thirsty” and lith “dust” (SA/faug, lith). Its initial element may be an intensive prefix, the equivalent of Q. an-, with “gasping” an intensive form of “thirsty”.

Conceptual Development: In the earliest Silmarillion drafts, the site of the Battle of Unnumbered Tears was named ᴱN. Niniach (SM/4), but later in the 1930s Tolkien revised the name to N. Fauglith (LR/289). In The Etymologies, this name was translated as “Thirsty Sand” but otherwise had essentially the same derivation as given above, missing only the intensive prefix (Ety/LIT, PHAU).

Variations

  • Fauglith ✧ WJI/Dor-na-Fauglith

Elements

WordGloss
an-“intensive prefix”
faug“gape, [N.] thirsty, [S.] gape”
lith“ash, ash; [N.] sand”
Sindarin [LBI/Anfauglith; LR/301; LRI/Anfauglith; LT1I/Anfauglith; LT2I/Anfauglith; S/150; SA/faug; SA/lith; SI/Anfauglith; UTI/Anfauglith; WJ/052; WJI/Anfauglith; WJI/Dor-na-Fauglith] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aragorn arathornion edhelharn

Aragorn [son of Arathorn] the Elfstone

Element in

Sindarin [SD/128; SD/129] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon amarth

place name. Mount Doom, (lit.) Hill of Doom

The Sindarin name of “Mount Doom” (LotR/1037), a combination of amon “hill” and amarth “fate, doom”, literally “Hill of Doom” (RC/769).

Conceptual Development: In Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, this name first appeared as N. Amarthon >> Dolamarth (TI/343), with the element dôl for “hill” instead of amon.

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
amarth“fate, doom”
Sindarin [LotR/1037; LotRI/Mount Doom; PE17/066; PE17/093; PE17/104; PE17/114; PE17/123; PMI/Amon Amarth; RC/233; RC/769; S/293; SA/amarth; SI/Amon Amarth; SI/Mount Doom; SI/Orodruin; TII/Amon Amarth] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ad

suffix. noun-suffix

Variations

  • -ad ✧ PE17/092 (-ad); PE17/183 (-ad)

Element in

  • S. achad “rock ridge, neck (geographically)” ✧ PE17/092
  • S. arnad “*kingdom”
  • S. astorad “loyalty” ✧ PE17/183
Sindarin [PE17/092; PE17/183] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

interjection. O!

Variations

  • A ✧ LB/354; LotR/0238; LotR/0729; LotR/0729; RGEO/63; RGEO/64; RGEO/64; RGEO/64
  • a ✧ Let/279
  • Ae ✧ VT44/22

Element in

Sindarin [LB/354; Let/279; LotR/0238; LotR/0729; RGEO/63; RGEO/64; VT44/22] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aerlinn

noun. *hymn, (lit.) holy song

Variations

  • Aerlinn ✧ RGEO/62

Element in

Sindarin [RGEO/62; VT44/24] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon rûdh

place name. Bald Hill

The hill where Mîm lived, translated “Bald Hill” (S/204). It is a combination of amon “hill” and rûdh “bald”.

Conceptual Development: In early drafts of the Silmarillion map, this hill as first named N. Amon Carab “Hill of the Hat” along with several other similar forms (WJ/187).

Variations

  • Amon Rhûg ✧ WJ/187

Cognates

  • Kh. Sharbhund “?Bald Hill” ✧ UTI/Sharbhund

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
rûdh“bald”
Sindarin [S/204; SI/Amon Rûdh; UTI/Amon Rûdh; UTI/Sharbhund; WJ/187; WJI/Amon Rûdh] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an

preposition. to, for, to, for; [N. and G.] of

Variations

  • eni ✧ VT41/16 (eni)
  • ann ✧ VT44/22 (ann)

Changes

  • enienni ✧ VT41/16

Derivations

  • NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/146

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ANA/NĀ > ana > an[ana] > [an]✧ PE17/146

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
amassimilated-✧ LB/354; SD/129; VT44/27
’nielided definite“to the”✧ Let/448; LotR/0953
ammendative 1st-pl-✧ LotR/0290; LotR/0299; LotR/0307; PE17/038; PE17/045; VT50/23
animdative reflexive“for myself”✧ LotR/1061; PE17/117; VT47/37
annindative 1st-sg-✧ PE17/147
Aelided“to”✧ SD/129
ennidative 1st-sg“me”✧ VT41/11; VT41/16
Sindarin [LB/354; Let/448; LotR/0290; LotR/0299; LotR/0307; LotR/0953; LotR/1061; PE17/038; PE17/045; PE17/117; PE17/147; SD/129; UT/039; VT41/11; VT41/16; VT44/22; VT44/27; VT47/37; VT50/23] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ai

interjection. hail!, hail, [ᴱN.] cry of pain or woe, [G.] oh!

Variations

  • Ai ✧ LotR/0209
  • ai ✧ PE17/016

Cognates

  • Q. aiya “hail; behold, lo”

Element in

Sindarin [LotR/0209; PE17/016] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aerandir

masculine name. Sea-wanderer

A companion of Eärendil (S/248).

Conceptual Development: In Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s, his name was given as N. Airandir (LR/324), changed to Aerandir in revisions from the 1950s-60s (WJ/246).

Possible Etymology: The second element of this name is very likely S. randir “wanderer” (SA/ran), but the meaning of the initial element is unclear. Christopher Tolkien translated this name as “Sea-wanderer” in The Silmarillion index (SI/Aerandir). If correct, the initial element is probably some form of S. gaear “sea”. This is problematic, since in J.R.R. Tolkien’s late writings this word usually (but not always) began with a g, which would have no reason to vanish in the initial position.

The Noldorin form of this name was Airandir. In The Etymologies, the Noldorin word for “sea” was N. oer (Ety/AY). Noldorin [oe] sometimes appeared as [ai] in names from earlier narratives. For example, compare (ᴱN.) Aiglir Angrin “Iron Mountains” from the 1920s and early 1930s (SM/220) to (N.) oeglir “range of mountain peaks” in The Etymologies (Ety/AYAK), and later still (S.) aeglir “line of peaks” (RC/11). Perhaps Tolkien originally intended this element to mean “sea”, updating it phonetically ([[n|[ai] revised to [ae]]]) in later Silmarillion revisions without considering a change in meaning.

Absent any further evidence, “Sea-wanderer” remains the best available translation.

Elements

WordGloss
gaear“sea”
randir“wanderer, wandering man, pilgrim”
Sindarin [SA/ran; SI/Aerandir; SMI/Aerandir; WJI/Aerandir] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aew

noun. (small) bird

A noun meaning “(small) bird” (SA/lin¹, Ety/AIWĒ), appearing in the name Linaewen “Lake of Birds” (S/119, UT/401). It was derived from primitive ᴹ✶aiwē like its Quenta cognate aiwë (Ety/AIWĒ), with the primitive diphthong ai becoming the ae in Sindarin.

Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s, G. aigli “bird” was given as a derivative of the root ᴱ√aı̯, though in this early iteration Tolkien said it especially applied to larger instead of smaller birds (GL/17). In Early Noldorin notes from the 1920s, it became ᴱN. aiw “bird” (PE13/136, 158). In The Etymologies from the 1930s, the form became N. aew “(small) bird” (Ety/AIWĒ), and this is the source of the derivation given above.

Cognates

  • Q. aiwë “(small) bird” ✧ SA/lin¹

Element in

  • ᴺS. aedh “nest”
  • ᴺS. aemar “rookery, colony of birds”
  • S. aewen “of birds” ✧ SA/lin¹

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-aiwonold-genitive plural-✧ PE17/097
-aewonold-genitive plural-✧ PE17/097
-aewionold-genitive plural-✧ PE17/097
Sindarin [PE17/097; SA/lin¹] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amon darthir

place name. Amon Darthir

A mountain near the house of Húrin (UT/68). This first element is clearly amon “hill”, and the second might be a form of the verb (N.) dartha- “to endure”, so perhaps “*Enduring Hill”.

Elements

WordGloss
amon“hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass, hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; [G.] steep slope”
dartha-“to wait, stay, remain, last, endure”
Sindarin [LT2I/Amon Darthir; UTI/Amon Darthir; WJI/Amon Darthir] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a

suffix. [old] genitive suffix

Variations

  • a ✧ NM/355 (Os. a)

Derivations

  • -āga “genitive” ✧ NM/355; NM/355
  • “genitive” ✧ PE17/097; PE17/097
    • HO “from, coming from”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ō > ia > -a[-ō] > [-a]✧ PE17/097
iōm > ion[-iōm] > [-ion]✧ PE17/097

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-onplural-✧ NM/355; NM/355
†-onplural-✧ PE17/097
†-uinfem-✧ PE17/097 [because the suffix was] added after old <i>-ī</i> (?female)
ionplural-✧ PE17/097 later <i>n</i> [?restored]
Sindarin [NM/355; PE17/097; VT42/04] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ab

preposition. after

Variations

  • Ab ✧ WJ/387 (Ab)

Derivations

  • PĀ/APA “touch; after, behind of place”

Cognates

  • Q. apa “after (of time)”

Element in

  • ᴺS. abgen- “to foresee, expect”
  • S. Abonnen “After-born” ✧ WJ/387
  • ᴺS. abor “tomorrow, (lit.) after-day”
  • S. aphad- “to follow”
  • ᴺS. avnedhor “afternoon”

al-

prefix. well, happily

Variations

  • al- ✧ PE17/146; PE17/172 (al-)

Derivations

  • AL(A) “good (physically), blessed, fortunate, prosperous, health(y)” ✧ PE17/146

Cognates

  • Q. al(a)- “well, happily” ✧ PE17/146; PE17/172

Element in

  • S. albeth “(word of) good omen” ✧ PE17/146
  • S. alfirin “immortal, (lit.) not dying; a species of flower” ✧ PE17/146
  • S. alwed “prosperous, fortunate” ✧ PE17/146

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ALA > al-[al-]✧ PE17/146
Sindarin [PE17/146; PE17/172] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aran cîr lim

*king of swift ships

Variations

  • ara[n] cîr lim ✧ PE17/147

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
cair“ship”
lim“quick, swift”
Sindarin [PE17/147] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aglar

noun. glory, brilliance, splendour, radiance

Variations

  • Aglar ✧ Let/448; LotR/0953

Derivations

  • aklar(a) “radiance, brilliance, glory” ✧ PE17/024; PE17/105; PE17/124; PE18/087; VT47/13
    • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden” ✧ PE17/024
    • KALAR “*be radiant, [ᴹ√] be radiant” ✧ PE17/105; PE17/124; PE18/085; PE18/085; PE18/087; VT47/13
    • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden” ✧ PE18/087
  • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden” ✧ SA/aglar

Cognates

  • Ad. aglar “glory”
  • Q. alcar “glory, splendour, radiance, brilliance” ✧ PE17/024; PE17/105; PE17/124; PE18/087; RGEO/65; SA/aglar
  • T. aclar “glory, splendour” ✧ VT47/13

Element in

  • S. aglareb “glorious, brilliant, glorious, brilliant, *radiant” ✧ SA/aglar
  • S. aglar’ni Pheriannath “glory to the halflings” ✧ Let/448; LotR/0953
  • S. Aglarond “Glittering Cavern” ✧ RC/421; SA/aglar
  • S. egleria- “to glorify”
  • S. o menel aglar elenath “from heaven on high the glory of the starry host” ✧ LotR/0238; PE17/024; RGEO/63; RGEO/64

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
áklara > aglar[aklara] > [aklar] > [aglar]✧ PE18/087
Sindarin [Let/448; LotR/0238; LotR/0953; PE17/024; PE17/105; PE17/124; PE18/087; RC/421; RGEO/63; RGEO/64; RGEO/65; SA/aglar; VT47/13] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ad

suffix. dual

The Sindarin dual was almost certainly derived from the same primitive form ✶ata as the Quenya dual ending -t, indicating this ending was ancient in form. The other Quenya dual, -u, would not have been active in Sindarin since final vowels were lost.

Tolkien stated (Let/427) that this ending was archaic and lost, but did not state when it disappeared. The ending may have still been active in the First Age. The ending appears in the day-name Orgaladhad “Day of the Two Trees”. Since the Sindar had no direct experience with the trees, this word was likely adopted from its Quenya cognate Aldúya when the Noldor and Sindar were reunited.

Variations

  • -d ✧ Let/427

Derivations

  • ata “numerative dual ending”

Cognates

  • Q. -t “dual ending”

Element in

  • S. Methiriad “?End of Two Rivers”
  • S. nobad “thumb and index finger as a pair, (lit.) *pickers”
Sindarin [Let/427] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ach

conjunction. *but

Variations

  • ach ✧ VT50/15

Element in

Sindarin [VT50/15] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ael

noun. lake, pool

A noun for “lake, pool”, appearing as an element in AeluinBlue Lake” and Aelin-uial “Meres of Twilight” (S/114, 122). The latter name has its plural form aelin = “meres, pools, lakes”.

Conceptual Development: This word had a long history as a cognate to Q. ailin; although the Quenya form was quite stable, the Gnomish/Noldorin/Sindarin forms went through a number of changes. The earliest iterations of this word appeared in in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s as G. ail “a lake, pool” or G. ailion “lake” (GL/17). In the Gnomish Lexicon Slips the latter became {ailin >>} eilin “pool” (PE13/113). In Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s Tolkien had ᴱN. ailin “lake” with plural form ailiniath from Old Noldorin oilin (PE13/136, 158).

In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien had N. oel “pool, lake” derived from primitive ᴹ✶ailin, a combination of the root ᴹ√AY and ᴹ√LIN (Ety/AY, LIN¹). In that document, its plural form was oelin (Ety/AY), where the plural preserved the final n that was lost in the singular. In The Etymologies it was an element of N. Oelinuial “Pools of Twilight” (Ety/AY), but in the contemporaneous narratives this name was Aelin-uial (LR/262), as it was in later Sindarin (S/114, 122). This reflects Tolkien vacillation on the development of the diphthong ai in Noldorin.

In The Silmarillion appendix Christopher Tolkien implied the regular Sindarin form of this word was aelin (SA/aelin), but more likely this was the plural form in Sindarin, as oelin was the plural in Noldorin.

Variations

  • aelin ✧ SA/lin¹

Cognates

  • Q. ailin “a large lake, (large) lake, [ᴹQ.] pool”

Element in

  • S. Aelin-uial “Meres of Twilight” ✧ SA/aelin
  • S. Aeluin “*Blue Lake” ✧ S/162

Elements

WordGloss
AY(AR)“sea”
LIN“pool, mere, lake”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
aelinplural“lake, pool”✧ SA/aelin [glosses in SI:Aelin-uial indicate it should be plural]
Sindarin [S/162; SA/aelin; SA/lin¹] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aen

adverb. should be; ?may it be that

Carl Hostetter suggested (VT31/16) that this may be a cognate of Q. nai “be it that”, since in combination with the future verb estathar it resembles the nai + future construct of the Quenya subjunctive. David Salo suggested instead (GS/228) that it might be a pronominal subject of the same verb, though with less conviction. This entry follows Carl Hostetter’s theory. @@@ In VT50/13 Carl Hostetter suggested an alternate theory, that this is a subjunctive passive voice marker, vs. indicative passive voice marker en.

Variations

  • en ✧ VT50/13

Cognates

  • Q. nai “maybe; be it that, may it be that; perhaps, it may be, there is a chance or possibility, maybe; be it that, may it be that; perhaps, it may be, there is a chance or possibility; [ᴱQ.] remoter possibility”

Element in

Sindarin [SD/129; VT50/13] Group: Eldamo. Published by

al-

prefix. no, not

Variations

  • al- ✧ PE17/101

Derivations

  • LA “no, not; negative; not to be”

Cognates

  • Q. al(a)- “in-, un-, not; †-less, without”

Element in

  • S. alfirin “immortal, (lit.) not dying; a species of flower” ✧ PE17/101
  • ᴺS. alhad “nowhere”
  • ᴺS. alnad “nothing”
  • ᴺS. alphen “no one, nobody”
  • ᴺS. alben “no one”
Sindarin [PE17/101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alaf

noun. elm

Derivations

  • ALAB “elm” ✧ PE17/153

Cognates

  • Q. alvë “elm” ✧ PE17/153

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ALAB > alaf[alab] > [alav]✧ PE17/153
Sindarin [PE17/153] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angerthas moria

proper name. Angerthas of Moria

The usual method of using the Runic Cirth to render Khuzdul (LotR/1126).

Elements

WordGloss
angerthas“runic alphabetic, (lit.) long rune-rows”
Moria“Black Chasm, Black Pit”
Sindarin [LotR/1126; LotRI/Angerthas Moria] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ann

noun. gift

Variations

  • ann ✧ PE17/090
  • anw ✧ PE22/163

Derivations

  • annā “gift” ✧ PE17/090
    • NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus”
  • HAN “add to, increase, enhance, enrich, honour (especially by gift); give” ✧ PE22/163

Cognates

  • Q. anna “gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person, gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person, *present” ✧ PE22/163

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
annā > ann[annā] > [anna] > [ann]✧ PE17/090
Sindarin [PE17/090; PE22/163] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anor

noun. Sun

The most common Sindarin name for the Sun derived from primitive ✶Anār, an augmented form of the root √NAR “fire” (PE17/38; Ety/ANÁR; SD/302-303, 306). The o is the result of ancient ā becoming au and then this au becoming o in polysyllables.

Conceptual Development: The term Anor was first mentioned in conjunction with early tales of Númenor (LR/41). It briefly appeared as N. {ánar >>} Anar “sun” in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the entry for ᴹ√NAR (Ety/NAR¹; EtyAC/NAR¹), but as Anor under ᴹ√ANÁR (Ety/ANÁR). In The Notion Club Papers of the 1940s it was Anor, archaic †Anaur (SD/302-303, 306) and it retained this form thereafter.

Variations

  • anor ✧ PE17/030; PE17/038; PE17/055

Derivations

  • NAR “fire, fire, [ᴹ√] flame” ✧ PE17/038
  • Anār “Sun” ✧ SA/nár
    • NAR “fire, fire, [ᴹ√] flame”

Cognates

  • Q. Anar “Sun” ✧ PE17/038; SA/nár
  • ᴹQ. Anar “Sun” ✧ SDI2/Anar

Element in

  • ᴺS. anóren “sunny”
  • S. Anórien “Sunlending, (lit.) *Sun-lands” ✧ SA/nár
  • ᴺS. coranor “solar year, (lit.) sun-round”
  • S. elanor “a golden star-shaped flower, (lit.) sun-star” ✧ PE17/055
  • S. Minas Anor “Tower of the (Setting) Sun” ✧ SA/nár
  • S. Oranor “(lit.) *Sun-day, Sunday”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
(A)NAR > anor[anār] > [anǭr] > [anaur] > [anor]✧ PE17/038
Sindarin [LotRI/Anor; PE17/030; PE17/038; PE17/055; RC/297; SA/nár; SDI2/Anar; SI/Anor] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aras

noun. deer, deer, hart, *stag

A word in the name Cabed-en-Aras “Deer’s Leap” (S/224; UT/150). Its primitive form ✶aras(sō) was translated “hart” (PE21/82), so this word probably refers to a male deer.

Variations

  • Aras ✧ UT/150

Derivations

  • aras(sō) “hart”
    • RAS “horn, horn; [ᴹ√] stick up” ✧ PE21/82

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. arasso “hart, stag, (male) deer”
  • ᴺQ. arassë “deer, hart, stag”

Element in

annon edhellen, edro hi ammen

Elvish gate open now for us

Variations

  • Annon edhellen, edro hi ammen ✧ LotR/0307
  • annon edhellen edro hi ammen ✧ PE17/045

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
annon“(great) gate, door”
edhellen“elvish”
edra-“to open (out)”
“now”
an“to, for, to, for; [N. and G.] of”
Sindarin [LotR/0307; PE17/045] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adar

noun. father

The Sindarin word for “father”, derived from the root √AT(AR) (PM/324; VT44/21-22; VT48/19).

Conceptual Development: N. adar “father” also appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of the root ᴹ√ATA of the same meaning (Ety/ATA). In the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, however, G. †ador “father” was marked as archaic, and it seems {athon >>} G. nathon was the ordinary word for ”father” (GL/17, 59).

Variations

  • Adar ✧ VT44/22

Derivations

Cognates

  • Q. atar “father” ✧ PM/324

Element in

Sindarin [PM/324; VT44/22; VT48/17] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alph

noun. swan

The Sindarin noun for “swan” derived from primitive ✶alkwā (NM/378; UT/265; Ety/ÁLAK), where first the [[at|ancient [kw] became [p]]] and then the [[os|[lp] became [lf] (spelled lph)]].

Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, this word appeared as {alcwi >>} alfa (GL/18), which is perhaps the moment that Tolkien decided that labialized velars became labials in the Sindarin branch of Elvish (though in Gnomish this sound change applied only medially). In Gnomish Lexicon Slips modifying this document, the word became alf (PE13/109), and Tolkien stuck with this form thereafter, though eventually revising the spelling to alph once he decide that final [f] was spelled ph. In The Etymologies of the 1930s, N. alf “swan” appeared under the root ᴹ√ALAK “rushing” (Ety/ÁLAK).

Variations

  • alf ✧ NM/378; VT42/07

Derivations

  • alkwā “swan” ✧ NM/378; VT42/07
    • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ PE18/100
  • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ SA/alqua
  • T. alpa “swan” ✧ UT/265
    • alkwā “swan” ✧ UT/265
    • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ PE18/100

Cognates

  • Q. alqua “swan” ✧ NM/378; SA/alqua; UT/265; VT42/07

Element in

  • ᴺS. alfeg “cygnet, young swan”
  • ᴺS. alfuil “large white sea-bird, albatross, †swan”
  • S. Alphros
  • S. Elphir
  • S. Nîn-in-Eilph “Swanfleet, Waterlands of the Swans” ✧ NM/378; VT42/07

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
alkwā > alpa > alf[alkwā] > [alpā] > [alpa] > [alpʰa] > [alɸa] > [alfa] > [alf]✧ NM/378
T. alpa > alph[alpa] > [alpʰa] > [alɸa] > [alfa] > [alf]✧ UT/265
T. alpa > eilph[alpi] > [alpʰi] > [alɸi] > [alfi] > [elfi] > [eilf]✧ UT/265
alkwa > alf[alkwa] > [alpa] > [alpʰa] > [alɸa] > [alfa] > [alf]✧ VT42/07

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Eilphplural“swans”✧ NM/378
eilphplural“swan”✧ UT/265
Sindarin [LotR/1114; NM/378; PE17/100; SA/alqua; UT/265; VT42/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amar

noun. world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement, the great habitation

The usual Sindarin world for “world”, cognate of Q. Ambar, more literally meaning “settlement” or “the great habitation” (PE17/105; NM/226). It was derived from an augmented form of the root √MBAR “settle, dwell”: ✶a-mbar > ammar > amar (PE17/104, 124), with the usual shortening of long mm in Sindarin. For a discussion of its connection to Destiny, see the entry on Q. Ambar. However, in some notes from 1968, Tolkien said this word was not actually found in Sindarin, and was only hypothetical (NM/228).

Conceptual Development: N. amar “Earth” first appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, already as a derivative of ᴹ√MBAR “dwell, inhabit”. In the Early Noldorin Grammar and Early Noldorin Wordlists of the 1920s, however, Tolkien used ᴱN. barth for “world, earth” (PE13/120, 138), and in the Gnomish Lexicon the word G. mar meant “Earth” along with “ground, soil” (GL/56).

Derivations

  • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live” ✧ NM/226
  • ambar(a) “the settlement, establishment, the world” ✧ NM/228; PE17/104; PE17/105; PE17/124
    • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live” ✧ NM/228; PE17/104; PE17/105; PE17/124

Cognates

  • Q. Ambar “The World, Earth, (lit.) Habitation, Settlement” ✧ PE17/104; PE17/105; PE17/124; NM/228

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
MBAR > amar[ambar] > [ammar] > [amar]✧ NM/226
ambar- > ammar > amar[ambar] > [ammar] > [amar]✧ PE17/104
Sindarin [NM/226; NM/228; PE17/104; PE17/105; PE17/124] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ath-

prefix. easily

Derivations

  • THĀ/ATHA “ease, comfort, heal; be helpful; be willing to assist (in any work, etc.), agree, consent, ease, comfort, heal; be helpful; be willing to assist (in any work, etc.), agree, consent; [ᴹ√] forward” ✧ PE17/148

Cognates

  • Q. as(a)- “easily” ✧ PE17/148

Element in

  • S. athgar “easy (easy to do)” ✧ PE17/148
  • S. athgen “easily seen” ✧ PE17/148

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ATHA > ath-[atʰ-] > [aθ-]✧ PE17/148
Sindarin [PE17/148] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aran na chîr lim

*king of swift ships

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
na(n)“of; with, along with, accompanied by, provided with or by, associated with, marked with, of; provided with or by, associated with, marked with, with, along with, accompanied by; [N.] by”
cair“ship”
lim“quick, swift”
Sindarin [PE17/147] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anno ammen sír i mbas ilaurui vín

give us this day our daily bread

The sixth line of Ae Adar Nín, Tolkien’s Sindarin translation of the Lord’s Prayer (VT44/21). The first word anno is the imperative form of anna- “to give”, followed by ammen “to us”, a combination of an “to” and men “us”. The third word sír “this day” seems to be the equivalent of Q. síra.

The fourth word is the definite article i “the”, followed by the lenited form mbas of bas(t) “bread”, the adjective ilaurui “daily” and the lenited form vín of the possessive pronoun mín “ours”. The adjectival elements follow the noun as is usual in Sindarin. See the entry for the second line of this prayer for a discussion of the use of the definite article i “the” before the possessed noun in this phrase.

Decomposition: Broken into its constituent elements, this phrase would be:

> ann-o am-men sír i mbas [← bas] ilaurui vín [← mín] = “*give-(imperative) to-us this-day the bread daily ours”

Conceptual Development: Tolkien first wrote the unlenited form mín of the pronoun “our” before replacing it with the lenited form vín.

Variations

  • Anno ammen sír i mbas ilaurui {mín >>} vín ✧ VT44/21

Cognates

Element in

Sindarin [VT44/21] Group: Eldamo. Published by

caras

noun. circular earthwall with dike, fort surrounded by bulwarks, circular earthwall with dike, fort surrounded by bulwarks; [N.] city (built above ground)

Variations

  • Caras ✧ PE17/060; PE17/084

Derivations

  • KAR “do, make, build, do, make, build, [ᴹ√] construct” ✧ PE17/084

Cognates

  • Q. carasse “built fort or dwelling surrounded by bulwarks” ✧ PE17/084

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
CAR > Caras[karasse] > [karass] > [karas]✧ PE17/084
Sindarin [PE17/060; PE17/084; RC/311] Group: Eldamo. Published by

advir

noun. heirloom

@@@ connection to √AT(AR) suggested by Lokyt

Cognates

  • Q. atamir “heirloom” ✧ PE17/165

Elements

WordGloss
AT(AR)“father”
mîr“jewel, precious thing, treasure”
Sindarin [PE17/165] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dîn

noun/adjective. silence; silent, quiet

@@@ variation reflects Tolkien’s vacillation on whether or not Sindarin genitives are lenited

Variations

  • tîn ✧ RC/551

Derivations

  • DIN “silence”

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
dhînsoft-mutation“silence”✧ WJI/Taur-na-Chardhîn
Sindarin [LB/354; PE17/095; PE17/098; RC/551; SA/dîn; WJI/Taur-na-Chardhîn] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ai na vedui dúnadan

Ah! at last, Dúnadan!

Variations

  • Ai na vedui Dúnadan! ✧ Let/448; LotR/0209; PE17/016

Elements

WordGloss
ai“hail!, hail, [ᴱN.] cry of pain or woe, [G.] oh!”
na“to, towards, at”
medui“end, final, last”
Dúnadan“Man of the West”
Sindarin [Let/448; LotR/0209; PE17/016] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aran gondor ar arnor ar hîr i mbair annui

king of Gondor and Arnor and Lord of the Westlands

Variations

  • i aran Gondor ar Arnor ar Hîr i Mbair Anui ✧ SD/128
  • aran Gondor ar Hîr i Mbair Annui ✧ SD/128

Element in

amarth

noun. fate, doom

Variations

  • ammarth ✧ PE18/092 (Ln. ammarth); VT41/10
  • Amarth ✧ PMI/Amarth

Derivations

  • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live” ✧ NM/226; PE17/104
  • ṃbart(ă) “fate, doom; (orig.) permanent establishment” ✧ NM/228; PE17/124; PE18/092; VT41/10
    • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live” ✧ NM/228; PE17/124
  • M(B)ARAT “doom, fate” ✧ PE17/066
    • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live”
  • mbartā- “to define, decree, destine” ✧ PE17/104
    • M(B)ARAT “doom, fate”
    • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live”
    • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live” ✧ PE17/104

Cognates

  • Q. umbar “fate, doom, curse” ✧ PE17/066; PE17/104; PE17/104; PE17/123; PE17/124; PE18/092; NM/228

Element in

  • S. Amarthan “Fated One” ✧ VT41/10
  • S. Amon Amarth “Mount Doom, (lit.) Hill of Doom” ✧ PE17/066; PE17/104; PE17/114; PE17/123; SA/amarth
  • S. Cabed Naeramarth “Leap of Dreadful Doom” ✧ S/224; SA/amarth
  • S. Turamarth “Master of Doom” ✧ SA/amarth
  • S. Úmarth “Ill-fate” ✧ SA/amarth

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
mbartā > ṃbartā > ambarta > amarth[ṃbartā] > [ambartā] > [ambarta] > [ambartʰa] > [ambarθa] > [ambarθ] > [ammarθ] > [amarθ]✧ PE17/104
ṃbart(ă) > ammarth > amarth[ṃbarta] > [ṃbart] > [ambart] > [ambartʰ] > [ambarθ] > [ammarθ] > [amarθ]✧ PE17/124
Sindarin [NM/227; NM/228; PE17/066; PE17/104; PE17/114; PE17/123; PE17/124; PE18/092; PMI/Amarth; S/224; SA/amarth; VT41/10] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arahad

masculine name. Arahad

The 7th and 10th chieftains of the Dúnedain (LotR/1038). The initial element of the name is the prefix ar(a)- “noble” and its final element might be the lenitied form had of the noun sad “place”.

Conceptual Development: In the draft of Appendix A of the Lord of the Rings, the name of Arahad II was first given as Arangar (PM/211).

Variations

  • Arangar ✧ PMI/Arahad (Arangar)

Changes

  • ArangarArahad ✧ PMI/Arahad

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
sad“place, spot”
Sindarin [LotRI/Arahad; PMI/Arahad] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

conjunction. and; †by, near, beside

Variations

  • a ✧ LB/354; Let/448; LotR/0305; LotR/0953; PE17/041 (a); PE17/041; PE17/041 (a); PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/102; PE17/145; SA/ar; VT47/31
  • ah ✧ MR/329; VT43/30
  • ar ✧ MR/373; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; VT44/28; VT50/18; VT50/19
  • ✧ PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/145
  • ath ✧ PE17/041 (ath)
  • a(ð) ✧ PE17/102
  • að- ✧ PE17/145
  • Ar ✧ SD/129; VT50/20
  • A ✧ VT50/20 (A)

Changes

  • aa “and” ✧ PE17/041
  • a “and” ✧ PE17/041
  • aa ✧ PE17/041

Derivations

  • as(a) “and” ✧ PE17/041; PE17/041; VT43/30; VT47/31
    • AS “beside” ✧ VT47/31
  • ad(a) “and, alongside” ✧ PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/102
    • AD(A) “by (the side of), beside, alongside; against, opposed to, opposite” ✧ PE17/071
  • AD(A) “by (the side of), beside, alongside; against, opposed to, opposite” ✧ PE17/145
  • AR “beyond, further than; outside; beside, along side, beyond, further than; outside; beside, along side; [ᴱ√] spread, extend sideways” ✧ SA/ar

Cognates

  • Q. ar “and, and; [ᴱQ., ᴹQ.] but” ✧ PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/041; PE17/102; PE17/145; SA/ar

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ad(a) > > a[ada] > [aða] > [að] > [a]✧ PE17/041
as(a) > a(h) > a[asa] > [aha] > [ah] > [a]✧ PE17/041
Sindarin [LB/354; Let/448; LotR/0305; LotR/0953; MR/329; MR/373; PE17/041; PE17/102; PE17/145; SA/ar; SD/129; VT43/30; VT44/28; VT47/31; VT50/18; VT50/19; VT50/20] Group: Eldamo. Published by

auth

noun. dim shape, spectral or vague apparition

Derivations

  • aw’tha “a dim shape, spectral or vague apparition” ✧ VT42/09
    • WATH “*shade, [ᴹ√] shade” ✧ VT42/09

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
aw’tha > auth[awtʰa] > [autʰa] > [auθa] > [auθ]✧ VT42/09

aerennel

masculine name. Aerennel

Sindarized form of the name of Eärendil, also with variant Aerendil (PM/364). These were phonetic alterations, not translations.

Conceptual Development: In some notes from the 1930s, the form (N?.) Aearendel appeared beside ᴹQ. Earendel, possibly a Noldorin adaption of the earlier form of his Quenya name.

Variations

  • Aerendil/Aerennel ✧ PM/364

ae adar nín i vi menel

our Father who [art] in Heaven

The first line of Ae Adar Nín, Tolkien’s Sindarin translation of the Lord’s Prayer (VT44/21). The first word Ae is probably a variation of the vocative a “O”. The second word is adar “father”, modified by the possessive pronoun nín “my”, with the adjectival element following the noun as is usual in Sindarin. The fourth word is i “who” followed by vi the lenited form of mi “in” and menel “heaven”. There is no Sindarin word for “to be” in this phrase, as there is in English (“art”).

Both Bill Welden and David Salo point out (VT44/22, GS/231) that Tolkien’s use of the 1st-person-singular possessive pronoun nín “my” in this first phrase (where the original prayer had “our”) is somewhat peculiar, since elsewhere in the prayer he used mín for the 1st-person-plural possessive “our”. Bill Welden suggested that Tolkien may have use the 1st-singular here to connote greater intimacy (VT44/22).

As pointed out by Bill Welden (VT44/23-4), Tolkien did not use Q. menel for the Christian Heaven in the final Quenya version of the prayer, replacing it with the name Q. Eruman. Elsewhere, S. menel properly referred only to “the heavens” (holding the stars) and its application to the Christian Heaven would not be appropriate (MR/387). Perhaps Tolkien would have replace S. Menel with a Sindarinized form *Eruvan of the Quenya name, if he had made the same change in the Sindarin prayer.

Decomposition: Broken into its constituent elements, this phrase would be:

> ae Adar nín i vi Menel = “*O Father mine who [art] in Heaven”

Variations

  • Ae Adar nín i vi Menel ✧ VT44/21

Cognates

Element in

Sindarin [VT44/21] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anglennatha i varanduiniant erin dolothen ethuil

will approach the Bridge of Baranduin on the eighth day of Spring

Variations

  • anglennatha iVaranduiniant erin dolothen Ethuil ✧ SD/129

Element in

a pherhael ar am meril suilad uin aran o minas tirith nelchaenen ned echuir

to Samwise and Rose the King’s greeting from Minas Tirith, the thirty-first day of Stirring

Variations

  • A Pherhael ar am Meril suilad uin aran o Minas Tirith nelchaenen uin Echuir ✧ SD/129

Element in

ae adar nín

Ae Adar Nín

Tolkien’s translation of the Lord’s Prayer into Sindarin, composed sometime in the 1950s, first published in the “Ae Adar Nín” article in Vinyar Tengwar #44 (VT44/21). According to Bill Welden, it is written on the back of the postcard used to write version V (the second-to-last version) of Átaremma, Tolkien’s Quenya translation of the same prayer. Tolkien omitted the last two lines of the prayer from the Sindarin translation.

Tolkien did not provide an explicit translation, so the English text is from the common English translation of this prayer among Catholics. English words with no Sindarin counterpart are in brackets. Further discussion can be found in the analysis of the individual phrases. My analysis largely follows that of Bill Welden’s “Ae Adar Nín” article (VT44/21-30), though I also consulted David Salo’s analysis of the prayer (GS/231-3).

Elements

WordGloss
ae Adar nín i vi Menel“our Father who [art] in Heaven”
no aer i eneth lín“hallowed be thy name”
tolo i arnad lín“thy kingdom come”
caro den i innas lin“thy will be done”
bo Ceven sui vi Menel“on Earth as [it is] in Heaven”
anno ammen sír i mbas ilaurui vín“give us this day our daily bread”
ar díheno ammen i úgerth vin“and forgive us our trespasses”
sui mín i gohenam di ai gerir úgerth ammen“as we forgive those who trespass against us”

aglar’ni pheriannath

glory to the halflings

Variations

  • Aglar’ni Pheriannath! ✧ Let/448; LotR/0953

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
aglar“glory, brilliance, splendour, radiance”
an“to, for, to, for; [N. and G.] of”
i“the”
Perian“Halfling, Hobbit”
Sindarin [Let/448; LotR/0953] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ast

noun. light or heat of the sun

Derivations

  • AS “warmth”

Cognates

  • Q. árë “sunlight, warmth (especially of the sun); day” ✧ PE17/018

Element in

  • S. Asfaloth “Sunlit Foam” ✧ PE17/018
Sindarin [PE17/018] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alae! ered en echoriath, ered e·mbar nín

[?behold!] the mountains of Echoriath, the mountains of my home!

Variations

  • Alae! Ered en Echoriath, ered e·mbar nín! ✧ UT/040
  • ered e·mbar nín ✧ UT/054
  • Ered en Echoriath ✧ UTI/Echoriath

Elements

WordGloss
alae“?behold”
orod“mountain”
en“of the”
Echoriath“Encircling Mountains, (lit.) Encircling Fence”
orod“mountain”
en“of the”
bâr“home, house, dwelling, home, house, dwelling; [N.] earth”
nín“my”
Sindarin [UT/040; UT/054; UTI/Echoriath] Group: Eldamo. Published by

am

adverb. up, up, [G.] upwards, towards head of, above

Variations

  • Am ✧ MR/320 (Am)

Derivations

  • AM “go up, go up, [ᴹ√] up”

Cognates

  • Q. amba “up(wards)”

Element in

  • S. amdir “hope [based on reason], (lit.) looking up, hope [based on reason], *expectation, (lit.) looking up” ✧ MR/320
  • S. Amlaith
  • S. amloth “uprising flower”
  • ᴺS. amor “morning, early day”
  • S. Amras “Top-russet”
  • S. Amrod “*High and Lofty”
  • S. Amroth “Up-climber, High Climber”
  • S. amrûn “sunrise, east, (lit.) of the uprising”

amlaith

masculine name. Amlaith

1st king of Arthedain (LotR/1038). The meaning of this name is unclear, but its initial element might be am “up”.

Elements

WordGloss
am“up, up, [G.] upwards, towards head of, above”
?
Sindarin [LotRI/Amlaith; PMI/Amlaith] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ach

noun. bone

Cognates

  • Q. axo “bone”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

brond

adjective. firm, [G.] steadfast, *faithful, constant

Derivations

Cognates

  • Q. voronda “faithful, steadfast (in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise)”

Element in

  • ᴺS. bronnas “steadfastness, constancy”

archam

noun. throne

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
ham“?chair”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bavron

noun. shepherd, herdsman

A neologism for “shepherd, herdsman” coined by Paul Strack in 2018 specifically for Eldamo, a combination of ᴺS. bam “sheep” and the agental suffix -(r)on, replacing Gnomish words G. mathron and G. mothweg.

Elements

WordGloss
bam“sheep”
-(r)on“agental suffix”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bronad

noun. survival

Elements

WordGloss
brona-“to last, survive”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

brêg

adjective. lively, sudden, quick

@@@ possibly an element in Bregalad “Quickbeam”.

Derivations

  • ᴹ√BEREK “*sudden, fierce”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bardhon

noun. inhabitant, native

Elements

WordGloss
bardh“home”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bethron

noun. spouse (m.)

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. BES “to wed”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

branna-

verb. to scorch

Elements

WordGloss
brant“cooked, done; overdone”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

bronnas

noun. steadfastness, constancy

Elements

WordGloss
brond“firm, [G.] steadfast, *faithful, constant”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bang

noun. staff

Cognates

bannen

adjective. gone

Elements

WordGloss
bad-to tread, travel, to tread, [G.] travel”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

barn

adjective. safe, protected, secure

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶barnā
    • ᴹ√BAR “raise; uplift, save, rescue(?)” ✧ Ety/BAR

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. varna “safe, protected, secure”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

barn

adjective. tilled, inhabited

Derivations

  • MBAR “settle, dwell; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision, settle; establish, fix, decide, determine, make a decision; dwell, [ᴹ√] inhabit, [ᴱ√] live”

dambed-

verb. to answer

@@@ Another possibility is danbed- based on penbed, but usually nb > mb (and is the main source of medial mb)

Elements

WordGloss
dan“back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
ped-“to say, speak”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

drabol

adjective. labouring

Elements

WordGloss
drab-“to labour, work; (impersonal) to irk, annoy”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

aeron

noun. saint

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. aimo “saint”

Elements

WordGloss
aer“*hallowed, holy”
-(r)on“agental suffix”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

arwen

noun. noble lady

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)-“noble, royal, high”
gwend“maiden, maiden, *young woman”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

belon

noun. sail

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. BELU “unroll”

brant

adjective. cooked, done; overdone

Derivations

Element in

caron

noun. actor, agent, doer, maker

Elements

WordGloss
car-“to do, make”
-(r)on“agental suffix”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bethril

noun. spouse (f.)

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. BES “to wed”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

abgen-

verb. to foresee, expect

Elements

WordGloss
ab“after”
cen-“to see, perceive, look”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

alben

pronoun. no one

Elements

WordGloss
al-“no, not”
pen“one, somebody, anybody, one, somebody, anybody; [N.] Elf”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

baneth

noun. beauty

Elements

WordGloss
bain“fair, beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; fair-haired, beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; fair, fair-haired”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bangad

noun. trade, trading

Elements

WordGloss
banga-“to trade, to trade, *sell”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

baura-

verb. to need, require

@@@ or bóra-/bora-

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. maura- “to need, require”

Elements

WordGloss
baur“need”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

besta-

verb. to wed, marry

A neologism for “to wed, marry” coined by Fiona Jallings, appearing in from the VQP (VQP). It was based on the 1930s root ᴹ√BES; this relatively early root is more compatible with attested Sindarin/Noldorin husband and wife words.

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. BES “to wed”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. vesta- “to wed, to wed, *marry”

Element in

  • ᴺS. bestad “wedding, (lit.) a marrying”
  • ᴺS. bestannen “wedded, married”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

brath-

verb. to cook

Derivations

canga-

verb. to tangle; *to go wrong

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. KANGA “*tangle; [ᴱ√] weave, twine”

carnen

adjective. done, finished

Elements

WordGloss
car-“to do, make”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

ceredis

noun. crafter (f.)

Elements

WordGloss
ceredir“doer, maker, doer, maker, *crafter (m.)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

cirion

noun. sailor, shipman

Elements

WordGloss
cair“ship”
-on“augmentative suffix”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

colron

noun. bearer

Derivations

  • KOL “bear, carry, wear”
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cúron

noun. crescent moon

Elements

WordGloss
“bow, bow; [N.] arch, crescent; [G.] waxing or waning moon”
Raun“Moon”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

adbannad(a)-

verb. to refill

Elements

WordGloss
ad-“back, again, re-”
pannad(a)-“to fill, to fill (trans.)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

cin

pronoun. you (sg. fam.)

Derivations

  • ki “you (imperious/familiar)”

Cognates

  • Q. tye “you (familiar), thee”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

alhad

pronoun. nowhere

Elements

WordGloss
al-“no, not”
sad“place, spot”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bangath

noun. market

Elements

WordGloss
banga-“to trade, to trade, *sell”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

bardha-

verb. to rule, reign

@@@ perhaps with the original sense “to be high/noble”

Derivations

  • BARAD “lofty, high, height combined with strength/size/majesty”
    • BAR “[ᴹ√] raise; uplift, save, rescue(?)”

blodren

adjective. arrogant, *proud

@@@ Elaran suggests this should instead be bladren based on ancient [ā] > [a] shortening in compounds like Narbeleth and Iarwain

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
blaud“pride”

cell

adjective. flowing

Derivations

  • KEL “flow (down or away), run (of water or rivers), go away, flow (down or away), run (of water or rivers), go away, [ᴹ√] run away especially downwards or at end; [ᴱ√] ooze, trickle”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

cethaeg

noun. horizon

A neologism for “horizon” coined by Elaran from the VQP (VQP), a combination of S. cen- “see/sight” and S. taeg “boundary”.

Elements

WordGloss
cen-“to see, perceive, look”
taeg“boundary, limit, boundary line”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

drinna-

verb. to turn, twist

Derivations

  • ᴹ√RIN “*circle”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

caethad

noun. reason, cause

Elements

WordGloss
caetha-“to make to do or be, cause, compel, induce, bring about”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

cîn

pronoun. your (sg. fam.)

Derivations

  • ki “you (imperious/familiar)”

Cognates

  • Q. -tya “your (familiar)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

adbanna-

verb. to refill

Elements

WordGloss
ad-“back, again, re-”
pannad(a)-“to fill, to fill (trans.)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

agrech

noun. contempt

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
crech“spittle”

ar(an)eg

noun. kinglet

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
-eg“diminutive/singular ending”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bel

noun. strength

Derivations

  • BEL “*strong, [ᴹ√] strong”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bilebra-

verb. to equal

Elements

WordGloss
bíleb“equal”
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bilebren

adjective. equable

Elements

WordGloss
bíleb“equal”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bilthadren

adjective. probable

Elements

WordGloss
biltha-“to resemble, seem like; to seem likely, be probable”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

crantha-

verb. to finish, complete, accomplish, achieve

Derivations

  • KAR “do, make, build, do, make, build, [ᴹ√] construct”

Element in

dadhren-

verb. to forget

Elements

WordGloss
dan“back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
ren-“to remember”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

ce

adverb. may(be), might

Derivations

  • KE/EKE “may (be); have chance, opportunity or permission; it is open”

Cognates

  • Q. “may (be)”
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anwathren

adjective. manly, masculine

Elements

WordGloss
anwas“manhood, *manliness, masculinity”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

aphadol

adjective. following

Elements

WordGloss
aphad-“to follow”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

athrabed-

verb. to discuss, exchange words

Elements

WordGloss
athra-“to cross (to and fro)”
ped-“to say, speak”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

avauthron

noun. seizer, ravisher

Elements

WordGloss
avautha-“to ravish, seize (forcibly)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

avnedhor

noun. afternoon

Elements

WordGloss
ab“after”
nedhor“mid-day, noon”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

beleitha-

verb. to extol, magnify

Derivations

  • MBELEK “mighty, powerful, strong; power as force or strength; great, large”
    • BEL “*strong, [ᴹ√] strong” ✧ PE17/115

Cognates

Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

bileutha-

verb. to make equal, equalize

Elements

WordGloss
bíleb“equal”
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budhulug

noun. dragonfly

A neologism for “dragonfly” coined by by Paul Strack in 2018 specifically for Eldamo, a combination of S. budhu “large fly” and S. lhûg “snake”, inspired by G. sithaling “fly snake, dragonfly” (GL/68).

Elements

WordGloss
budhu“large fly”
lhûg“reptile, snake, serpent, worm, reptile, snake, serpent, worm, *lizard; [N.] dragon”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

cungan(d)

noun. viol(in), (lit.) bow-harp

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. cungandë “violin, (lit.) bow-harp”

Elements

WordGloss
“bow, bow; [N.] arch, crescent; [G.] waxing or waning moon”
ÑGAN(AD)“play (on stringed instrument)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

thinnas

noun. shortness

Elements

balthannen

noun. excited, agitated

Elements

WordGloss
baltha-“to excite, rouse, stir up, agitate”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

colch

noun. box, chest

Cognates

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coleb

adjective. burdensome

Elements

WordGloss
caul“great burden, affliction, (great) burden; affliction”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

conui

adjective. commanding

Elements

WordGloss
caun“prince, chief, head”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

amosgarn

noun. robin, (lit.) red-breast

Elements

WordGloss
ammos“*breast, chest; breastplate”
caran“red”

abor

noun. tomorrow, (lit.) after-day

Elements

WordGloss
ab“after”
aur“(whole) day, (whole) day, sunlight, [N.] morning”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

aedh

noun. nest

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
aew“(small) bird”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

am

adverb/adjective. more

Derivations

  • AMA “addition, increase, plus”

Cognates

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barf

noun. armour

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
BAR“raise; uplift, save, rescue(?)”
-mā“instrumental suffix”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

best

noun. marriage, matrimony, wedlock, wedding

A neologism coined by Fiona Jallings in the VQP (VQP), the equivalent of ᴹQ. vesta “matrimony”. Fiona proposed that this word could meaning either “marriage” or “wedding”, but I prefer ᴺS. bestad for “wedding” and would reserve ᴺS. best for “marriage, matrimony, wedlock” = “the state of marriage”.

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. BES “to wed”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. vesta “matrimony, matrimony, [ᴱQ.] state of marriage”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bothol

noun. oven

@@@ [mbāslǝ] > [mbǭsḷ] > [mbauθḷ] > [mboθol] > [boθol]

Derivations

  • MBAS “bake, bake, [ᴱ√] cook; [ᴹ√] knead”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

cand

adjective. bold

Element in

  • ᴺS. úgan(n) “gutless, faint-hearted, diffident”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

cang

noun/adjective. tangled, confused, mixed up, awry; tangle, confusion, mêllay

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. KANGA “*tangle; [ᴱ√] weave, twine”

col-

verb. to bear, carry, wear

Derivations

  • KOL “bear, carry, wear”

Cognates

  • Q. col- “to bear, carry, wear”

Element in

  • ᴺS. asgolui “equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able”
  • ᴺS. colui “light (to carry), not heavy, (lit.) carryable”
  • ᴺS. tharchol- “to translate, (lit.) carry-across”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

cov-

verb. to bow

Derivations

  • KU(H) “bow, [ᴱ√] bend”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. kuv- “to bow”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

dod-

verb. to drop, fall down

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. DOT “drop, fall”

dolph

noun. mole

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NDOL “*head”

Cognates

Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

dov-

verb. to lie heavy

Derivations

  • ᴹ√DUB “lie, lie heavy, loom, hang over oppressively (of clouds)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

rû²

adverb. soon, anon

Derivations

asg

noun. bone; [G.] stone of fruit

Derivations

Cognates

  • Q. axo “bone”

amarthannen

adjective. decreed, destined, ordained

Elements

WordGloss
amartha-“to define, decree, destine”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

cranthannen

adjective. complete, perfect

Elements

WordGloss
crantha-“to finish, complete, accomplish, achieve”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

crisg

adjective. sharp [edged]

Derivations

  • KIRIS “cleave, cleave, [ᴹ√] cut, [ᴱ√] split”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

corf

noun. ring (for fingers)

Elements

WordGloss
KOR“round, round; [ᴱ√] be round, roll”
-mā“instrumental suffix”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

dúda-

verb. to lower [something]

Derivations

  • ndūtā- “to cause to sink”
    • NDU “down, under, below; sink, descend, go down, down, under, below; sink, descend, go down, [ᴹ√] set (of Sun)”

Cognates

  • Q. núta- “to lower, to lower; [ᴹQ.] to set, sink (of Sun or Moon); [ᴱQ.] to stoop”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

aeda-

verb. to revere, worship

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. aita- “to revere, worship”

Element in

  • ᴺS. aedaith “reverence, worship, religion”

Elements

WordGloss
AYA(N)“blessed; treat with awe/reverence, blessed; treat with awe/reverence; [ᴱ√] honour, revere”
-tă“verb suffix (intransitive)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

aenu

noun. (male) angel

@@@ phonetic adaptation from Quenya

Cognates

  • Q. Ainu “holy one, spirit, holy one, angelic spirit (m.); [ᴱQ.] (pagan) god”

Elements

WordGloss
AYA(N)“blessed; treat with awe/reverence, blessed; treat with awe/reverence; [ᴱ√] honour, revere”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

agla-

verb. to shine out, flash

A neologism for “to shine out, flash” posted by Elaran in 2018 on the Vinyë Lambengolmor Discord server based on the primitive form ✶ak’la- of the same meaning (PE18/87).

Derivations

  • akla- “to shine out, flash”
    • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden” ✧ PE18/085; PE18/087; PE18/087
    • KALAT ✧ PE18/087

Cognates

  • Q. alca- “to glitter, to glitter, *shine out, flash”

Element in

  • ᴺS. aglad “lightning”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

aglann

noun. ray of light

Derivations

  • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. alka “ray of light, ray of light, [ᴱQ.] light of day; shining”

anglennol

adjective. approaching, coming

Elements

WordGloss
anglenna-“to approach”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

anwas

noun. manhood, *manliness, masculinity

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
anw“male (person or animal)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

belen

adjective. expanded, unrolled, unfurled, set (of sails)

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. BELU “unroll”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

bened

noun. chin

@@@ not bent to avoid confusion with G. bent “boat”.

Derivations

Cognates

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blaud

noun. pride

Derivations

  • BAL “power; powerful, mighty; have power”

Cognates

Element in

  • ᴺS. blodren “arrogant, *proud”

bloss

noun. wheat

@@@ perhaps originally meaning “grain to be ground/turned into flour”

Derivations

  • MUL “grind (fine)”

blê

noun/adjective. fat of meat; *fatty, oily, greasy

@@@ from m’ligā

Derivations

Cognates

bŷr

noun. follower, vassal

Derivations

  • ᴹ√BEW “follow, serve”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

ceth-

verb. to examine, search, interrogate

Derivations

  • KETH “enquire of, question, examine something”

Cognates

  • Q. ces- “to search, examine (in order to find something)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

colof

noun. orange [fruit]

Derivations

  • KUL “golden-red, golden-red; [ᴱ√] gold”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. kuluma “orange [fruit]”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

corob

noun. skull

Derivations

  • KOR “round, round; [ᴱ√] be round, roll”

Cognates

crech

noun. spittle

Derivations

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. recca “spittle, *saliva”

Element in

cruin

adjective. coloured

Elements

WordGloss
crui“colour”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

cum

noun. belly

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KUM “void”

Cognates

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degil

noun. victor, winner

Derivations

  • NDAK “hew, slay, slay; hew”

Cognates

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dod

noun. berry

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. DOT “drop, fall”

Element in

  • ᴺS. gwennod “elder tree; elderberry, *(lit.) maiden berry”

dom

adjective. blind

Derivations

  • DOM “dark, dark, [ᴹ√] faint, dim”

drab-

verb. to labour, work; (impersonal) to irk, annoy

Derivations

Element in

drint

noun. twist, wrench, turn

Derivations

  • ᴹ√RIN “*circle”

collorn

noun. laburnum, *(lit.) orange-tree

Cognates

  • Q. culumalda “laburnum, *(lit.) orange-tree”

Elements

WordGloss
KUL“golden-red, golden-red; [ᴱ√] gold”
orn“(tall) tree”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

aebin

noun. cherry (tree)

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
AYA(N)“blessed; treat with awe/reverence, blessed; treat with awe/reverence; [ᴱ√] honour, revere”
pibin“(small) berry, haw”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

adaba-

verb. to build, establish

Derivations

  • TAK “fasten, fix, fasten, fix, [ᴹ√] make fast; [ᴱ√] stick (in), firm; [ᴹ√] make”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

annas

noun. length

Elements

WordGloss
and“long”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

anneth

noun. (act of) giving

Elements

WordGloss
anna-“to give, †add to”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

aranas

noun. kingship

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

athren

adjective. dusty

A neologism for “dusty” created by Paul Strack specifically for Eldamo in 2018, inspired by G. thithrin. It is an adjectival form of S. ast, with the thr the result of sound changes similar to othrond = ost + rond. When this entry was first created in 2018, it was given as astren without the sound change, but I modified it to athren in 2021.

Elements

WordGloss
ast“dust”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

balaen

adjective. divine

Derivations

  • BAL “power; powerful, mighty; have power”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. valaina “of or belonging to the Valar, divine”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

balla-

verb. to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. BALAD “worth, value”

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. valda- “to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

banath

noun. beauty

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
bain“fair, beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; fair-haired, beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; fair, fair-haired”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

basta-

verb. to bake

Derivations

  • MBAS “bake, bake, [ᴱ√] cook; [ᴹ√] knead”

Cognates

Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

beinas

noun. beauty

Elements

WordGloss
bain“fair, beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; fair-haired, beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; fair, fair-haired”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

bestad

noun. wedding, (lit.) a marrying

A neologism for “wedding” coined by Fiona Jallings in the VQP (VQP), the gerund of the neologism ᴺS. besta- “to wed, marry” and thus more literally “a marrying”.

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
besta-“to wed, marry”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

blabed

noun. flapping, beating (especially of wings)

Elements

WordGloss
blab-“to flap, beat (wings etc.)”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

blîw

noun. oil

@@@ from m’ligu

Derivations

Cognates

bâl

adjective. divine

Derivations

  • BAL “power; powerful, mighty; have power”
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bída-

verb. to compare, liken

Derivations

  • “as, like”
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bíleb

adjective. equal

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
bîl“likeness, similarity”
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caeda-

verb. to lie; to lay (down)

Derivations

  • KAY “lie, lie, [ᴹ√] lie down; [ᴱ√] rest, dwell”

Cognates

  • Q. caita- “to lie (down)”
  • Q. caita-to lay (transitive), to lay (transitive); [ᴱQ.] to place, lie down”
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caeth

noun. cause, reason, motive

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. KAH “cause”

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. cahta “cause, motive, reason”

Element in

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canthil

noun. square

Elements

WordGloss
canad“four”
till“point, spike, (sharp) horn, tine, ending”
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cavren

adjective. acceptable

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
cav-“to receive, *accept”
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caweth

noun. sense of taste, taste, judgement

Elements

WordGloss
caw-“to taste”
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ceiria-

verb. to cause, bring about

Derivations

  • KAR “do, make, build, do, make, build, [ᴹ√] construct”
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celia-

verb. to illuminate, light up; to illustrate

A neologism coined by Paul Strack in 2018 specifically for Eldamo, the Sindarin equivalent of ᴹQ. kalya-, to serve as a replacement for G. dantha- of the same meaning.

Derivations

  • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. kalya- “to illuminate”

Element in

  • ᴺS. celias “(artificial) light, illumination”
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cesta-

verb. to seek, search for, look for

Derivations

  • KETH “enquire of, question, examine something”

Cognates

  • Q. cesta- “to seek, search for”

Element in

  • ᴺS. cestaed “curious, seeking, inquisitive”
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codhon

noun. idol

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. KOD “revere”

Cognates

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cotha-

verb. to startle

@@@ based on kaptha- > kautha- > cotha-

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. capta- “to make spring, scatter, [ᴱQ.] startle”

Elements

WordGloss
KAP“leap, leap, [ᴱ√] spring”
-tā“verb suffix (transitive), causative”
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covra-

verb. to empty

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KUM “void”
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cui(w)

adjective. awake, alert, alive

Derivations

  • KUY “awake; live, awake; live, [ᴹ√] come to life”
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cyll

noun. bearer

Derivations

  • KOL “bear, carry, wear”
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hanna-

verb. to thank

Cognates

  • Q. hanta- “*to thank, give thanks”

Element in

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aeni

noun. (female) angel

@@@ phonetic adaptation from Quenya

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Aini “holy one, angelic spirit (f.), holy one, angelic spirit (f.); [ᴱQ.] (pagan) goddess”

Elements

WordGloss
AYA(N)“blessed; treat with awe/reverence, blessed; treat with awe/reverence; [ᴱ√] honour, revere”
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alphen

pronoun. no one, nobody

Elements

WordGloss
al-“no, not”
pen“one, somebody, anybody, one, somebody, anybody; [N.] Elf”
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cauth

noun. deception, lie

Derivations

  • KUB “hide, secrete”
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celu

noun. spring, source, spring, source; [G.] rill, stream, runlet

Derivations

  • KEL “flow (down or away), run (of water or rivers), go away, flow (down or away), run (of water or rivers), go away, [ᴹ√] run away especially downwards or at end; [ᴱ√] ooze, trickle”

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. celu “source, origin”
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calph

noun. water-vessel, [G.] bucket

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KALPA “water-vessel”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

alnad

pronoun. nothing

Elements

WordGloss
al-“no, not”
nad“thing”
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anóren

adjective. sunny

A neologism for “sunny” coined by Paul Strack in 2018 specifically for Eldamo, an adjectival form of S. Anor “sun”, intended as a replacement for Gnomish áugwila from the 1910s of the same meaning.

Elements

WordGloss
Anor“Sun”
-en“adjective suffix”
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baltha-

verb. to excite, rouse, stir up, agitate

Derivations

  • GWAL “be stirred, excited; emotion, movement of feelings”

Cognates

  • Q. walta- “to excite, rouse, stir up”

Element in

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balthol

verb. exciting; excitable

Elements

WordGloss
baltha-“to excite, rouse, stir up, agitate”
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bedhril

noun. judge (f.)

Elements

WordGloss
badh-“to judge”
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berthas

noun. adventure, bold undertaking

Elements

WordGloss
bertha-“to dare”
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bethres

noun. sister in law, *kinswoman by marriage

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. verressë “sister in law, kinswoman by marriage”

Elements

WordGloss
BES“to wed”
ress“female cousin, relative”
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biltha-

verb. to resemble, seem like; to seem likely, be probable

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
bîl“likeness, similarity”
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caetha-

verb. to make to do or be, cause, compel, induce, bring about

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. KAH “cause”

Element in

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carf

noun. tool, implement, weapon

Derivations

  • KAR “do, make, build, do, make, build, [ᴹ√] construct”

Cognates

  • Q. carma “tool, implement, means, weapon”
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celf

noun. channel

A neologism for “channel” coined by Elaran in 2018 based on ᴹQ. kelma of the same meaning.

Derivations

  • KEL “flow (down or away), run (of water or rivers), go away, flow (down or away), run (of water or rivers), go away, [ᴹ√] run away especially downwards or at end; [ᴱ√] ooze, trickle”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. kelma “channel”
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coltha-

verb. to bear up; to weigh, balance it on scales; to be worth, value or be equivalent to; to endure

Derivations

  • KOL “bear, carry, wear”

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. colta- “to lade, burden, weigh down”
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com

noun/adjective. bellied

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KUM “void”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. kumba “*bellied”

Element in

  • ᴺS. túgom “fat-bellied”
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coranor

noun. solar year, (lit.) sun-round

Cognates

  • Q. coranar “(solar) year, (lit.) sun-round”

Elements

WordGloss
cor“ring, circle”
Anor“Sun”
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cortha-

verb. to turn sour, curdle, congeal

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. KYUR “curdle”
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crista-

verb. to slash, cut, slice

Derivations

  • KIRIS “cleave, cleave, [ᴹ√] cut, [ᴱ√] split”

curunis

noun. witch

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. curuni “witch, *sorceress, female magician (not necessarily evil)”

Elements

WordGloss
curu“skill (of the hand), craft; power, ability, skill (of the hand), craft; power, ability; [N.] cunning; [ᴱN.] magic”
-dis“female agent”
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dadhra-

verb. to face, oppose, stand in way; to resist, thwart

Elements

WordGloss
dan“back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
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dadhren

adjective. opposing, facing, opposite

Elements

WordGloss
dan“back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
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daetha-

verb. to praise

Cognates

  • Q. laita- “to praise, bless”
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dannad

noun. falling

Elements

WordGloss
danna-“to fall”
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dorgant

noun. landscape, scene, *(lit.) land-shape

Elements

WordGloss
dôr“land, land, [N.] region where certain people live, [ᴱN.] country; [G.] people of the land”
cant“shape, shape; [N.] outline”
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dagrassaeg

noun. bloodthirstiness, (lit.) slaughter-hunger

Elements

WordGloss
dagras“slaughter”
saeg“hunger”
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agreitharol

adjective. despicable, contemptible

Elements

WordGloss
agreitha-“to despise, contemn”
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dagnis

noun. slayer, bane (f.)

Elements

WordGloss
dagnir“slayer, bane”
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berthian

noun. challenge; daring, audacity

Elements

WordGloss
bertha-“to dare”
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caetheb

noun. original

Elements

WordGloss
caeth“cause, reason, motive”
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canab

cardinal. fourteen

Derivations

Cognates

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cuilvorn

noun. lifetime

Elements

WordGloss
cuil“life, life, [G.] lifetime”
BOR(ON)“endure”

dananna-

verb. to give back, return [something]

Elements

WordGloss
dan“back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
anna-“to give”
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dav-

verb. to judge

Derivations

  • NDAB “to judge”
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drautha-

verb. to weary, tire out

Derivations

Element in

  • ᴺS. drauthol “arduous, labourious”

drauthol

adjective. arduous, labourious

Elements

WordGloss
drautha-“to weary, tire out”
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agreitha-

verb. to despise, contemn

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
agrech“contempt”
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alu Reconstructed

adjective. wholesome

Variations

  • alw ✧ PE17/146

Derivations

  • AL(A) “good (physically), blessed, fortunate, prosperous, health(y)” ✧ PE17/146

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
AL > alw[alwa] > [alw] > [alu]✧ PE17/146

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
elyplural-✧ PE17/146
Sindarin [PE17/146] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ammuia-

verb. to work (hard) for, to earn

Derivations

  • “labour, be afflicted”

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. namoia- “to work (hard) for; to earn”
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andrethui

adjective. patient, long suffering

Elements

WordGloss
andreth“long-suffering, patience”
-ui“-ful, having quality, adjective suffix; possibility, suitability [as verbal suffix], *-able”
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avautha-

verb. to ravish, seize (forcibly)

Derivations

  • MAP “take away, take hold of, grasp, take away, take hold of, grasp, [ᴹ√] lay hold of with hand, seize”

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. amapta- “to ravish, seize and carry off forcibly”

Element in

  • ᴺS. avauth “ravishment; seizure”
  • ᴺS. avauthron “seizer, ravisher”
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bestannen

adjective. wedded, married

A neologism for “wedded, married” coined by Paul Strack specifically for Eldamo, the passive participle of Fiona Jalling’s neologism ᴺS. besta- “to wed, marry”.

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. verin “married”

Elements

WordGloss
besta-“to wed, marry”
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caethas

noun. causation

Elements

WordGloss
caeth“cause, reason, motive”
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covas

noun. community

Elements

WordGloss
cova-“to come together, meet; to gather, assemble”
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govannas

noun. community

Elements

WordGloss
govad-“to meet, *come together”
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amman

adverb. why, (lit.) for what

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
an“to, for, to, for; [N. and G.] of”
man“*what, who”
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cestaed

adjective. curious, seeking, inquisitive

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. cesula “inquisitive, curious”

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
cesta-“to seek, search for, look for”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

cestaedas

noun. curiousity

Elements

WordGloss
cestaed“curious, seeking, inquisitive”
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alvar

noun. (good) luck, fortune

Derivations

  • AL(A) “good (physically), blessed, fortunate, prosperous, health(y)”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. almare “blessedness, blessings, good fortune, bliss”
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cruith

noun. colour, complexion, appearance

Elements

WordGloss
crui“colour”

achas

noun. dread, fear

Cognates

  • Q. aha “rage”
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bauch

noun. price, cost

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MBAKH “exchange”
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balas

noun. divinity, divine power

Derivations

  • BAL “power; powerful, mighty; have power”
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bâl

noun. divinity, divine power

Derivations

  • BAL “power; powerful, mighty; have power”
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cuithas

noun. life (period of life); living, livelihood

Elements

WordGloss
cuith“life, the vital principle; living body”
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cordh

noun. sour (of milk), curdled

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. KYUR “curdle”

Cognates

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dav-

verb. to allow, yield, permit

Derivations

  • ᴹ√DAB “give way, make room, permit, allow”

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. lav- “to yield, allow, grant”
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asgolui

adjective. equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. arcólima “equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able”

Elements

WordGloss
AS“beside”
col-“to bear, carry, wear”
-ui“-ful, having quality, adjective suffix; possibility, suitability [as verbal suffix], *-able”
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aemar

noun. rookery, colony of birds

Elements

WordGloss
aew“(small) bird”
bâr“home, house, dwelling, home, house, dwelling; [N.] earth”
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ammal

noun. (death) agony

Derivations

  • Os. amphala “death agony”
    • KWAL “die, pain, die, pain, [ᴹ√] die in pain” ✧ PE18/092
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cuida-

verb. to bring to life, enliven, energize

Derivations

  • koitā- “to bring to life”
    • KOY “*live, have life, [ᴹ√] live, have life” ✧ PE22/136

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. cuita- “to waken, rouse; to live”
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eb

preposition. save, except

Derivations

  • HEK “aside, apart, separate”

Cognates

  • Q. hequa “leaving aside, not counting, excluding, except”
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dagrassaeb

adjective. bloodthirsty, (lit.) slaughter-hungry

Elements

WordGloss
dagras“slaughter”
saeb“hungry”
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adlannas

noun. downfall, ruin

Elements

WordGloss
adlant“oblique, slanted”
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bŷl

noun. (single) service or favour

Derivations

  • ᴹ√BEW “follow, serve”
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drab

noun. labour, toil, irksome work

Derivations

aenor

noun. god

A neologism for “a god” opposed to “God” (Eru), based on Gnomish ain. A direct adaptation of the Gnomish form would be aen, but that conflicts with aen “should be”; Fiona Jallings suggested the extended form aenor in a Discord chat in August 2019.

Derivations

  • AYA(N) “blessed; treat with awe/reverence, blessed; treat with awe/reverence; [ᴱ√] honour, revere”

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. aino “god”
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ain

adjective. same, identical

A Neo-Sindarin analog of Q. imya. As originally coined by Fiona Jallings this word was aif, but Elaran pointed out that likely it would become ain because [[os|[mj] became [nj]]] in Old Sindarin: [imjā] > [inja] > [enja] > [ein] > [ain].

Derivations

  • IM “same, alike, [ᴱ√] same, alike”

Cognates

  • Q. imya “same, identical, self-same”
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and

noun. gate, door

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AD “entrance, gate”

Cognates

  • Q. ando “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches”
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bam

noun. sheep

A neologism for “sheep” coined by Paul Strack in 2018 specifically for Eldamo, derived from a reduplicated word *mbambā from primitive ✶mbā “sheep”; Q. máma “sheep” shows signs of similar reduplication. This is only one of various possibilities for neologisms for “sheep”: in VQP (VQP) Gábor Lőrinczi suggested ᴺS. maw “sheep” as a direct cognate of Q. máma, and Fiona Jallings suggested ᴺS. *baw as a derivative of ✶mbāba, a primitive form that appeared on VT47/35. Both maw and baw have other meanings in Sindarin, however, so I prefer the somewhat contrived form bam since at least it does not collide with other attested words.

Derivations

Cognates

Element in

  • ᴺS. bavron “shepherd, herdsman”
  • ᴺS. gwimmam “whale, (lit.) sheep of the waves”
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cae

noun. earth

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KEM “soil, earth”
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cútha-

verb. to deceive, lie

Derivations

  • KUB “hide, secrete”
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dae

adverb. very

Derivations

  • DAY “*great”

dem

adjective. sad, gloomy

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶dimbā “sad, gloomy”
    • ᴹ√DEM “sad, gloomy” ✧ EtyAC/DEM

Element in

drauthas

noun. toil, weariness from labour

Elements

WordGloss
drauth“[G.] weary, toilworn, tired; [ᴱN.] labour”
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maw

noun. sheep

Derivations

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aedaith

noun. reverence, worship, religion

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. aitalë “reverence, worship, religion”

Elements

WordGloss
aeda-“to revere, worship”
-th“abstract noun”
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ammos

noun. *breast, chest; breastplate

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. ambos “breast, chest”

Element in

  • ᴺS. amosgarn “robin, (lit.) red-breast”

adlant

adjective. oblique, slanted

Element in

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aphas

noun. (sence of) touch

Elements

WordGloss
apha-“to touch”
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caur

noun. action, doing, making; verb

Derivations

  • KAR “do, make, build, do, make, build, [ᴹ√] construct”
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aden

preposition. until

Derivations

  • TEN “direction; point (toward); end (in sense of point aimed at)”
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agol

noun. flash

Derivations

  • akla- “to shine out, flash”
    • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden” ✧ PE18/085; PE18/087; PE18/087
    • KALAT ✧ PE18/087
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baladh

noun. worth, importance

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. BALAD “worth, value”
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ball

adjective. worthy, important; great, mighty

Derivations

  • ᴺ✶. BALAD “worth, value”
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balu

noun. excitement, emotion

Derivations

  • GWAL “be stirred, excited; emotion, movement of feelings”

Cognates

  • Q. walmë “excitement, emotion”
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cav-

verb. to receive, *accept

Derivations

  • KAB “hold, contain, retain, possess, have in hand, hold, contain, retain, possess, have in hand; [ᴹ√] hollow”

Cognates

  • Q. cav- “to receive, to receive, *accept”

Element in

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cil-

verb. to choose, select

Derivations

  • KIL “choose, select, choose, select; [ᴹ√] divide; [ᴱ√] edge”

Cognates

  • ᴺQ. cil- “to choose, select”