_ adj. _hard, difficult. dērā << dīrā. >> dír-
adjective. hard, difficult
- S. dirbedui “hard to utter, difficult to pronounce” ✧ PE17/154
Development Stages Sources ✶dērā > dîr [dērā] > [dēra] > [dīra] > [dīr] ✧ PE17/154
- dîr ✧ PE17/154
noun. man, man, [N.] adult male; agental suffix
- S. Borondir “?Steadfast-man”
- S. Brandir “*Noble Man”
- S. condir “mayor, *(lit.) chief-man”
- S. curunír “wizard, wizard, [N.] man of craft”
- S. dagnir “slayer, bane”
- S. Dírhael “*Wise Man”
- S. dírnaith “wedge-shaped battle-formation, (lit.) man-spearhead”
- S. Emeldir “Manhearted, *Manly-mother”
- S. Haldir
- S. Handir
- S. Hathaldir
- S. Hatholdir “*Axe-man”
- S. herdir “master”
- S. Lindir
- S. Othrondir “?Stronghold Man”
- S. randir “wanderer, wandering man, pilgrim” ✧ PE17/060
- S. Thorondir “*Eagle-man”
- ndir ✧ PE17/060
adj. hard, thrawn. Also used for Dwarves, esp. in pl2. dernlir. >> gorn
noun. wild man, Wose, Púkel-Man
In PE/11:31, an older Gnomish word drû, drui meant "wood, forest", and in PE/13:142, the early Noldorin word drú was assigned the meaning "dark". Drû pl. Drúin later came to be used for the name of the Woses, with other derivatives (Drúadan, etc.). "Wose" is actually the modernization of an Anglo-Saxon word wasa only found in the compound wudu-wasa "wild man of the woods", cf. UT/385 sq. In the drafts of the "Ride of the Rohirrim" in WR/343-346, the Woses first appeared as "the dark men of Eilenach". Though internally said to derive from drughu in their own tongue, Tolkien's choice for the Sindarin name of the Woses was apparently influenced by earlier meanings assigned to this word
noun. man, one of the Fathers of Men
noun. wild man, one of the Woses
prefix. hard, difficult
- Q. ur(u)- “hard, difficult” ✧ PE17/154
- √GUR “hard, stiff, difficult, cumbrous, slow” ✧ PE17/154
Development Stages Sources √GUR > gor- [gur-] > [gor-] ✧ PE17/154
- gor- ✧ PE17/154; PE17/154
noun. man, one of the Second People (elvish name for men)
adj. hard, thrawn. Also used for Dwarves, esp. in pl2. gornhoth (hostile implication). >> dern
masculine name. Secret
A name that Finduilas gave to Túrin translated “Secret” (UT/157), simply the adjective thurin “secret, hidden” used as a name.
Word Gloss thurin “secret, hidden”
noun. Man of the west, Númenórean
1) (adult male of any speaking race) dîr (dír-, also agentive ending -dir or -nir; with article, i nîr, hard mutation as in o ndîr), no distinct pl. form except with article (i ndîr); coll. pl. díriath. Also benn (i venn, construct ben), pl. binn (i minn). The latter is in archaic language used = "husband" (the etymological meaning). The ending -we in names may also express ”being, man, person”. 2) (mortal human as opposed to Elf) Adan (pl. Edain; the coll. pl. Adanath is attested). The word Adan came to be used primarily of a member of the Three Houses of the Edain, not of the mortal race of Men in general.
norn (twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted), pl. nyrn. Also used as noun = ”Dwarf”. (MR:93, WJ:205)
(adjective) 1) thurin (hidden); no distinct pl. form, 2) dolen (hidden), lenited dholen, pl. dolin;
A word for “man” as a male person, attested only as an element in compounds or as (archaic?) ndir (PE17/60). This word likely refers to male individuals of all races including Elves, Men, Dwarves and so forth, much like its Quenya cognate Q. nér. This word must have been derived from the primitive subjective form ✶ndēr of the root √N(D)ER “male person”, where the ancient long ē became ī, and the initial cluster nd- became d-, though the ancient cluster would still be reflected in mutated forms, such as in i nîr “the man” rather than ✱✱i dhîr.
Conceptual Development: Perhaps the earliest precursor to this word is (archaic) G. †drio “hero, warrior” with variants driw, driodweg and driothweg, a cognate of ᴱQ. nēr (GL/22). This Gnomish word was derived from primitive ᴱ✶n’reu̯, where the initial nr- became dr-. At this early stage, the root was unstrengthened ᴱ√NERE (QL/65), as reflected in (archaic) ᴱN. nîr “hero, prince, warrior-elf” in the Early Noldorin Dictionary of the 1920s (PE13/164).
In The Etymologies of the 1930s the root became ᴹ√DER “adult male, man” of any speaking race and the derived form was N. dîr (Ety/DER). However, in this document Tolkien said:
> EN †dîr surviving chiefly in proper names (as Diriel older Dirghel [GYEL], Haldir, Brandir) and as agental ending (as ceredir “doer, maker”) ... In ordinary use EN has benn [for “man”] (properly = “husband”).
Thus in the scenario described in The Etymologies, dîr “man” was archaic and used only as an element in names or as a suffix. In ordinary speech it was replaced by N. benn, which used to mean “husband” but now meant “man”, while the word for “husband” became N. hervenn (Ety/BES). It is unlikely Tolkien imagined this exact scenario in later Sindarin, however, since the 1930s root for benn was ᴹ√BES “wed”, but by the 1960s the root for husband/wife/marry words had become √BER.
Neo-Sindarin: Since the status of N. benn is questionable given ᴹ√BES >> √BER, many Neo-Sindarin writers prefer to use S. ✱dîr as the Sindarin word for man. I am of the opinion that both dîr and benn are acceptable for “man, male person”. This is because I prefer to retain ᴹ√BES as the root for “marry, wed”, since it is the best basis for attested husband/wife words in (Neo) Sindarin.