Quenya 

Quende#

noun. Elf

Elf

Quenya [PE 18:71] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

quendë

elf

quendë noun "Elf", the little-used analogical sg. of Quendi, q.v. (KWEN(ED), WJ:361)

él

noun. star

An archaic or poetic word for star (WJ/362), somewhat common in compounds but in ordinary speech typically appearing as elen. It was derived directly from the primitive root √EL “behold”, the basis for other star words (PM/340; WJ/360).

Conceptual Development: This word first appeared as poetical ᴹQ. él “star” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, already with the derivation given above, though in this document the root ᴹ√EL meant “star” (Ety/EL), a common gloss for the root in later writings as well.

Cognates

  • T. él “star” ✧ WJ/362

Derivations

  • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ PM/340
  • ēl “star” ✧ WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ WJ/360

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
el- > el[el]✧ PM/340
ēl > él[ēl]✧ WJ/360

Variations

  • el ✧ PM/340
Quenya [PM/340; WJ/362] Group: Eldamo. Published by

él

star

él noun "star", pl. éli given (WJ:362, EL)

elda

of the stars

elda 1. originally adj. "of the stars", but wholly replaced (WJ:362) by: 2. noun (Elda) = one of the people of the Stars, (high-)elf, an Elf (SA:êl, elen, Letters:281, ELED, ÉLED; notice that Tolkien abandoned a former etymology with "depart"), chiefly in the pl. Eldar (WJ:362, cf. GAT(H), TELES).The primitive form Tolkien variously cited as ¤eledā / elenā(Letters:281, PE17:152) and ¤eldā(WJ:360). Partitive pl. Eldali (VT49:8), gen. pl. Eldaron (WJ:368, PM:395, 402);dative pl.eldain "for elves", for Eldar (FS); possessive sg. Eldava "Elf's" (WJ:407); possessive pl. Eldaiva (WJ:368), Eldaivë governing a plural word (WJ:369). The word Eldar properly refers to the non-Avari Elves only, but since Eldar rarely had any contact with the Avari, it could be used for "elves" in general (in LT1:251, Elda is simply glossed "Elf"). See also Eldo. The plural form Eldar should not require any article when the reference is to the entire people; i Eldar refers to a limited group, "(all) the Elves previously named"; nevertheless, Tolkien in some sources does use the article even where the reference seems to be generic (i Eldar or i-Eldar, VT49:8).

elen

noun. star

The most common Quenya word for “star”, mentioned very frequently, derived from an extended form ✶elen of the root √EL “behold” (PE17/67; WJ/360, 362). Its usual plural form is eleni, but it has an archaic plural †eldi sometimes used in verse, the result of the Ancient Quenya sound whereby [[aq|[ln] became [ld]]] after the ancient plural underwent the Quenya syncope, ✶elenī > AQ. elni; its normal modern plural form eleni was actually a reformation from the singular (PE17/57, 151; WJ/362).

Conceptual Development: This word first appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, though in the original entry for the root ᴹ√EL Tolkien said it was poetical and gave variants ellen and elena (Ety/EL).

Cognates

  • S. êl “star” ✧ PE17/024; PE17/024; PE17/067; PE17/127; PE17/151; SA/êl; WJ/362
  • T. él “star” ✧ WJ/367
  • T. elen “star” ✧ WJ/362

Derivations

  • elen “star” ✧ PE17/067; PE17/151; WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; PE17/067; VT42/11; WJ/360
  • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ PE17/151; PM/340; RGEO/65; SA/êl

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
elen > elen[elen]✧ PE17/067
elni > eldi[eleni] > [elni] > [eldi]✧ PE17/151

Variations

  • Elen ✧ LotR/0081; WJ/367
Quenya [Let/265; Let/385; LotR/0081; LotR/0377; LotR/0720; LotR/0915; MC/222; PE17/012; PE17/024; PE17/025; PE17/056; PE17/057; PE17/067; PE17/090; PE17/091; PE17/101; PE17/127; PE17/151; PE19/096; PM/340; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; RGEO/65; SA/êl; UT/213; VT49/39; VT49/44; VT49/45; WJ/362; WJ/367] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elen

star

elen noun "star" (SA:êl, elen, EL, VT49:39); pl. eleni (occasionally in verse: eldi) (WJ:362, PE17:127); partitive pl. elelli for elenli (PE17:127), gen. pl. elenion in the phrase Elenion Ancalima "brightest of stars" (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation); elen atta "two stars" (VT49:44), genitive elen atto "of two stars" (VT49:45), eleni neldë "three stars", archaic elenion neldë = "of stars three". Genitive "of 3 stars" = elenion neldë (for archaic elenion neldëo) (VT49:45). Allative elenna "starwards" used as name of Númenor _(Silm; see Elenna)_; ablative pl. elenillor "from stars" in Markirya. **Nai elen siluva ***"may a star shine", VT49:38.

Elessar

elf-stone

Elessar masc. name "Elf-stone" (Elen + sar, actually "Star-stone", cf. Elendil concerning elen "star" being used to mean "Elf") (LotR3:V ch. 8). Genitive Elesarno _(VT49:28, read _Elessarno?) indicates that the stem is -sarn-. As a common noun, elessar or "elf-stone" may signify "beryl" (in the chapter Flight to the Ford in the LotR, Aragorn finds "a single pale-green jewel" and declares: "It is a beryl, an elf-stone"). Elessar as a name may also be seen as a pun or variant of Elesser "Elf-friend".

elena

of the stars

elena adj. "of the stars" (SA:êl, elen); also elenya

heldo

friend

[heldo, also helmo, fem. heldë, noun "friend" (VT46:3)]

meldo

friend, lover

meldo noun "friend, lover". _(VT45:34, quoting a deleted entry in the Etymologies, but cf. the pl. #_meldor in Eldameldor "Elf-lovers", WJ:412) **Meldonya *"my friend" (VT49:38, 40). It may be that meldo is the distinctly masculine form, corresponding to feminine #meldë** (q.v.)

meldë

friend

#meldë noun "friend", feminine (meldenya "my friend" in the Elaine inscription [VT49:40], Tolkien referring to Elaine Griffiths). Compare meldo.

Elendil

star-friend

Elendil masc. name"Star-friend", "Lover or student of stars", applied to those devoted to astronomical lore. However, when the Edain used this name they intended it to mean "Elf-friend", confusing elen "star" and elda "elf" (WJ:410). (This idea that the name was misapplied seems to be late; Tolken earlier interpreted the name as an ancient compound Eled + ndil so that the meaning really was "Elf-friend"; see Letters:386. See also NIL/NDIL in the Etymologies, where Elendil is equated with "Ælfwine", Elf-friend.) Allative Elendilenna "to Elendil" (PM:401); Elendil Vorondo genitive of Elendil Voronda "Elendil the Steadfast" _(CO) Pl. Elendili the Númenórean Elf-friends (Silm)_; the variant Elendilli in SD:403 would seem to presuppose a stem-form Elendill- not attested elsewhere. Tar-Elendil a Númenorean king, UT:210.

-ser

friend

-ser noun "friend" (SER)

lemen

cardinal. five

lemen, alternative cardinal "five" (VT48:6, 20); the word normally appears as lempë, but compare lemenya below.

lemen

cardinal. five

lemnë

cardinal. five

lempë

cardinal. five

lempë cardinal "five" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK, GL:53, VT42:24, VT47:10, 24); lempëa ordinal "fifth", an analogical formation replacing older lemenya, in turn altered from the historically "correct" form lepenya because of analogy with the cardinal lempë "five" (VT42:25; Vanyarin Quenya maintained lepenya, VT42:26)

lempë

cardinal. five

Cognates

  • S. leben “five” ✧ PE17/095; VT48/06
  • T. lepen “five” ✧ VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24; VT48/06

Derivations

  • LEPEN “five” ✧ PE17/095
  • lepene “five” ✧ PE17/095; VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24
    • LEPEN “five” ✧ VT47/24

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
LEPEN > lepne > lempe[lepne] > [lenpe] > [lempe]✧ PE17/095
lepen > lempe[lepne] > [lenpe] > [lempe]✧ PE17/095
lepene > lepne > lempe[lepene] > [lepne] > [lenpe] > [lempe]✧ VT42/24
lepene > lepne > lempe[lepene] > [lepne] > [lenpe] > [lempe]✧ VT47/10
lepenē̆ > lepnē > lempe[lepenē] > [lepnē] > [lenpē] > [lempē] > [lempe]✧ VT47/24

Variations

  • lempe ✧ PE17/095; PE17/095; VT42/24; VT42/25; VT42/26; VT47/10; VT47/24
  • lemne ✧ PE17/095
  • lemen ✧ VT48/06
Quenya [PE17/095; VT42/24; VT42/25; VT42/26; VT47/10; VT47/24; VT48/06] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ílë

star

ílë noun "star" (LT1:269; rather elen, él in LotR-style Quenya.)

-ndil

friend

-ndil (also -dil) ending occurring in many names, like Amandil, Eärendil; it implies devotion or disinterested love and may be translated "friend" (SA:(noun)dil); this ending is "describing the attitude of one to a person, thing, course or occupation to which one is devoted for its own sake" (Letters:386). Compare -ndur. It is unclear whether the names derived with the ending -ndil are necessarily masculine, though we have no certain example of a woman's name in -ndil; the name Vardilmë (q.v.) may suggest that the corresponding feminine ending is -(n)dilmë.

alqua

noun. swan

swan

Quenya [PE 18:100] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

alqua

noun. swan

The Quenya noun for “swan” derived from primitive ✶alkwā (NM/378; PE18/100; UT/265; Ety/ÁLAK).

Conceptual Development: The word ᴱQ. alqa dates all the way back to the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, where it was a derivative of the early root ᴱ√ḶKḶ (QL/30), though it had a variant form alqe in the contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon (GL/18). Other than this one exception, Tolkien stuck with alqua throughout his life. In The Etymologies of the 1930s, ᴹQ. alqa “swan” appeared under the root ᴹ√ALAK “rushing” (Ety/ÁLAK).

Cognates

  • S. alph “swan” ✧ NM/378; SA/alqua; UT/265; VT42/07
  • T. alpa “swan” ✧ UT/265

Derivations

  • alkwā “swan” ✧ NM/378; PE18/100; UT/265; VT42/07
    • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ PE18/100
  • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ SA/alqua

Element in

  • Q. Alqualondë “Haven of the Swans” ✧ SA/alqua; UT/265

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
alkwā > alqua[alkwā] > [alkwa]✧ NM/378
álkwā > alqua[alkwā] > [alkwa]✧ PE18/100
alak- > alqua[alakwā] > [alkwā] > [alkwa]✧ SA/alqua
alkwa > alqua[alkwa]✧ UT/265
alkwa > alqua[alkwa]✧ VT42/07
Quenya [NM/378; PE18/100; SA/alqua; UT/265; VT42/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alqua

swan

alqua noun "swan" _(ÁLAK [there spelt _alqa, as in LT1:249/LT2:335], SA:alqua, UT:265, VT42:7). The alternative form alquë ("q") mentioned in early material (LT1:249) may or may not be valid in LotR-style Quenya.

málo

noun. friend

friend, comrade

Quenya [PE 18:46 PE 18:96] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

málo

friend

málo noun "friend" (MEL, VT49:22)

nildo

friend

nildo noun "friend" (apparently masc.; contrast nildë) (NIL/NDIL)

nildë

friend

nildë noun "friend" (fem.) (NIL/NDIL)

nilmo

friend

nilmo noun "friend" (apparently masc.) (NIL/NDIL)

sermo

friend

sermo noun "friend" (evidently masc., since sermë is stated to be fem.) (SER)

sermë

friend

sermë noun "friend" (fem.) (SER)

seron

friend

seron noun "friend" (SER)

-ndur

friend

-ndur (also -dur), ending in some names, like Eärendur; as noted by Christopher Tolkien in the Silmarillion Appendix it has much the same meaning as -ndil "friend"; yet -ndur properly means "servant of" (SA:(noun)dil), "as one serves a legitimate master: cf. Q. arandil king's friend, royalist, beside arandur 'king's servant, minister'. But these often coincide: e.g. Sam's relation to Frodo can be viewed either as in status -ndur, in spirit -ndil." (Letters:286)

quendë

noun. Elf, (lit.) One That Speaks

Cognates

  • T. Pendë “Elf (as a race)” ✧ WJ/375; WJI/Pendi; WJ/361

Derivations

  • kwende “speaker, elf” ✧ PE17/137; PE17/141; PE17/152
    • KWENED “spoken, articulate, spoken, articulate; [ᴹ√] Elf” ✧ PE17/137
    • KWEN “speak with rational words” ✧ PE19/093
      • KWE “vocal speech” ✧ WJ/392
    • KWEN “speak with rational words” ✧ PE17/140; WJ/360
    • KWE “vocal speech” ✧ WJ/392
  • KWENED “spoken, articulate, spoken, articulate; [ᴹ√] Elf” ✧ PE19/093
    • KWEN “speak with rational words” ✧ PE19/093
    • KWE “vocal speech” ✧ WJ/392
  • KWEN “speak with rational words” ✧ SA/quen; WJ/361; WJ/391
    • KWE “vocal speech” ✧ WJ/392

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
quet-“to say, speak, tell, to say, speak, tell, [ᴱQ.] talk”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
kwendī > Quendi[kwendī] > [kwendi]✧ PE17/137
kwenedē > qende[kwenedē] > [kwendē] > [kwende]✧ PE17/141
kwened- > Quendi[kwenedē] > [kwendē] > [kwende]✧ PE17/152
kwened > quend-[kwenede] > [kwende]✧ PE19/093
quen- > Quendi[kwende]✧ SA/quen
KWEN > quende[kwende]✧ WJ/361
KWEN > Quendi[kwende]✧ WJ/391

Variations

  • quende ✧ NM/095; WJ/361
  • Quende ✧ PE17/137; WJ/372; WJI/Quendi
  • qende ✧ PE17/141
Quenya [Let/176; LotR/1137; LotRI/Quendi; LT2I/Quendi; MR/229; MR/471; MRI/Quendi; NM/095; PE17/137; PE17/141; PE17/152; PE18/071; PE19/093; PM/029; PM/395; PMI/Quendi; S/049; SA/quen; SI/Quendi; SMI/Quendi; UTI/Quendi; WJ/361; WJ/372; WJ/375; WJ/391; WJI/Pendi; WJI/Quendi] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sondo

friend

[sondo noun "friend" (VT46:15)]

quentaro

noun. speaker

speaker, reciter, minstrel

Quenya [PE 18:50, 51 PE 19:40] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

Sindarin 

edhel

Elf

{ð} _n. _Elf.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:140-1] < _edelō_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

edhel

noun. Elf

_ n. _Elf, a general name for all the Elves (since the name Quendi had gone out of use in Sindarin). Probably related to or connected with Q. Elda. >> edhellen

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:45] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

edhel

Elf

d _ n. _Elf. Q. elda.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:151] < *_edelā_ Elf < DEL. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

edhel

noun. Elf

Cognates

  • Q. Elda “Elf, (lit.) one of the Star-folk” ✧ LRI/Edhil; PE17/045; PE17/151; PE17/152; SA/êl; SA/êl; RC/780
  • Q. Eldo “one of the Marchers” ✧ WJ/363

Derivations

  • edelā “the fair” ✧ PE17/139; PE17/151
    • DEL “*fair” ✧ PE17/151
  • edelō “one who goes, traveller, migrant, marcher” ✧ PE17/141; PE17/152; WJ/360
    • DEL “walk, go, proceed, travel” ✧ WJ/360; WJ/363

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
edelā > eðel[edelā] > [edela] > [eðela] > [eðel]✧ PE17/139
edelō > eðel[edelō] > [edelo] > [eðelo] > [eðel]✧ PE17/141
edelā > edhel[edelā] > [edela] > [eðela] > [eðel]✧ PE17/151
edelā > eðel[edelā] > [edela] > [eðela] > [eðel]✧ PE17/152
edelō > Edhel[edelō] > [edelo] > [eðelo] > [eðel]✧ WJ/360
edelō > Edhil[edelī] > [edeli] > [eðeli] > [eðili] > [eðil]✧ WJ/360

Variations

  • edhel ✧ PE17/045; PE17/151; RC/780; SA/edhel; UT/255; UTI/Edhelrim
  • eðel ✧ PE17/139; PE17/141; PE17/152
  • Eðel ✧ PM/346
Sindarin [LRI/Edhil; PE17/045; PE17/097; PE17/139; PE17/141; PE17/151; PE17/152; PM/346; RC/780; RGEO/62; SA/edhel; SA/êl; SI/Sindar; UT/255; UT/318; UTI/Edhelrim; WJ/364; WJ/377; WJ/378; WJI/Edhel] Group: Eldamo. Published by

edhel

Elf

pl1. edhil, pl2. edhellim {ð} _n. _Elf. A name used by the Sindar for themselves, characterizing other varieties by an adjective or prefix. >> Aredhel, Thinnedhel

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:139] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

edhel

noun. Elf

Sindarin [Ety/356, S/430, WJ/363-364] Group: SINDICT. Published by

eledh

noun. Elf

Cognates

  • Q. Elda “Elf, (lit.) one of the Star-folk” ✧ Let/281; SA/êl
  • Q. elenya “adjective referring to the stars, *of the stars, stellar” ✧ WJ/362

Derivations

  • eledā “star-folk, of the stars” ✧ Let/281; PE17/140
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281
  • elenā “connected with or concerning the stars” ✧ PE17/139; WJ/360
    • elen “star” ✧ PE17/139
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; PE17/067; VT42/11; WJ/360

Element in

  • S. Eledhwen “Elfsheen, Elven-fair” ✧ Let/281; SA/êl; UTI/Haudh-en-Elleth

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
eledā/elenā > eledh[eledā] > [eleda] > [eleða] > [eleð]✧ Let/281
eledā/elenā > elidh[eledī] > [eledi] > [eleði] > [eliði] > [elið]✧ Let/281
elenyā > elein[elenjā] > [elenja] > [elenia] > [eleni] > [elein] > [elain]✧ PE17/139
eledā > eleð[eledā] > [eleda] > [eleða] > [eleð]✧ PE17/140
elenā > Elen[elenā] > [elena] > [elen]✧ WJ/360
elenā > Elin[elenī] > [eleni] > [elini] > [elin]✧ WJ/360

Variations

  • eledh ✧ Let/281 (eledh); UTI/Edhelrim
  • elein ✧ PE17/139 (elein)
  • eleð ✧ PE17/140
  • Elen ✧ WJ/363; WJ/377 (Elen); WJI/Elen
Sindarin [Let/281; PE17/139; PE17/140; SA/êl; UTI/Edhelrim; UTI/Haudh-en-Elleth; WJ/363; WJ/377; WJI/Elen] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elen

noun. Elf

ell

noun. Elf

Cognates

  • Q. Elda “Elf, (lit.) one of the Star-folk” ✧ Let/281; WJ/362

Derivations

  • eledā “star-folk, of the stars” ✧ PE17/141; WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
eldā > ell[eldā] > [elda] > [elða] > [elð] > [ell]✧ PE17/141
eldā > Ell-[eldā] > [elda] > [elða] > [elð] > [ell]✧ WJ/360

Variations

  • ell ✧ Let/281; PE17/141; PE17/152 (ell)
  • Ell- ✧ WJ/363
  • ell- ✧ WJ/364
Sindarin [Let/281; PE17/141; PE17/152; VT50/15; VT50/19; VT50/23; WJ/363; WJ/364; WJ/377; WJ/412] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ell

noun. elf

n. elf, esp. [?in ?the ?South]. Noldorin form.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:141] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ellon

noun. elf

Sindarin [WJ/363-364] Group: SINDICT. Published by

penedh

noun. Elf

Derivations

  • kwende “speaker, elf” ✧ PE17/140
    • KWENED “spoken, articulate, spoken, articulate; [ᴹ√] Elf” ✧ PE17/137
    • KWEN “speak with rational words” ✧ PE19/093
      • KWE “vocal speech” ✧ WJ/392
    • KWEN “speak with rational words” ✧ PE17/140; WJ/360
    • KWE “vocal speech” ✧ WJ/392

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
kwenedē > peneð[kwenedē] > [penedē] > [penede] > [peneðe] > [peneð]✧ PE17/140

Variations

  • peneð ✧ PE17/140; PE17/141
Sindarin [PE17/140; PE17/141] Group: Eldamo. Published by

el

star

n. star.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:55] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

egol

noun. someone forsaken, an Elf of the Falathrim

Sindarin [Eglath WJ/189, WJ/344] Group: SINDICT. Published by

elen

noun. star

elen

star

pl1. elin, pl2. elenath _n._star. Its collective plural (pl2.) designates 'the (host of all the) stars, (all) the (visible) stars of the firmament'. Q. elen, pl1. eldi, eleni. o menel aglar elenath ! lit. 'from Firmament glory of the stars !'. >> êl

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20-1:24-5:67:139:151] < EL star. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

êl

noun. star

A Sindarin word for “star” that is largely archaic and poetic, and is mainly used as element in names like Elrond (Let/281; WJ/363; Ety/EL); the more usual word for “star” in ordinary speech was gil (RGEO/65). However, the collective form elenath is still used in common speech to refer to the entire host of stars (WJ/363). The plural of êl is elin, as this word was derived from ancient ✶elen, and the final n that was lost in the singular was preserved in the plural. In some cases Tolkien posited a restored analogical singular elen from the plural form (PE17/24, 67, 139), but this isn’t in keeping with the notion that the word was archaic, so I would ignore this for purposes of Neo-Sindarin.

Conceptual Development: This word and its root first appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, where N. el “star” was derived from the root ᴹ√EL of similar meaning, but was “only [used] in names” (Ety/EL). It seems Tolkien introduced the root to give a new etymology for names like N. Elrond and N. Elwing, which initially appeared under the root ᴹ√ƷEL “sky” (Ety/ƷEL).

Cognates

  • Q. elen “star” ✧ PE17/024; PE17/024; PE17/067; PE17/127; PE17/151; SA/êl; WJ/362

Derivations

  • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; RGEO/65; SA/êl
  • elen “star” ✧ PE17/067; PE17/139; PE22/150; WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; PE17/067; VT42/11; WJ/360

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
EL > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ Let/281
elen > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ PE17/067
ELEN > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ PE17/139
elenī > elin[elenī] > [eleni] > [elini] > [elin]✧ PE22/150
EL > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ RGEO/65
ele > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ SA/êl
elen > êl[elen] > [ele] > [el] > [ēl]✧ WJ/360

Variations

  • Êl ✧ MR/373
  • el- ✧ PE17/022
  • elen ✧ PE17/024; PE17/067; PE17/139
  • el(en) ✧ PE17/025
  • el ✧ PE17/055; PM/369
Sindarin [Let/281; LotR/0238; MR/373; PE17/022; PE17/024; PE17/025; PE17/055; PE17/067; PE17/127; PE17/139; PE17/151; PE22/150; PM/369; RGEO/63; RGEO/64; RGEO/65; RGEO/67; SA/êl; WJ/363] Group: Eldamo. Published by

êl

star

pl1. elin, pl2. elenath** ** n. star. Q. elen, pl1. eldi, eleni, pl2. elelli. >> elen

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:24:67:127:139-40:151] < EL star. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

êl

noun. star (little used except in verses)

Sindarin [WJ/363, MR/373, RGEO/73, Letters/281] Group: SINDICT. Published by

elleth

noun. elf-maid

Sindarin [WJ/148, WJ/256, WJ/363-364] Group: SINDICT. Published by

mornedhel

noun. Dark-Elf

Sindarin [WJ/377, WJ/380] morn+edhel. Group: SINDICT. Published by

Teler

noun. an Elf, one of the Teleri

Sindarin [PM/385] Group: SINDICT. Published by

edhelharn

noun. elf-stone

Sindarin [SD/128-129] edhel+sarn. Group: SINDICT. Published by

eglan

noun/adjective. an Elf of the Falathrim

Sindarin [WJ/365, WJ/379-380] Group: SINDICT. Published by

eglan

adjective. forsaken

Derivations

Element in

  • S. Eglan “Forsaken (Elf)” ✧ WJ/365

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
heklanā > Eglan[ɣeklanā] > [eklanā] > [eklana] > [eklan] > [eglan]✧ WJ/365

Variations

  • Eglan ✧ WJ/365

eglan

noun/adjective. forsaken

Sindarin [WJ/365, WJ/379-380] Group: SINDICT. Published by

elvellon

noun. elf-friend

Sindarin [WJ/412] Group: SINDICT. Published by

eglath

noun. "The Forsaken", Elves of the Falathrim

Sindarin [WJ/189, WJ/344] Group: SINDICT. Published by

laegel

noun. a Green Elf

Sindarin [WJ/385] laeg+-el. Group: SINDICT. Published by

mellon

noun. friend

_ n. _friend. Pedo mellon a minno! 'Say friend and enter'. 

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:41] < _melnā_ < MEL love. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

mellon

noun. friend

Sindarin [Ety/372, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-31, Letters/424] Group: SINDICT. Published by

mellon

noun. friend

Cognates

  • Q. meldo “friend, lover” ✧ WJ/412

Derivations

  • MEL “love, love, [ᴹ√] love (as friend)” ✧ SA/mel

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
mel- > mellon[meldondo] > [melðondo] > [melðond] > [mellond] > [mellonn] > [mellon]✧ SA/mel

Variations

  • Mellon ✧ LotR/0308; LotRI/Mellon
Sindarin [Let/424; LotR/0305; LotR/0308; LotRI/Mellon; PE17/041; PE17/097; SA/mel; SD/129; VT44/26; WJ/412] Group: Eldamo. Published by

miniel

noun. an Elf, one of the Vanyar

Sindarin [WJ/383] min+-el "first elf". Group: SINDICT. Published by

ódhel

noun. Deep Elf or Gnome, one of the Wise Folk

Sindarin [WJ/364, WJ/366, WJ/378-379] Group: SINDICT. Published by

avar

noun. refuser

This plural name was known to the loremasters, but went out of daily use at the time of the Exile

Sindarin [WJ/380, VT/47:12] Group: SINDICT. Published by

avar

proper name. Refuser

Cognates

  • Q. Avar “Refuser, Elf who did not journey to Aman” ✧ PE17/139; WJ/380; VT47/24

Derivations

  • abar(o) “refuser, recusant, one who refuses to act as advised or commanded” ✧ VT47/13; VT47/24; WJ/380
    • BĀ/ABA “refuse, forbid, prohibit, say nay (in refusal or denial), refuse, forbid, prohibit, say nay (in refusal or denial), [ᴹ√] deny; away, go away, depart” ✧ WJ/361; WJ/411

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
ava-“will not, do not”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
abar > avar[abaro] > [abar] > [avar]✧ VT47/13
abar > avar[abaro] > [abar] > [avar]✧ VT47/24
Abarī > Evair[abarī] > [abari] > [avari] > [everi] > [eveir] > [evair]✧ WJ/380

Variations

  • gavar ✧ PE17/139
  • avar ✧ VT47/13; VT47/24
Sindarin [PE17/139; VT47/13; VT47/24; WJ/380; WJI/Evair] Group: Eldamo. Published by

glinnel

noun. Elf, one of the Teleri

Sindarin [WJ/378, WJ/385] glind("teleri")+el. Group: SINDICT. Published by

gódhel

noun. "Deep Elf" or "Gnome", one of the Wise Folk

Sindarin [WJ/364, WJ/379] go(lodh)+ódhel, or OS *wådelo. Group: SINDICT. Published by

telerrim

noun. the Teleri, a tribe of Elves

Sindarin [PM/385] teler+rim. Group: SINDICT. Published by

dúnedhel

noun. Elf of the West, Elf of Beleriand (including Noldor and Sindar)

Sindarin [WJ/378] dûn+edhel, OS *ndûnedelo. Group: SINDICT. Published by

egladhrim

noun. "The Forsaken", Elves of the Falathrim

Sindarin [WJ/189, WJ/365, WJ/379] eglan+rim. Group: SINDICT. Published by

gil

noun. star, bright spark

In The Etymologies (Ety/358, corrected by VT/45:15), this word was given as geil , plural gîl. However, later in LotR/E and RGEO/73, Tolkien seems to consider gil as a singular (with no hints in the sources of what the plural would be, besides the collective plural giliath )

Sindarin [LotR/E, S/431, RGEO/73] Group: SINDICT. Published by

ódhellim

noun. Deep Elves or Gnomes, the Wise Folk

Sindarin [WJ/364] ódhel+rim. Group: SINDICT. Published by

iathrim

noun. Elves of Doriath

Sindarin [WJ/378] iâth+rim. Group: SINDICT. Published by

gódhellim

noun. "Deep Elves" or "Gnomes", the Wise Folk

Sindarin [WJ/364] gódhel+rim. Group: SINDICT. Published by

laegeldrim

noun. the people of the Green Elves

Sindarin [WJ/385] laegel+rim. Group: SINDICT. Published by

alph

noun. swan

The Sindarin noun for “swan” derived from primitive ✶alkwā (NM/378; UT/265; Ety/ÁLAK), where first the [[at|ancient [kw] became [p]]] and then the [[os|[lp] became [lf] (spelled lph)]].

Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, this word appeared as {alcwi >>} alfa (GL/18), which is perhaps the moment that Tolkien decided that labialized velars became labials in the Sindarin branch of Elvish (though in Gnomish this sound change applied only medially). In Gnomish Lexicon Slips modifying this document, the word became alf (PE13/109), and Tolkien stuck with this form thereafter, though eventually revising the spelling to alph once he decide that final [f] was spelled ph. In The Etymologies of the 1930s, N. alf “swan” appeared under the root ᴹ√ALAK “rushing” (Ety/ÁLAK).

Cognates

  • Q. alqua “swan” ✧ NM/378; SA/alqua; UT/265; VT42/07

Derivations

  • alkwā “swan” ✧ NM/378; VT42/07
    • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ PE18/100
  • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ SA/alqua
  • T. alpa “swan” ✧ UT/265
    • alkwā “swan” ✧ UT/265
    • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ PE18/100

Element in

  • ᴺS. alfeg “cygnet, young swan”
  • ᴺS. alfuil “large white sea-bird, albatross, †swan”
  • S. Alphros
  • S. Elphir
  • S. Nîn-in-Eilph “Swanfleet, Waterlands of the Swans” ✧ NM/378; VT42/07

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
alkwā > alpa > alf[alkwā] > [alpā] > [alpa] > [alpʰa] > [alɸa] > [alfa] > [alf]✧ NM/378
T. alpa > alph[alpa] > [alpʰa] > [alɸa] > [alfa] > [alf]✧ UT/265
T. alpa > eilph[alpi] > [alpʰi] > [alɸi] > [alfi] > [elfi] > [eilf]✧ UT/265
alkwa > alf[alkwa] > [alpa] > [alpʰa] > [alɸa] > [alfa] > [alf]✧ VT42/07

Variations

  • alf ✧ NM/378; VT42/07
Sindarin [LotR/1114; NM/378; PE17/100; SA/alqua; UT/265; VT42/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alph

noun. swan

Sindarin [Ety/348, S/427, LotR/E, VT/42:6-7, X/PH] Group: SINDICT. Published by

alph

noun. swan

n. Zoo. swan.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:100] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gil-

noun. star

Sindarin [PE 22:159] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

gill

noun. star

leben

cardinal. five

Cognates

  • Q. lempë “five” ✧ PE17/095; VT48/06
  • T. lepen “five” ✧ VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24

Derivations

  • lepene “five” ✧ PE17/095; VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24
    • LEPEN “five” ✧ VT47/24

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
lepen > leb(en[lepene] > [lepen] > [leben]✧ PE17/095
lepene > leben[lepene] > [lepen] > [leben]✧ VT42/24
lepene > leben[lepene] > [lepen] > [leben]✧ VT47/10
lepenē̆ > leben[lepene] > [lepen] > [leben]✧ VT47/24

Variations

  • leb(en ✧ PE17/095
Sindarin [PE17/095; VT42/24; VT42/25; VT47/10; VT47/24; VT48/06] Group: Eldamo. Published by

leben

cardinal. five

Sindarin [Ety/368, TAI/150, VT/42:24-25, VT/47:10, VT/47:2] Group: SINDICT. Published by

tawarwaith

noun. Silvan elves

Sindarin [UT/256] tawar+gwaith "forest-elves". Group: SINDICT. Published by

galadhrim

noun. Elves of Lothlórien

Sindarin [LotR] galadh+rim "people of the trees". Group: SINDICT. Published by

calben

noun. all Elves but the Avari

Sindarin [WJ/362, WJ/376-377, WJ/408-409] Group: SINDICT. Published by

calben

noun. Elf of the Great Journey (lit. "light person")

Sindarin [WJ/362, WJ/376-377, WJ/408-409] Group: SINDICT. Published by

golodh

noun. "Deep Elf" or "Gnome", one of the Wise Folk

Sindarin [Ety/377, S/431, WJ/364] Group: SINDICT. Published by

giliath

noun. all the host of stars

Sindarin [Ety/358, RC/232] Group: SINDICT. Published by

lachend

noun. Deep Elf (Sindarin name for the Ñoldor)

Sindarin [WJ/384, X/ND4] lach+hend "flame-eyed". Group: SINDICT. Published by

lachenn

noun. Deep Elf (Sindarin name for the Ñoldor)

Sindarin [WJ/384, X/ND4] lach+hend "flame-eyed". Group: SINDICT. Published by

laegrim

noun. the people of the Green Elves

Sindarin [WJ/385] laegel+rim. Group: SINDICT. Published by

golodhrim

noun. Deep Elves, Gnomes

Sindarin [Ety/377, WJ/323] golodh+rim. Group: SINDICT. Published by

avar

noun. the Avari, Elves who refused the invitation of the Valar

This plural name was known to the loremasters, but went out of daily use at the time of the Exile

Sindarin [WJ/380, VT/47:12] Group: SINDICT. Published by

edhel

elf

edhel (pl. edhil). Coll. pl. Edhelrim (or Edhellim) (UT:318). Also †eledh, pl. elidh, coll. pl. eledhrim (Letters:281), also elen, pl. elin, also with coll. pl. eledhrim (elen + rim with the regular change nr > dhr). _(WJ:363, 377-78; _the shorter coll. pl. Eldrim > Elrim_ _may also occur). But since elin also means "stars", other terms for "Elf" may be preferred.

edhelharn

elf-stone

(a term for beryl) edhelharn (pl. edhelhern) (SD:128-31). SEEING STONE (palantír) *gwachaedir (i **wachaedir), no distinct pl. form except with prefixed article (in gwachaedir), coll. pl. ?gwachaediriath or ?gwachadirnath (the latter form assuming that -dir is reduced from older -dirn) The form occurring in the primary source, gwahaedir, must represent the late Gondorian pronunciation with h for ch** (PM:186).

edhelharn

elf-stone

(a term for beryl) edhelharn (pl. edhelhern) (SD:128-31).

eglan

forsaken

eglan, pl. eglain also used for "the forsaken Elves" (coll. pl. Egladhrim), i.e. the Sindar or Falathrim that were left i Beleriand. (WJ:379, VT45:12) This people could also be referred to as the Eglath (a coll. pl.), apparently with no singular (?Egol), though Egla- appears at the beginning of compounds (e.g. Eglador = land of the Eglain or Eglath).

mellon

friend

1) (masc.) mellon (i vellon) (lover), pl. mellyn (i mellyn), coll. pl. mellonnath. Also meldir (i veldir), no distinct pl. form except with article (i meldir). Also seron (i heron, o seron), pl. seryn (i seryn), coll. pl. seronnath. 2) (fem.) meldis (i veldis), no distinct pl. form except with article (i meldis), coll. pl. meldissath.

alph

swan

alph (pl. eilph)

leben

cardinal. five

leben;

gîl

star

gîl (i ngîl = i ñîl, o n**gîl, construct gil) (bright spark, silver glint), no distinct pl. form except with article (in gîl = i ñgîl), coll. pl. giliath** (RGEO, MR:388). Poetic †êl (elen-, pl. elin, coll. pl. elenath) (RGEO, Letters:281, WJ:363).

Telerin 

ella

noun/adjective. Elf

Cognates

  • Q. Elda “Elf, (lit.) one of the Star-folk” ✧ WJ/362; WJI/Eldar

Derivations

  • eledā “star-folk, of the stars” ✧ WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281

Element in

Telerin [WJ/362; WJ/364; WJ/375; WJI/Eldar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ello

noun. Elf

Cognates

  • Q. Elda “Elf, (lit.) one of the Star-folk” ✧ WJ/375; WJ/373
  • Q. Eldo “one of the Marchers” ✧ WJI/Eldar

Derivations

  • edelō “one who goes, traveller, migrant, marcher” ✧ WJ/362; WJ/360
    • DEL “walk, go, proceed, travel” ✧ WJ/360; WJ/363

Element in

  • T. Audel “Elf who left for Aman” ✧ WJ/364
Telerin [WJ/362; WJ/364; WJ/373; WJ/375; WJ/376; WJI/Eldar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

él

noun. star

Cognates

  • Q. él “star” ✧ WJ/362
  • Q. elen “star” ✧ WJ/367

Derivations

  • ēl “star” ✧ WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ WJ/360

Element in

Variations

  • ēl ✧ WJ/362; WJ/407
Telerin [WJ/362; WJ/407] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elen

noun. star

Cognates

  • Q. elen “star” ✧ WJ/362

Derivations

  • elen “star” ✧ WJ/360
    • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; PE17/067; VT42/11; WJ/360

alpa

noun. swan

Cognates

  • Q. alqua “swan” ✧ UT/265

Derivations

  • alkwā “swan” ✧ UT/265
    • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ PE18/100

Derivatives

  • S. alph “swan” ✧ UT/265

lepen

cardinal. five

Cognates

  • Q. lempë “five” ✧ VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24; VT48/06
  • S. leben “five” ✧ VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24

Derivations

  • lepene “five” ✧ VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24
    • LEPEN “five” ✧ VT47/24

Element in

Telerin [VT42/24; VT42/25; VT47/10; VT47/24; VT48/06] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Nandorin 

cwenda

noun. elf

A doubtful word according to Tolkien's later conception; in the branch of Eldarin that Nandorin belongs to, primitive KW became P far back in Elvish linguistic history [WJ:375 cf. 407 note 5]. This was not a problem in Tolkien's earlier conception, in which the Danians came from the host of the Noldor, not the Teleri [see PM:76; the idea of the Nandor being of Noldorin origin also occurs in VT47:29]. In his later version of Nandorin, the word cwenda is probably best ignored; simply emending it to *penda would produce a clash with primitive pendâ "sloping" [cf. WJ:375].

In the Etymologies, Tolkien derived cwenda from kwenedê "elf" (stem KWEN(ED) of similar meaning, LR:366; as for the shift of original final to Nandorin , compare hrassa "precipice" from khrassê). But later the primitive word that yielded Quenya Quende was reconstructed as kwende (WJ:360).

No certain example shows how original short final -e comes out in Nandorin, so we cannot say whether kwende is also capable of yielding cwenda, ignoring the question of kw failing to become p.

Nandorin [H. Fauskanger (LR:366, WJ:375:360)] < KWEN(ED). Published by

ealc

noun. swan

Primitive form given as alk-wâ, derived from a stem ÁLAK "rushing" (LR:348); alk-wâ would seem to be an adjectival formation (ending -wâ), so the primitive word probably had the same meaning as the stem: "rushing", later used as a noun "rushing (one)" and applied to an animal. According to Tolkien's later conception, kw should probably have come out as p rather than c in Nandorin; see cwenda.

Primitive a becoming ea is a strange shift with no direct parallels even where it might have been expected, but compare eo from i in meord (and from e in beorn), as well as ie from a in sciella. Perhaps we are to understand that the liquids l, r trigger such changes in a preceeding vowel, but then we might expect for instance *ealm instead of alm as the word for "elm-tree".

Nandorin [H. Fauskanger (LR:348)] < ÁLAK. Published by

galadrim

noun. Elves of Lothlórien

Note: "The Galadrim were 'Tree-people' (though the formation is Sindarin, + S [rim] = Q rimbë, great number) = true Sindarin galadhrim."

Nandorin [PE17/50] galadā + rim(b). Published by

Danas

noun. Green-elves, Nandor

In Etym derived from the stem DAN (LR:353), simply defined as an "element found in names of the Green-elves", and tentatively compared to NDAN "back" (since the Nandor "turned back" and did not complete the march to the Sea). Tolkien's later view on the derivation of the name of the Green-elves, as set down in WJ:412, is that the stem dan- and its strengthened form ndan- do indeed have a similar meaning: these forms have to do with "the reversal of an action, so as to undo or nullify its effect", and a primitive form ndandô, "one who goes back on his word or decision", is suggested. However, it seems unlikely that the Nandor would have called themselves by such a name, and indeed Tolkien in WJ:385 states that "this people still called themselves by the old clan-name Lindai [= Quenya Lindar], which had at that time taken the form Lindi in their tongue". It may be, then, that Tolkien had rejected the idea that the Nandor called themselves Danas. - As for the ending -as, it is probably to be compared to the Sindarin class plural ending -ath; indeed a Sindarin ("Noldorin") form Danath evidently closely corresponding to Danas is given in LR:353.

Nandorin [H. Fauskanger (LR:353, WJ:385)] < DAN. Published by

Primitive elvish

ēl

noun. star

Derivations

  • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ WJ/360

Derivatives

  • Q. él “star” ✧ WJ/360
  • T. él “star” ✧ WJ/360

Element in

  • eledā “star-folk, of the stars” ✧ WJ/360
  • elen-barathī “star-queen” ✧ PE17/066

Variations

  • el ✧ PE17/066
Primitive elvish [PE17/066; WJ/360] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elen

noun. star

Derivations

  • EL “lo, behold; star, lo, behold; star, [ᴹ√] starry sky” ✧ Let/281; PE17/067; VT42/11; WJ/360

Derivatives

  • elenā “connected with or concerning the stars” ✧ PE17/139
    • Q. Elda “Elf, (lit.) one of the Star-folk” ✧ PE17/139; PE17/152
    • Q. elenya “adjective referring to the stars, *of the stars, stellar” ✧ WJ/360
    • S. Eledh “Elf” ✧ PE17/139; WJ/360
  • Q. elen “star” ✧ PE17/067; PE17/151; WJ/360
  • S. êl “star” ✧ PE17/067; PE17/139; PE22/150; WJ/360
  • T. elen “star” ✧ WJ/360

Element in

  • elenā “connected with or concerning the stars” ✧ WJ/360
  • elen-barathī “star-queen” ✧ MR/387
  • Q. Elentári “Queen of the Stars, Star-queen” ✧ PE17/022
  • S. Elbereth “Queen of Stars, (lit.) Star-queen” ✧ PE17/022; PE17/023

Variations

  • ĕlĕn ✧ Let/281
  • ELEN ✧ PE17/022; PE17/139; PE17/152
  • el-en ✧ PE17/023
  • elen- ✧ VT42/11
Primitive elvish [Let/281; MR/387; MR/388; NM/060; PE17/022; PE17/023; PE17/067; PE17/139; PE17/151; PE17/152; PE22/150; VT42/11; WJ/360] Group: Eldamo. Published by

heklanā

adjective. forsaken

Derivatives

  • S. eglan “forsaken” ✧ WJ/365
Primitive elvish [WJ/365] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kwende

noun. speaker, elf

Derivations

  • KWENED “spoken, articulate, spoken, articulate; [ᴹ√] Elf” ✧ PE17/137
    • KWEN “speak with rational words” ✧ PE19/093
    • KWE “vocal speech” ✧ WJ/392
  • KWEN “speak with rational words” ✧ PE17/140; WJ/360
    • KWE “vocal speech” ✧ WJ/392

Derivatives

  • Av. cuind “the People” ✧ WJ/410
  • Av. hwenti “the People” ✧ WJ/410
  • Av. kindi “the People” ✧ WJ/410
  • Av. kinn-lai “the People” ✧ WJ/410
  • Av. penni “the People” ✧ WJ/410
  • Av. windan “the People” ✧ WJ/410
  • Q. Quendë “Elf, (lit.) One That Speaks” ✧ PE17/137; PE17/141; PE17/152
  • S. pen “one, somebody, anybody, one, somebody, anybody; [N.] Elf” ✧ PE17/141
  • S. penedh “Elf” ✧ PE17/140
  • T. Pendë “Elf (as a race)” ✧ PE17/137

Element in

  • kala-kwendī “Light-folk” ✧ WJ/373
  • kwenyā “Elvish” ✧ WJ/393
  • morikwende “*Dark-elf, [ᴹ✶] Dark-elf” ✧ WJ/373
  • S. pengolodh “teaching sage, doctor (of lore), teacher of lore, teaching sage, doctor (of lore), *professor” ✧ PE17/139

Variations

  • kwendē̆ ✧ PE17/139
  • kwenedē ✧ PE17/140; PE17/141
  • kwened- ✧ PE17/152
Primitive elvish [PE17/137; PE17/138; PE17/139; PE17/140; PE17/141; PE17/152; WJ/360; WJ/373; WJ/376; WJ/393; WJ/410] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lenep

root. five

lepem

root. five

lepen

root. five

LEPEN was the most common root for “five” in Tolkien’s writings, but he explored a variety of other options. Its earliest iteration appeared in the Qenya and Gnomish lexicons as ᴱ√LEH (QL/52) or ᴱ√LEF “half” (GL/53), so I think the actual early form was ✱ᴱ√LEǶE [lexʷe]. At this early stage it had derivatives with the meanings “five”, “ten”, and “half”, but in later writings “ten” became ᴹ√KAYAN >> √KWAY(AM) and “half” became √PER.

In The Etymologies of the 1930s the root appeared as ᴹ√LEPEN “five” with variant ᴹ√LEPEK, but ᴹ√LEPEK had no derivatives (Ety/LEP). √LEPEN appeared again in a list of numbers from the late 1950s or early 1960s beside a variant √LENEP; again the variant had no clear derivatives (PE17/95). √LEPEN reappeared in numeric discussions from the late 1960s (VT42/24; VT47/10). In these late discussions Tolkien said that “five” most likely originally from ✱lepem as an ancient plural of √LEP, but it seems this became √LEPEN already in Common Eldarin (CE), given that the Sindarin word for “five” remained S. leben; Tolkien gave varying explanations for this CE sound change, either as dissimilation from p (VT47/26 note 2) or with final -m &gt; -n being the regular phonetic development (VT47/24).

Derivatives

  • lepene “five” ✧ VT47/24
    • Q. lempë “five” ✧ PE17/095; VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24
    • S. leben “five” ✧ PE17/095; VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24
    • T. lepen “five” ✧ VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24
  • Q. lempë “five” ✧ PE17/095
  • ᴺS. lebem “fifteen”

Element in

Variations

  • LENEP ✧ PE17/095; PE17/159; PE17/160
  • lepen ✧ VT42/24; VT42/26; VT42/26
  • lepem ✧ VT42/26 (lepem); VT47/16; VT47/24 (lepem); VT47/27
Primitive elvish [PE17/095; PE17/159; PE17/160; VT42/24; VT42/26; VT47/16; VT47/24; VT47/27] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lepene

noun. five

Derivations

  • LEPEN “five” ✧ VT47/24

Derivatives

  • Q. lempë “five” ✧ PE17/095; VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24
  • S. leben “five” ✧ PE17/095; VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24
  • T. lepen “five” ✧ VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24

Element in

Variations

  • lepen ✧ PE17/095
  • lepenē̆ ✧ VT47/24
Primitive elvish [PE17/095; VT42/24; VT47/10; VT47/24] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alkwā

noun. swan

Derivations

  • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ PE18/100

Derivatives

  • Q. alqua “swan” ✧ NM/378; PE18/100; UT/265; VT42/07
  • S. alph “swan” ✧ NM/378; VT42/07
  • At. alpa “swan” ✧ VT42/07
  • T. alpa “swan” ✧ UT/265
    • S. alph “swan” ✧ UT/265

Variations

  • álkwā ✧ PE18/100
  • alkwa ✧ UT/265; VT42/07
Primitive elvish [NM/378; PE18/100; UT/265; VT42/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

edhel

noun. Elf

Noldorin [Ety/356, S/430, WJ/363-364] Group: SINDICT. Published by

elf

noun. friend

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. helmo “friend” ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑEL “friendship” ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑEL > elf[ŋelmo] > [elmo] > [elm] > [elv]✧ EtyAC/ÑEL
Noldorin [EtyAC/ÑEL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

penedh

noun. Elf

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Qende “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
  • ᴹQ. Qendelie “Elf-race” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶kwenedē “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
    • ᴹ√KWEN(ED) “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶kwenedē > penedh[kwenedē] > [penedē] > [penede] > [peneðe] > [peneð]✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
ᴹ✶kwenedē > penidh[kwenedī] > [penedī] > [penedi] > [peneði] > [peniði] > [penið]✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Variations

  • peneð ✧ EtyAC/SET (peneð)
Noldorin [Ety/KWEN(ED); EtyAC/SET] Group: Eldamo. Published by

penn

noun. Elf

Cognates

Derivations

Element in

  • N. Morbenn “Dark Elf” ✧ EtyAC/MOR (Morbenn)

Variations

  • penn ✧ PE22/067
Noldorin [EtyAC/MOR; PE22/067] Group: Eldamo. Published by

el

noun. star

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. él “star” ✧ Ety/EL
  • ᴹQ. elen “star” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√EL “star, starry sky” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Element in

  • N. elanor “sun-star”
  • N. Elbereth “Queen of Stars, (lit.) Star Queen” ✧ Ety/EL
  • N. Elrond “Starry-dome, Sky” ✧ Ety/EL
  • N. Elros “Star-foam”
  • N. Eldûn “*West-star”
  • N. Elrûn “*East-star”
  • N. Elwing “Star-spray” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√EL > el[elen] > [ele] > [el]✧ Ety/EL

alf

noun. swan

Noldorin [Ety/348, S/427, LotR/E, VT/42:6-7, X/PH] Group: SINDICT. Published by

alf

noun. swan

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. alqa “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Derivations

  • On. alpha “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
    • ᴹ✶alkwā “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
    • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK; PE18/050

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
On. alpha > alf[alɸa] > [alfa] > [alf]✧ Ety/ÁLAK
On. alpha > Elf[alɸi] > [alfi] > [elfi] > [elf]✧ Ety/ÁLAK
Noldorin [Ety/ÁLAK; Ety/KHOP] Group: Eldamo. Published by

geil

noun. star, bright spark

Noldorin [Ety/358, VT/45:15] Group: SINDICT. Published by

geil

noun. star

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶gilya “star” ✧ Ety/GIL
    • ᴹ√GIL “shine (white or pale)” ✧ Ety/GIL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶gilya > gíl[gilji] > [gilī] > [gil] > [gīl]✧ Ety/GIL
ᴹ✶gilya > geil[gilja] > [gelja] > [gelia] > [geli] > [geil]✧ Ety/GIL

Variations

  • gîl ✧ EtyAC/GIL
Noldorin [Ety/GIL; Ety/OT; EtyAC/GIL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eledh

noun. Star-folk, Elf

Changes

  • eledhEledh “‘departed’ Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Elda “Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED; Ety/ELED

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LED “go, fare, travel” ✧ Ety/ELED
  • ᴹ√ELED “Star-Folk, Elves” ✧ Ety/ELED

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ELED > eledh[eleda] > [eleða] > [eleð]✧ Ety/ELED
ᴹ√ÉLED > Eledh[eleda] > [eleða] > [eleð]✧ Ety/ELED
ᴹ√ÉLED > Elidh[eledī] > [eledi] > [eleði] > [eliði] > [elið]✧ Ety/ELED

Variations

  • eledh ✧ Ety/ELED (eledh)
Noldorin [Ety/ELED; Ety/KWEN(ED); Ety/LÁYAK] Group: Eldamo. Published by

meldir

noun. friend

Noldorin [Ety/372] mell+dîr. Group: SINDICT. Published by

meldis

noun. friend

Noldorin [Ety/372] mell+dîs. Group: SINDICT. Published by

mellon

noun. friend

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. málo “friend” ✧ Ety/MEL
  • ᴹQ. meldo “(friend), lover” ✧ EtyAC/MEL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MEL “love (as friend)” ✧ Ety/MEL; EtyAC/MEL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√MEL > meldon > mellon[meldondo] > [melðondo] > [melðond] > [mellond] > [mellonn] > [mellon]✧ EtyAC/MEL

Variations

  • Mellon ✧ TI/181
Noldorin [Ety/MEL; EtyAC/MEL; RS/452; RSI/Mellyn; TI/181; TI/182] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mellon

noun. friend

Noldorin [Ety/372, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-31, Letters/424] Group: SINDICT. Published by

lheben

cardinal. five

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. lempe “five” ✧ Ety/LEP

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LEPEN “five” ✧ Ety/LEP

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√LEPEN > lheben[lepene] > [lepen] > [l̥epen] > [l̥eben]✧ Ety/LEP
Noldorin [Ety/LEP; TAI/150] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lheben

cardinal. five

Noldorin [Ety/368, TAI/150, VT/42:24-25, VT/47:10, VT/47:2] Group: SINDICT. Published by

golodh

noun. "Deep Elf" or "Gnome", one of the Wise Folk

Noldorin [Ety/377, S/431, WJ/364] Group: SINDICT. Published by

thond

noun. friend

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. sondo “friend” ✧ EtyAC/SON

Derivations

  • ᴹ√SON “love, befriend, cherish” ✧ EtyAC/SON

Element in

  • N. Elethon “Ælfwine” ✧ EtyAC/SON (Elethon)
  • N. ManathonBliss-friend” ✧ EtyAC/SON (Manathon*)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√SON > thond[tʰondo] > [θondo] > [θond]✧ EtyAC/SON
Noldorin [EtyAC/SON] Group: Eldamo. Published by

giliath

noun. all the host of stars

Noldorin [Ety/358, RC/232] Group: SINDICT. Published by

golodhrim

noun. Deep Elves, Gnomes

Noldorin [Ety/377, WJ/323] golodh+rim. Group: SINDICT. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Ancient telerin

alpa

noun. swan

Derivations

  • alkwā “swan” ✧ VT42/07
    • ALAK “rushing, rushing, [ᴹ√] swift” ✧ PE18/100

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
alkwa > alpa[alkwa] > [alpa]✧ VT42/07
Ancient telerin [VT42/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya 

elda

noun. Elf

Changes

  • EldaElda “‘departed’ Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED

Cognates

  • N. Eledh “Star-folk, Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED; Ety/ELED
  • Ilk. Eld “Star-folk, Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED
  • Dan. Edel “Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED; Ety/ELED
  • Ilk. Egla “Star-folk, Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED
  • Ad. Nimir “Elf, (lit.) Shining One” ✧ SDI2/Nimrî

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LED “go, fare, travel” ✧ Ety/ELED
  • ᴹ√ELED “Star-Folk, Elves” ✧ Ety/ELED
  • ᴹ✶edēlā “firstborn, eldest” ✧ EtyAC/EDE
    • ᴹ√EDE(L) “precede, come forward, hence” ✧ EtyAC/EDE
  • ᴹ✶eledā “Star-folk, Elf” ✧ SD/401; SDI2/Eledâi
    • ᴹ√ELED “Star-Folk, Elves”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ELED > Elda[eleda] > [elda]✧ Ety/ELED
ᴹ√ÉLED > Elda[eleda] > [elda]✧ Ety/ELED
ᴹ✶edela > eleda[edela] > [eleda]✧ EtyAC/EDE

Variations

  • eleda ✧ EtyAC/EDE (eleda)
Qenya [Ety/ELED; EtyAC/EDE; LR/072; LR/169; LR/181; LR/197; LR/212; LR/218; LRI/Eldar; PE18/024; PE21/57; PE22/124; PE22/125; SD/401; SDI2/Eldar; SDI2/Eledâi; SDI2/Nimrî; SMI/Eldar; VT27/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

qen

noun. Elf

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶kwenedē “Elf” ✧ PE21/25; PE21/25
    • ᴹ√KWEN(ED) “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶qend(ǝ)mēn > qenwen[kwendemēn] > [kwendmēn] > [kwenmēn] > [kwenwēn] > [kwenwen]✧ PE21/25

Variations

  • qen ✧ PE21/19; PE21/25
Qenya [PE21/19; PE21/25] Group: Eldamo. Published by

qende

noun. Elf

Cognates

  • N. penedh “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
  • Dan. cwenda “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
  • N. penn “Elf”

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶kwenedē “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED); PE21/69
    • ᴹ√KWEN(ED) “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶kwenedē > qende[kwenedē] > [kwendē] > [kwende]✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
ᴹ✶kwĕndĕ > qende[kwende]✧ PE21/69

Variations

  • qende ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED); PE21/69
Qenya [Ety/KWEN(ED); LR/119; LR/168; LR/212; LRI/Qendi; MRI/Quendi; PE18/023; PE21/69; SM/085; SM/086; SMI/Quendi; TII/Qendi] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-el

suffix. friend

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑEL “friendship” ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Aláriel “Eadwine” ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL (Aláriel)
  • ᴹQ. Elériel “Ælfwine” ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL (Elériel)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑEL > -el[-ŋel] > [-ɣel] > [-el]✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

él

noun. star

Cognates

  • Ilk. el “star” ✧ Ety/EL
  • N. el “star” ✧ Ety/EL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√EL “star, starry sky” ✧ Ety/EL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√EL > él[ēl]✧ Ety/EL

elen

noun. star

Cognates

  • Ilk. el “star” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL
  • N. el “star” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√EL “star, starry sky” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√EL > elen[elen]✧ Ety/EL
ᴹ√EL > elen[elen]✧ Ety/EL
ᴹ√EL > ellen[ellen]✧ Ety/EL

Variations

  • ellen ✧ Ety/EL
  • elena ✧ Ety/EL
  • Elen ✧ RS/324
Qenya [Ety/EL; PE17/014; RS/324; VT28/11; WR/223] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elena

noun. star

ellen

noun. star

helde

noun. friend

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑEL “friendship” ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑEL > helde[ŋelde] > [ɣelde] > [helde]✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

heldo

noun. friend

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑEL “friendship” ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑEL > heldo[ŋeldo] > [ɣeldo] > [heldo]✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

helmo

noun. friend

Cognates

  • N. elf “friend” ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑEL “friendship” ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑEL > helmo[ŋelmo] > [ɣelmo] > [helmo]✧ EtyAC/ÑEL

-ser

suffix. friend

Derivations

  • ᴹ√SER “love, be fond of (of liking, friendship)” ✧ Ety/SER

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Elesser “Elf-friend” ✧ Ety/SER

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√SER > -ser[-ser]✧ Ety/SER

alqa

noun. swan

Cognates

  • ᴹT. alpa “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • On. alpha “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • N. alf “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • Ilk. alch “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • Dan. ealc “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶alkwā “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
    • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK; PE18/050

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Alqalonde “Swan-haven” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶alk-wā > alqa[alkwā] > [alkwa]✧ Ety/ÁLAK

lempe

cardinal. five

Cognates

  • N. lheben “five” ✧ Ety/LEP

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶lep(e)ne “five” ✧ EtyAC/LEP
    • ᴹ√LEPEN “five” ✧ Ety/LEP

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶lep(e)ne > lempe[lepene] > [lepne] > [lenpe] > [lempe]✧ EtyAC/LEP

málo

noun. friend

Cognates

  • N. mellon “friend” ✧ Ety/MEL

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶mālō “friend” ✧ Ety/MEL
    • ᴹ√MEL “love (as friend)” ✧ Ety/MEL
  • ᴹ√MEL “love (as friend)” ✧ PE18/046

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶mālō > málo[mālō] > [mālo]✧ Ety/MEL
ᴹ√MEL > málo[mę̄lō] > [mālō] > [mālo]✧ PE18/046
Qenya [Ety/MEL; PE18/046] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nilmo

noun. friend

Derivations

  • ᴹ√N(D)IL “friend; love, devotion” ✧ Ety/NIL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NIL/NDIL > nilmo[ndilmo] > [nilmo]✧ Ety/NIL

sermo

noun. friend

Derivations

  • ᴹ√SER “love, be fond of (of liking, friendship)” ✧ Ety/SER

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√SER > sermo[sermo]✧ Ety/SER

seron

noun. friend

Derivations

  • ᴹ√SER “love, be fond of (of liking, friendship)” ✧ Ety/SER

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√SER > seron[seron]✧ Ety/SER

sondo

noun. friend

Cognates

  • N. thond “friend” ✧ EtyAC/SON

Derivations

  • ᴹ√SON “love, befriend, cherish” ✧ EtyAC/SON

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√SON > sondo[sondo]✧ EtyAC/SON

Doriathrin

cwend

noun. Elf

A Doriathrin noun meaning “Elf” derived from primitive ᴹ✶kwenedē (EtyAC/KWEN(ED)), an example of the Ilkorin syncope.

Conceptual Development: This word is nearly identical to earlier Gnomish Cwenn “Elf” before Tolkien revised the phonological history of the Noldorin language so that [[on|[kw] became [p]]].

Cognates

  • Dan. cwenda “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶kwenedē “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
    • ᴹ√KWEN(ED) “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶kwenedē > cwend[kwenedē] > [kwenede] > [kwende] > [kwend]✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
Doriathrin [EtyAC/KWEN(ED)] Group: Eldamo. Published by

el

noun. star

A Doriathrin noun meaning “star”, a simple derivative of the root ᴹ√EL (Ety/EL).

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. él “star” ✧ Ety/EL
  • ᴹQ. elen “star” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√EL “star, starry sky” ✧ Ety/EL; Ety/EL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√EL > el[el]✧ Ety/EL

eld

noun. Star-folk, Elf

A rejected Doriathrin word for “Elf”, a derivation of the root ᴹ√ELED and a direct cognate of ᴹQ. Elda, also appearing in its plural form Eldin (Ety/ELED). It was replaced by Ilk. Egla derived from the inverted form of the root: ᴹ✶edel[a].

Changes

  • EldEgla “Star-folk, Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Elda “Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ELED “Star-Folk, Elves” ✧ Ety/ELED

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÉLED > Eld[elda] > [eld]✧ Ety/ELED
Doriathrin [Ety/ELED] Group: Eldamo. Published by

egla

noun. Star-folk, Elf

A Doriathrin word for “Elf” (Ety/ELED), also attested in its class plural form Eglath which was marked as both Doriathrin (Ety/ELED) and Ilkorin (Ety/GAT(H), LED). This word developed from the inverted primitive form ᴹ✶edel[a] of the root ᴹ√ELED (Ety/ELED). First the middle [e] was lost because of the Ilkorin syncope, after which the resulting [[ilk|[dl] became [gl]]].

This word was a frequent element in Ilkorin names. As noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/Eglador), ordinarily the [[ilk|primitive final [a] would be lost]] in Ilkorin. Perhaps it was preserved in Ilk. Egla by analogy with the various names where it appeared, or perhaps Egla was actually the genitival form (of unattested ✱Egol as Ilk. legol) with the suffix -a(n).

Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s, G. Egla was the Gnomish word for “Elf”. In The Etymologies from the 1930s, Tolkien first wrote Ilk. Eld for “Elf”, derived from the uninverted form of the root. This was rejected in favor of Ilk. Egla, perhaps an attempt to preserve the earlier Gnomish form.

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Elda “Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶edel- “Star-folk, Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED
    • ᴹ√ELED “Star-Folk, Elves” ✧ Ety/ELED

Element in

  • Ilk. Eglador “Land of the Elves” ✧ Ety/ELED; Ety/GAT(H)
  • Ilk. Eglamar “Elvenhome” ✧ Ety/ELED
  • Ilk. Eglor “Elf-river” ✧ Ety/ELED

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶edel- > Egla[edela] > [edla] > [egla]✧ Ety/ELED
Doriathrin [Ety/ELED; Ety/GAT(H); Ety/LED] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alch

noun. swan

An Ilkorin word for “swan” derived from primitive ᴹ✶alkwā (Ety/ÁLAK). This word is a good example of how voiceless stops became spirants after liquids and voiceless stops in Ilkorin.

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. alqa “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶alkwā “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
    • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK; PE18/050

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶alk-wā > alch[alkwā] > [alkwa] > [alxwa] > [alxa] > [alx]✧ Ety/ÁLAK
Doriathrin [Ety/ÁLAK] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Ossriandric

cwenda

noun. Elf

A noun for “Elf” developed from primitive ᴹ✶kwenedē (Ety/KWEN(ED)). It is an example of the Danian syncope, with second unstressed [e] vanishing after the identical vowel. It is also one of the Danian words for which a long final vowel developed into short final [a].

Cognates

  • Ilk. cwend “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
  • ᴹQ. Qende “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶kwenedē “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
    • ᴹ√KWEN(ED) “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶kwenedē > cwenda[kwenedē] > [kwendē] > [kwenda]✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
Ossriandric [Ety/KWEN(ED)] Group: Eldamo. Published by

edel

noun. Elf

A noun for “Elf” derived from primitive ᴹ✶edel-, an inversion of the primitive root ᴹ√ELED (Ety/ELED). Unlike most similar Danian nouns, it did not undergo the Danian syncope and retained its second vowel. One possible explanation is that the primitive form of this noun ended in a short vowel, ✱✶edelă, and this short final vowel vanished before the period of the syncope, preventing it from occurring in this word. Helge Fauskanger originally suggested a theory much like this one (AL-Nandorin/edel).

Conceptual Development: In an earlier version of this entry, the Danian word for Elf was given as Elda (Ety/ELED).

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Elda “Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED; Ety/ELED

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ELED “Star-Folk, Elves” ✧ Ety/ELED
  • ᴹ✶edel- “Star-folk, Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED
    • ᴹ√ELED “Star-Folk, Elves” ✧ Ety/ELED

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÉLED > Elda[eledā] > [eldā] > [elda]✧ Ety/ELED
ᴹ✶edel- > Edel[edela] > [edel]✧ Ety/ELED

Variations

  • Elda ✧ Ety/ELED (Elda)
Ossriandric [Ety/ELED] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ealc

noun. swan

A noun for “swan” that developed from primitive ᴹ✶alkwā (Ety/ÁLAK). It is an example of how [[dan|[w] vanished after medial velars in Ossiriandic]] and of how [[dan|[a] broke into the diphthong [ea] before the liquid [l]]].

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. alqa “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶alkwā “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
    • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK; PE18/050

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶alk-wā > ealc[alkwā] > [alkā] > [ealkā] > [ealk]✧ Ety/ÁLAK
Ossriandric [Ety/ÁLAK] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Old Noldorin 

alpha

noun. swan

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. alqa “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶alkwā “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
    • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK; PE18/050

Derivatives

  • N. alf “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶alk-wā > alpha[alkwā] > [alpā] > [alpa] > [alpʰa] > [alɸa]✧ Ety/ÁLAK
Old Noldorin [Ety/ÁLAK] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

kwen(ed)

root. Elf

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶kwenedē “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
    • Ilk. cwend “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
    • Dan. cwenda “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
    • ᴹQ. Qende “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED); PE21/69
    • ᴹQ. Qen “Elf” ✧ PE21/25; PE21/25
    • N. penedh “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
  • N. penn “Elf”

Variations

  • KWENED ✧ PE18/034; PE18/061
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/KWEN(ED); PE18/034; PE18/061] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kwenedē

noun. Elf

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KWEN(ED) “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Derivatives

  • Ilk. cwend “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
  • Dan. cwenda “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
  • ᴹQ. Qende “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED); PE21/69
  • ᴹQ. Qen “Elf” ✧ PE21/25; PE21/25
  • N. penedh “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Element in

  • ᴹ✶morikwende “Dark-elf” ✧ PE19/057; PE19/059

Variations

  • kwènedḗ ✧ PE19/057; PE19/059
  • kwendḗ ✧ PE19/059
  • kwĕndĕ ✧ PE21/69
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/KWEN(ED); PE19/057; PE19/059; PE21/25; PE21/69] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yel

root. friend

A new gloss for the root ᴹ√YEL “daughter”, with a new set of derivatives like ᴹQ. -iel “-friend” and ᴹQ. yelda “friendly” (Ety/YEL), but it was rejected in turn and probably replaced by ᴹ√MEL.

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. -iel “-friend” ✧ Ety/YEL
  • ᴹQ. yelda “friendly, dear as friend” ✧ Ety/YEL
  • ᴹQ. yelme “[unglossed]” ✧ Ety/YEL

Variations

  • YEL ✧ Ety/YEL (YEL)
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/YEL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

edel

root. *star-folk

Middle Primitive Elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

edel-

noun. Star-folk, Elf

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ELED “Star-Folk, Elves” ✧ Ety/ELED

Derivatives

  • Dan. Edel “Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED
  • Ilk. Egla “Star-folk, Elf” ✧ Ety/ELED
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/ELED] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eledā

noun. Star-folk, Elf

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ELED “Star-Folk, Elves”

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. Elda “Elf” ✧ SD/401; SDI2/Eledâi

Variations

  • Ĕlĕdă ✧ PE21/64 (Ĕlĕdă)
Middle Primitive Elvish [PE21/64; SD/358; SD/401; SDI2/Eledâi] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lep(e)ne

noun. five

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LEPEN “five” ✧ Ety/LEP

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. lempe “five” ✧ EtyAC/LEP
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/LEP] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lepek

root. five

Middle Primitive Elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

lepen

root. five

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶lepenar “week” ✧ Ety/LEP
    • ᴹQ. lemnar “(Valarin five-day) week” ✧ EtyAC/LEP
    • N. lhevnar “week” ✧ EtyAC/LEP
  • ᴹ✶lep(e)ne “five” ✧ Ety/LEP
    • ᴹQ. lempe “five” ✧ EtyAC/LEP
  • N. lheben “five” ✧ Ety/LEP

Variations

  • LEPEK ✧ Ety/LEP
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/LEP] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mālō

noun. friend

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MEL “love (as friend)” ✧ Ety/MEL

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. málo “friend” ✧ Ety/MEL
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/MEL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alkwā

noun. swan

Derivations

  • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK; PE18/050

Derivatives

  • Ilk. alch “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • Dan. ealc “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • ᴹQ. alqa “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • On. alpha “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
    • N. alf “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • ᴹT. alpa “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Variations

  • alk-wā ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/ÁLAK; PE18/050] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gilya

noun. star

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GIL “shine (white or pale)” ✧ Ety/GIL

Derivatives

  • N. geil “star” ✧ Ety/GIL

Element in

  • ᴹQ. tingilya “twinkling star” ✧ Ety/GIL
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/GIL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Telerin

alpa

noun. swan

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. alqa “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶alkwā “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
    • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK; PE18/050
Middle Telerin [Ety/ÁLAK] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

cwenn

noun. Elf

Changes

  • CwendCwenn ✧ GL/28

Cognates

  • Eq. Qen “Elf” ✧ GL/32; PE13/099; PE14/009

Element in

Variations

  • Cwend ✧ GL/28 (Cwend)
Gnomish [GL/28; GL/32; PE13/099; PE14/009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alf

noun. swan

elf(in)

cardinal. five

Derivations

  • ᴱ√LEǶE “half; *five” ✧ GL/53

Element in

  • G. elfeg “half” ✧ GL/32

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√lef > elf[elxʷ] > [elf]✧ GL/53

Variations

  • elf ✧ GL/53
Gnomish [GL/32; GL/53] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alfa

noun. swan

Changes

  • alcwialfa ✧ GL/18
  • alcwialfa ✧ LT1A/Alqaluntë

Cognates

  • Eq. alqa “swan” ✧ GL/18; LT1A/Alqaluntë

Derivations

  • ᴱ✶alchwa “swan” ✧ GL/18; LT1A/Alqaluntë; PE13/109

Element in

  • G. alfuil(in) “swan” ✧ GL/18; GL/18 (alcothil)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ✶alchwa > alfa[alkʷā] > [alpā] > [alpa] > [alfa]✧ GL/18

Variations

  • alcwi ✧ GL/18 (alcwi); LT1A/Alqaluntë (alcwi)
  • alf ✧ PE13/109
Gnomish [GL/18; GL/67; LT1A/Alqaluntë; PE13/109] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alfuil(in)

noun. swan

Changes

  • alcothilalfuil ✧ GL/19

Variations

  • alfuil ✧ GL/19
  • alcothil ✧ GL/19 (alcothil)
Gnomish [GL/19; PE13/109] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gail

noun. star

Cognates

  • Eq. íle “star” ✧ GL/37; LT1A/Tinwetári

Derivations

  • ᴱ√GILI “*shine (pale)”

Element in

Variations

  • Gail ✧ GL/37
Gnomish [GL/37; LT1A/Tinwetári] Group: Eldamo. Published by

silwin

noun. swan

A word for “swan” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/67), probably related to ᴱQ. siloine of the same meaning (QL/83).

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
SILI“*gleam”

Early Noldorin

egol

noun. elf

gwenn

noun. Elf

Cognates

  • Eq. Qen “Elf” ✧ PE13/146
  • Et. Bende ✧ PE13/146

Derivations

Element in

Early Noldorin [PE13/146] Group: Eldamo. Published by

idhel

noun. elf

ileth

noun. elf

uidhol

noun. elf

uigol

noun. elf

alf

noun. swan

Cognates

  • Eq. alqa “swan” ✧ PE13/136; PE13/159

Element in

  • En. elflin “cygnet, *young swan” ✧ PE13/159
  • En. alfuilin “large white sea-bird, albatross, †swan” ✧ PE13/136; PE13/136; PE13/159
Early Noldorin [PE13/136; PE13/159] Group: Eldamo. Published by

uidhel

noun. elf, fairy

Changes

  • UdhelliUidhelhai ✧ PE13/155
  • UdhelaiUidhelhai ✧ PE13/155
  • Egl...Uiðel ✧ PE15/62
  • UiðelĪðel ✧ PE15/62
  • UidhelIdhel ✧ PE15/62

Cognates

  • Eq. Elda “Elf; beach-fay” ✧ PE13/155; PE15/61; PE15/62

Derivations

Element in

  • En. Uidhelian “Elfinesse” ✧ PE13/155; PE15/61

Variations

  • Udhelli ✧ PE13/155 (Udhelli)
  • Udhelai ✧ PE13/155 (Udhelai)
  • Ileth ✧ PE15/61
  • Idhel ✧ PE15/61; PE15/62
  • Īðel ✧ PE15/62
  • Egl... ✧ PE15/62 (Egl...)
  • Uiðel ✧ PE15/62 (Uiðel)
  • Egol ✧ PE15/62
  • Uigol ✧ PE15/62
  • uidhol ✧ PE15/62
  • uidhel ✧ PE15/62
Early Noldorin [PE13/155; PE15/61; PE15/62] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwanwen

noun. swan

A word for “swan” in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s (PE13/146, 159), perhaps related to ᴱN. gwant “✱beautiful”.

Elements

WordGloss
gwant“?beautiful”
Early Noldorin [PE13/146; PE13/159] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Primitive Elvish

alchwa

noun. swan

Derivations

Derivatives

  • G. alfa “swan” ✧ GL/18; LT1A/Alqaluntë; PE13/109

Variations

  • alqa- ✧ PE13/109
Early Primitive Elvish [GL/18; LT1A/Alqaluntë; PE13/109] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

qen

noun. Elf

Cognates

  • G. Cwenn “Elf” ✧ GL/32; PE13/099; PE14/009
  • En. Gwenn “Elf” ✧ PE13/146

Derivations

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ✶Gwendi- > Qen[gʷend] > [gʷen] > [kʷen]✧ PE13/146

Variations

  • qende ✧ PE14/009
Early Quenya [GL/32; LRI/Qendi; LT1/235; LT1I/Qendi; PE13/099; PE13/146; PE14/009; QL/092; SM/013; SM/168] Group: Eldamo. Published by

qende

noun. Elf

alqa

noun. swan

Cognates

  • G. alfa “swan” ✧ GL/18; LT1A/Alqaluntë
  • En. alf “swan” ✧ PE13/136; PE13/159

Derivations

  • ᴱ√ḶKḶ “*appearance” ✧ QL/030

Element in

  • Eq. Alqalunte “Swanship” ✧ LT1A/Alqaluntë
  • Eq. Alqaráme “Swanwing” ✧ LT2A/Alqarámë

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√(I)ḶKḶ > Alqa[ḹkʷa] > [alkʷa]✧ QL/030

Variations

  • alqe ✧ GL/18; LT1A/Alqaluntë
  • Alqa ✧ QL/030
Early Quenya [GL/18; LT1A/Alqaluntë; LT2A/Alqarámë; PE13/136; PE13/159; QL/030] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alqe

noun. swan

lempe

cardinal. five

íle

noun. star

Cognates

  • G. gail “star” ✧ GL/37; LT1A/Tinwetári

Derivations

  • ᴱ√GILI “*shine (pale)”

Element in

Variations

  • īle ✧ GL/37
  • ílë ✧ LT1A/Tinwetári
Early Quenya [GL/37; LT1A/Tinwetári] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tinwe

noun. star

Cognates

  • G. tim “spark, gleam, (star)”

Derivations

  • ᴱ√TINI “twinkle” ✧ LT1A/Tinwë Linto; QL/092

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√TINI > tinwe[tinwē] > [tinwe]✧ QL/092

Variations

  • tinwë ✧ LT1A/Tinwë Linto
Early Quenya [LT1A/Tinwë Linto; MC/213; MC/214; MC/220; PE16/056; PE16/057; PE16/060; PE16/062; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/077; PE16/142; PME/092; QL/052; QL/092] Group: Eldamo. Published by

siloine

noun. swan

A word for “swan” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s appearing under the early root ᴱ√SILI (QL/83).

Cognates

Derivations

  • ᴱ√SILI “*gleam” ✧ QL/083

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√SILI > siloine[siloini] > [siloine]✧ QL/083
Early Quenya [QL/083] Group: Eldamo. Published by