Quenya 

ar-

outside

ar- (1) prefix "outside" (AR2), element meaning "beside" (VT42:17), "by" (PE17:169; in the same source the glosses "near, by, beside" were rejected). Cf. ara.

ar-

brightest

ar- (2), also ari-, prefix for superlative (compare arya #1, 2), hence arcalima "brightest", arimelda *"dearest" (PE17:56-57). In the grammar described in the source, this prefix was to express superlative as the highest degree (in actual comparison), whereas the alternative prefix an- rather expressed "very" or "exceedingly" with a more purely augmentative or adverbial force, but these distinctions do not seem to have been clearly present at all stages of Tolkiens work. See an- #2, am- #2.

ar-

prefix. by-, beside, near, by-, beside, near; [ᴹQ.] outside

Cognates

  • S. ar- “without; by; **beside, [N.] outside; [S.] without; by, beside, [G.] along with, compared with” ✧ PE17/169; PE17/169

Derivations

  • ad(a) “and, alongside” ✧ PE17/071
    • AD(A) “by (the side of), beside, alongside; against, opposed to, opposite” ✧ PE17/071
  • ÑAR “by, beside, near” ✧ PE17/169; PE17/169

Element in

  • Q. Araman “Outside Aman, *Beside Aman”
  • ᴺQ. aranta- “to turn over, (lit.) give by”
  • ᴺQ. arcólima “equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able”
  • Q. armaro “*neighbor”
  • ᴺQ. arosto “suburb(s), suburbia, outskirts (of city, town)”
  • Q. Arvernien “Land(s) beside the Verna” ✧ PE17/071
  • Q. astarindo “bystander; supporter” ✧ PE17/071
  • Q. astarmo “bystander; witness” ✧ PE17/071
  • S. Arnen “Beside the Water” ✧ VT42/17

Elements

WordGloss
ar(a)“beside, next [to]; out, beside, next [to], *near, by; out, [ᴹQ.] outside”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ad(ă)/ad > ar-[ad-] > [að-] > [ar-]✧ PE17/071
ÑAR > ar-[ŋar-] > [ar-]✧ PE17/169
ÑAR > ar-[ŋar-] > [ar-]✧ PE17/169
Quenya [PE17/071; PE17/169; VT42/17] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Ara-

noble

Ara-, ar- a prefixed form of the stem Ara- "noble" (PM:344). In the masc. names Aracáno "high chieftain", mothername (amilessë, q.v.) of Fingolfin (PM:360, cf. 344), Arafinwë "Finarfin" (MR:230)

tar-

affix. high, high; [ᴹQ.] king or queen (in compounds)

Cognates

  • S. -dor “*king, lord”

Derivations

  • TĀ/TAƷ “high, high, [ᴹ√] lofty; noble”

Element in

Variations

  • tar- ✧ PE22/148; SA/tar
Quenya [PE22/148; SA/tar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar

day

ar (2) noun "day" (PE17:148), apparently short for árë, occurring in the names of the Valinorean week listed below. Tolkien indicated that ar in these names could also be arë when the following element begins in a consonant (VT45:27). Usually the word for "day" in LotR-style Quenya is rather aurë (or ), q.v.

am-

signifying addition, increase

am- (2) prefix used in comparison, "signifying addition, increase" (PE17:90), or with genitive superlative: elenion ancalima "brightest of stars" (PE17:91). Originally identical with #1 above. The form am- as such is in late Quenya only used before p and (presumably) before vowels; the longer form ama- came to be preferred before r and l; before other consonants, the prefix assumes the form an- (pronounced, but not in Romanized Quenya orthography written, - before c) (PE17:90-92). Phonologically we would expect am- before y- (since my is an acceptable Quenya combination); however, Tolkien used an- in the word anyára (q.v.) See an- #2 and compare ar- #2.

an-

very

an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára "very old" or "oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca ("k") "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d, the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically -) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept in the _Elaine inscription). (PE17:92)_

ara

outside, beside, besides

ara prep.(and adv.?) "outside, beside, besides" (AR2, VT49:57). According to VT45:6, the original glosses were "without, outside, beside", but Tolkien emended this. Arsë "he is out", VT49:23, 35, 36. As for ar(a), see ar #1. VT49:25 lists what seems to be ar(a) combined with various pronominal suffixes: Singular anni > arni "beside me", astyë "beside you" (informal), allë "besides you" (formal), arsë "beside him/her", plural anwë > armë "beside us" (exclusive), arwë "beside us" (inclusive), astë > ardë "beside you" (plural), astë > artë "beside them"; dual anwet > armet "beside us (two)". (Here Tolkien presupposes that ara represents original ada-.) The same source lists the unglossed forms ari, arin that may combine the preposition with the article, hence "beside the" (VT49:24-25)

au-

without

au- (3) privative prefix, = "without" (AWA)

tar

beyond

tar (2) prep. "beyond" (FS)

-tar

king

-tar or tar-, element meaning "king" or "queen" in compounds and names (TĀ/TA3), e.g. Valatar; compare the independent nouns tár, tári. Prefix Tar- especially in the names of the Kings and Queens of Númenor (e.g. Tar-Amandil); see their individual names (like Amandil in this case), cf. also Tar-Mairon "King Excellent", title used by Sauron (PE17:183). Also in Tareldar "High-elves"; see also Tarmenel.

aran

king

aran noun "king"; pl. arani (WJ:369, VT45:16, PE17:186); gen.pl. aranion "of kings" in asëa aranion, q.v.; aranya "my king" (aran + nya) (UT:193). Aran Meletyalda "king your mighty" = "your majesty" (WJ:369); aran Ondórëo, "a king of Gondor" (VT49:27). Also in arandil "king's friend, royalist", arandur "king's servant, minister" (Letters:386); Arantar masc. name, "King-Lord" (Appendix A); Arandor "Kingsland" region in Númenor (UT:165); the long form Arandórë appears as a name of Arnor in PE17:28 (elsewhere Arnanórë, q.v.) Othercompounds ingaran, Noldóran, Núaran, q.v.

aran

noun. king

Cognates

  • S. aran “king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)” ✧ PE17/147

Derivations

  • RĀ/ARA “noble, high, royal” ✧ PE17/118
  • ARAN “good, excellent, noble” ✧ PE17/147

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ARA > aran[aran]✧ PE17/118
ARAN > aran[aran]✧ PE17/147

Variations

  • Aran ✧ MR/121 (Aran); PE17/147; WJ/369; WJ/369; WJ/369
Quenya [LotR/0864; LotRI/Asëa aranion; MR/121; PE17/049; PE17/100; PE17/118; PE17/147; PE17/186; PE22/158; VT49/27; WJ/369] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ava-

without

ava- (3) prefix "without" (AR2, AWA). In some cases apparently used as a mere negation prefix: The form avalerya in VT41:6 is seemingly a negated form of the verb lerya- "release, set free"; the verb avalerya- is suggested to have the same meaning as the root KHAP = "bind, make fast, restrain, deprive of liberty". Likewise, the verb avalatya- from the same source seems to mean "to close, shut", this being a negated form of a verb *latya- "open" (q.v.)

tár

king

tár noun "king" (only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes); the pl. tári "kings" must not be confused with the sg. tári "queen" (TĀ/TA3). Prefix tar-, compare -tar above. The normal Quenya word for "king" is aran, but compare Tarumbar.

árë

day

árë noun "day" (PM:127) or "sunlight" (SA:arien). Stem ári- _(PE17:126, where the word is further defined as "warmth, especially of the sun, sunlight"). Also name of tengwa #31; cf. also ar # 2. Originally pronounced ázë; when /z/ merged with /r/, the letter became superfluous and was given the new value ss, hence it was re-named essë (Appendix E)_. Also árë nuquerna *"árë reversed", name of tengwa #32, similar to normal árë but turned upside down (Appendix E). See also ilyázëa, ilyárëa under ilya. In the Etymologies, this word has a short initial vowel: arë pl. ari (AR1)

arata

high, lofty, noble

arata adj. "high, lofty, noble" (PE17:49, 186). Also used as a a noun with nominal pl. form Aratar "the Supreme", the chief Valar, translation of the foreign word Máhani adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:402). Aratarya "her sublimity"; Varda Aratarya "Varda the lofty, Varda in her sublimity" (WJ:369). In one source, Aratar is translated as a singular: "High One" (PE17:186)

arato

noble

arato noun "a noble" (PE17:147), in PE17:118 given as aratō and there glossed "lord" (often = "king"). Cf. aráto. The form cited in the latter source, aratō with a long final vowel, is evidently very archaic (compare Enderō under Ender); later the vowel would become short. (PE17:118)

haran

king, chieftain

haran (#harn-, as in pl. harni) noun "king, chieftain" (3AR, TĀ/TA3, VT45:17; for "king", the word aran is to be preferred in LotR-style Quenya). In a deleted entry in the Etymologies, haran was glossed "chief" (VT45:17)

taran

king

taran (1) noun "king", possibly ephemeral variant of aran, q.v. (PE17:186)

arquen

noble

arquen noun "a noble" (WJ:372), "knight" (PE17:147)

vardar

king

vardar noun "king" (LT1:273; rather aran in LotR-style Quenya)

Ae

day

Ae (Quenya?) noun "day" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK - ae was written over ar [# 2] in the names of the Valinorean week, but ar was not struck out.)

ala

day

[ala (7) noun "day", also alan "daytime". The forms allen, alanen listed after these words could be inflected forms of them, genitive "of daytime", constracted (allen = al'nen) and uncontracted. However, Tolkien struck out all of this (VT45:13).]

ava

outside, beyond

ava (1) adv.? noun? prep.? "outside, beyond" (AWA, VT45:6)

han

preposition. beyond

Derivations

  • HAN “add to, increase, enhance, enrich, honour (especially by gift); give” ✧ VT43/14

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
HAN > han[han]✧ VT43/14

han

beyond

han prep. "beyond" (compare the _postposition pella of similar meaning) (VT43:14)_

ita

very, extremely

ita, íta adv. 2) "very, extremely" (PE17:112). Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkiens efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the "same" version of Quenya.

lai

very

[lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8)]

day

noun "day" (of the sun), a full 24-hour cycle (Appendix D) composed of aurë (day, daylight) and lómë "night" (VT49:45). Short - in compounds like Ringarë (q.v.). Allative rénna (VT49:45).

high

2) adj. "high" (LT1:264; there spelt . This is hardly a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya, but cf. tára "lofty".)

nec-

without, -less

nec- prefix "without, -less" (PE17:167), cf. -enca, q.v.

nec-

prefix. without

Derivations

  • NEK “divide, separate, part; deprive” ✧ PE17/167

Element in

  • ᴺQ. necermëa “insubstantial, immaterial”
  • ᴺQ. necestel “hopelessness, despair, desperation”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
NEK > nec-[nek-]✧ PE17/167

túr

king

túr, tur noun "king" (PE16:138, LT1:260); rather aran in LotR-style Quenya, but cf. the verb tur-. Also compare the final element -tur, -ntur "lord" in names like Axantur, Falastur, Fëanturi, Vëantur (q.v.)

-enca

without, -less

-enca suffix "without, -less" (PE17:167), cf. nec-, q.v.

halda

adjective. high, tall

Quenya [PE 22:103; PE 22:148] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

pella

beyond

pella "beyond", apparently a postposition rather than a preposition: Andúnë pella "beyond the West", elenillor pella "from beyond the stars" (Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya) In one version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer, Tolkien used pell' (evidently an elided form of pella) as a _preposition, but this version was abandoned (VT43:13)_

tána

high, lofty, noble

tána (meaning unclear, probably adj. "high, lofty, noble") (TĀ/TA3). Compare tára.

calima

bright

calima adj. "bright" (VT42:32); cf. ancalima; in PE17:56, arcalima appears as another superlative "brightest" (see ar- #2).

etsë

outside, exterior

etsë noun "outside, exterior", glosses changed from ?"issuing" and ?"spring" (VT45:13)

pen

without, not having

[pen prep. "without, not having" (PE17:171). Cf. Ú #1.]

ettë

outside

ettë noun(and/or adv.?) "outside" (ET)

ú

without, destitute of

ú (1) adv. and prep. "without, destitute of" (VT39:14). Usually followed by genitive: ú calo "without light" (cala). In one source, ú is seemingly also used as a negative verb "was not" (VT49:13), but Tolkien revised the text in question.

arata

high, lofty, noble

arata adj. "high, lofty, noble" (PE17:49, 186). Also used as a a noun with nominal pl. form Aratar "the Supreme", the chief Valar, translation of the foreign word Máhani adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:402). Aratarya "her sublimity"; Varda Aratarya "Varda the lofty, Varda in her sublimity" (WJ:369). In one source, Aratar is translated as a singular: "High One" (PE17:186)

eldatár

`Vm#1~C6 noun. elf-king, elfking, elven-king

Quenya [Compound of elda and tar] Group: Neologism. Published by

lai

adverb. very

Derivations

  • DAY “*great”

Sindarin 

ar-

prefix. without; by; **beside, [N.] outside; [S.] without; by, beside, [G.] along with, compared with

Cognates

  • Q. ar- “by-, beside, near, by-, beside, near; [ᴹQ.] outside” ✧ PE17/169; PE17/169

Derivations

  • AR “beyond, further than; outside; beside, alongside, beyond, further than; outside; beside, alongside; [ᴱ√] spread, extend sideways”
  • ÑAR “by, beside, near” ✧ PE17/169; PE17/169

Element in

  • S. arnediad “unnumbered, unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
  • S. arnoediad “unnumbered, without reckoning”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ÑAR > ar-[ŋar-] > [ar-]✧ PE17/169
Sindarin [PE17/169; VT42/17] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar-

prefix. king

pref. king. >> ara-, Arathorn

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:113] < S. _aran_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ar-

prefix. high, noble, royal

Sindarin [S/428] Reduced form of , element in the names of the kings of Arnor and Arthedain. Group: SINDICT. Published by

ar-

ar-

_ pref. _Q. ar-. . This gloss was rejected.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:169] < ÑAR near, by, beside. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ar-

ar-

_ pref. _Q. ar-.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:169] < ÑAR by. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

Ara-

prefix. king

pref. king. >> ar-, Arathorn

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:113] < S. _aran_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

Ara-

prefix. high, noble, royal

Sindarin [S/428] Reduced form of , element in the names of the kings of Arnor and Arthedain. Group: SINDICT. Published by

ar(a)-

prefix. noble, royal, high

Derivations

  • RĀ/ARA “noble, high, royal”
  • S. aran “king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)” ✧ Let/426
    • ARAN “good, excellent, noble” ✧ PE17/147

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
S. aran > ara[aran-] > [ara-]✧ Let/426

Variations

  • ara ✧ Let/426; PE22/148
  • ar(a) ✧ LotR/1038
  • ara- ✧ PE17/113
  • ar- ✧ PE17/139
  • aran/ar(a) ✧ PM/193
  • Ar(a)- ✧ RC/347
Sindarin [Let/426; LotR/1038; PE17/113; PE17/139; PE22/148; PM/193; RC/347] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ara

noun. king

_ n. _king. 

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:147] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

aur

noun. day, sunlight, morning

Sindarin [Ety/349, S/439] Group: SINDICT. Published by

aran

noun. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region)

Sindarin [Ety/360, S/428, LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:VII, SD/129-] Group: SINDICT. Published by

arod

noble

1b _adj._noble. >> raud

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:49] < _(a)rātā_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

arod

adjective. noble

Sindarin [PM/363, VT/41:9] Group: SINDICT. Published by

arod

adjective. noble

adj. #noble.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:147] < _arāta_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

arod

adjective. noble

d adj. noble. Q. arata. >> raud

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:186] < *_arāta_ < RAT tower up. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

arod

adjective. noble

Cognates

  • Q. arata “high, noble, exalted, lofty” ✧ PE17/049; PE17/186
  • T. aráta “noble” ✧ PM/363

Derivations

  • arātā “high, lofty, noble” ✧ PE17/039; PE17/049; PE17/186; PM/363; VT41/09
    • RĀ/ARA “noble, high, royal” ✧ PE17/118; PM/363
    • RAT “tower up” ✧ PE17/186
  • ARAT “good, excellent, noble” ✧ PE17/147

Element in

  • S. Arodreth “Noble Endurance” ✧ PE17/182
  • S. Arothir “Noble Lord”
  • S. Finrod ✧ VT41/09
  • S. Thinrod “noble member of the Thindrim” ✧ VT41/09

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
arātā > arod[arātā] > [arāta] > [arǭta] > [arauta] > [araut] > [araud] > [arod]✧ PM/363
Sindarin [PE17/039; PE17/049; PE17/147; PE17/182; PE17/186; PM/363; VT41/09] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arth

adjective. (unknown meaning, perhaps (?) noble, lofty, exalted)

Sindarin [Arthedain LotR] Q arta or OS *artʰa, CE *arâtâ. Group: SINDICT. Published by

arphen

noun. a noble

Sindarin [WJ/376] ar-+pen. Group: SINDICT. Published by

oraearon

noun. seventh day of the Númenórean week, Sea-day

Sindarin [LotR/D] aur+aearon. Group: SINDICT. Published by

pen-

without

(ben-) _ pref. _without,**less. pen-adar 'fatherless'. >> ben-, ú-

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:34:144] < PENE lack. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

athan

preposition. beyond

Sindarin [SD/62] Group: SINDICT. Published by

calan

noun. day, period of actual daylight

Attested in the first edition of LotR, but omitted from the second.

Sindarin [aLotR/D] Group: SINDICT. Published by

glân

adjective. bright, shining white

The word is deduced from its mutated form, but it is worth mentioning that a stem GALÁN "bright", with glan "daylight" (and later "clear") as derivative, is listed in the Etymologies (not included in the published text, but see VT/45:13). Most of the words meaning "white" in the Indo-Eureopean languages come from the original notion of "brightness", e.g. Greek leukós "white" is cognate with Latin lucere "to shine", lux "light". This association of sense is also found in Gnomish, PE/11:39 (glan "clean, pure", from "bright" originally) and in Early Noldorin (PE/13:144, glann "clean"). The similarity with Welsh glan (where the vowel, incidentally, is also long, though this is concealed by Welsh orthographic convention) is also striking

Sindarin [Curunír 'Lân UT/390] Group: SINDICT. Published by

oranor

noun. second day of the week, day of the Sun

Sindarin [LotR/D] aur+anor. Group: SINDICT. Published by

orithil

noun. third day of the week, day of the Moon

Sindarin [LotR/D] aur+ithil. Group: SINDICT. Published by

ormenel

noun. fifth day of the week, Heavens' day

Sindarin [LotR/D] aur+menel. Group: SINDICT. Published by

orbelain

noun. sixth day of the week, day of the Powers or Valar

Sindarin [LotR/D] aur+belain. Group: SINDICT. Published by

orgaladh

noun. fourth day of the Númenórean week, day of the White Tree

This day was formerly called orgaladhad in the Elvish calendar

Sindarin [LotR/D] aur+galadh. Group: SINDICT. Published by

orgilion

noun. first day of the week, day of the Stars

Sindarin [LotR/D] aur+gil, with archaic genitive. Group: SINDICT. Published by

penninor

noun. last day of the year

Sindarin [Ety/400, X/Z] pant+în+aur. Group: SINDICT. Published by

orgaladhad

noun. fourth day of the Elvish week, day of the Two Trees

This day was renamed orgaladh in the Númenórean calendar

Sindarin [LotR/D] aur+galadh, with quenya influenced dual ending. Group: SINDICT. Published by

pen

preposition. without, lacking, -less

Sindarin [Iarwain ben-adar LotR/II:II] Group: SINDICT. Published by

eth

noun. outside

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. ette “outside”

Derivations

  • ET “out, forth”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

pen

without

1) pen (lenited ben) (lacking, -less) (WJ:375) Not to be confused with the pronoun pen ”one, somebody, anybody”. When prefixed to a noun, the resulting phrase can be treated as an adjective in that it is lenited (pen- appears as ben-) where an adjective would be lenited. 2)

ú

without

(adverbial prefix) ú-, u- (e.g. udalraph ”without stirrups; stirrupless”, uluithiad *”without quenching” (SD:62) = ”unquenchable”). The prefix ar- has a similiar meaning, as in:

ar

noble

(adjectival prefix) ar- (high, royal). In the form ar(a)- this is an element in the names of the kings of Arnor and Arthedain.

ar

outside

(adv. prefix) ar- (without)the literal meaning of a word translated SPY (q.v.)

ar

without

(adv. prefix) ar- (outside)

an-

very

(as adverbial prefix) an-, as in:

arn

noble

(adjective) 1) arn (royal), pl. ern, also arth (lofty, exalted), pl. erth, or arod (archaic *araud), pl. aroed. 2) brand (high, lofty, fine), lenited vrand, pl. braind; 3) raud (eminent, high), in compounds -rod, pl. roed. 4) taur (also tor-, tar- in compounds) (lofty, high, sublime; vast, masterful, mighty, overwhelming, huge, awful), lenited daur, pl. toer. Note: homophones mean ”king (of a people)” and also ”great wood, forest”. Also used as noun ”a noble”; see below.

aur

day

aur (morning), pl. oer. As prefix or- in names of weekdays.

aran

king

1) (king of a region) aran (pl. erain). Coll. pl. aranath. Also †âr with stem-form aran- (also with pl. erain; the longer form aran may be a back-formation from this plural). 2) (king of a people)taur (i daur, o thaur) (said in LR:389 s.v. _T_Ā to refer to ”legitimate kings of the whole tribes”), pl. toer (i thoer), coll. pl. torath.

athar

beyond

1) *athar (across). Suggested correction of the reading "athan" in SD:62. As prep. probably followed by soft mutation. 2) (adverbial prefix) thar- (across, athwart, over)

arphen

noble

(noun, "a noble") 1) arphen, pl. erphin; 2) raud (eminent man, champion), pl.roed (idh roed), coll. pl. rodath.

or

high

(adjectival pref.) or- (above, over), also ar- (noble, royal). In the form ar(a)- this is an element in the names of the kings of Arnor and Arthedain. Nouns:

dae

adverb. very

Derivations

  • DAY “*great”

dae

very

dae (exceedingly). Lenited dhae.

gail

bright

gail (light), lenited ngail; no distinct pl. form (VT45:18). The adj. calen etymologically means "bright", but is used = "green" (q.v.).

Telerin 

aráta

adjective. noble

Cognates

  • S. arod “noble” ✧ PM/363

Derivations

  • arātā “high, lofty, noble” ✧ PM/363
    • RĀ/ARA “noble, high, royal” ✧ PE17/118; PM/363
    • RAT “tower up” ✧ PE17/186

Element in

Variations

  • arāta ✧ PM/363

Adûnaic

ar-

prefix. king or queen

A prefix appearing before the Adûnaic names of kings and queens, the equivalent of Q. Tar- “High” (SA/ar(a)). It is most likely either a prefixal form of Ad. ârû “king” or derived from the same root. Conceptual Development: This prefix was introduced in the earliest versions of Adûnaic from the 1940s (SD/311, SD/248), and survived in the later Adûnaic names of The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion.

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. tar- “high; king or queen (in compounds)” ✧ SD/248

Derivations

  • RĀ/ARA “noble, high, royal” ✧ SA/ar(a)

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
ârû“king”

Variations

  • ar ✧ SD/248
Adûnaic [SA/ar(a); SD/248; SD/428; SD/429; SD/435] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ârû

noun. king

A noun translated as “king” (SD/429). The Adûnaic word for “queen” is not attested, but could be a feminized form of this word, such as ✱ârî.

Element in

Variations

  • Ārū ✧ SD/429

Khuzdûl

durin

masculine name. king

Element in

Khuzdûl [LotR/0305; LotRI/Durin; PE17/040; PM/304; PMI/Durin; RSI/Durin; SDI1/Durin; SI/Durin; TI/182; TII/Durin; UTI/Durin; WJI/Durin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Primitive elvish

ar

root. beyond, further than; outside; beside, alongside, beyond, further than; outside; beside, alongside; [ᴱ√] spread, extend sideways

The root √AR has a long and complex history in Tolkien’s writing. For many years, it was the basis for the word ar “and”. Its earliest precursor was the root ᴱ√ARA or ᴱ√ƷARA in the Qenya Lexicon variously glossed “spread, extend sideways” or “wide places” (QL/32). The Gnomish derivatives of this root such G. garw “sown field” (GL/38) vs. ᴱQ. arwa made it clear the true primitive form was √ƷARA (in Gnomish, ʒ- &gt; g-). Some of the early derivatives of √ƷARA such as G. gar(th), ᴱQ. arda “place” were later transferred to the root ᴹ√GAR so they could retain this gar-/ar- distinction.

Of the derivations that remained under √AR, the most notable were ᴱQ. are “beside, along” and the conjunction ᴱQ. ar(a) “but” (QL/32). The latter changed in meaning to ar “and” by the end of the 1920s, for example in the Oilima Markirya poem. This carried into the 1930s paradigm for the root ᴹ√AR, as seen by its entry in The Etymologies with its derivatives ᴹQ. ara “outside, beside” (the basic sense of the root) and ᴹQ. ar “and” (Ety/AR²). The most common Noldorin word for “and” in this period was likewise ar (TAI/150; SD/128-129), and in prefixal form ar- “outside, beside” sometimes developed a privative sense “without”, most notably in arnediad (†arnoediad) “without reckoning, numberless” as in N. Nirnaith Arnediad “(Battle of) Unnumbered Tears” (Ety/AR², NOT) which in Sindarin became Nirnaeth Arnoediad.

In some etymological notes from the 1950s Tolkien retained the root form ara “alongside” (VT43/33), but there were already cracks forming in this system, forced by Tolkien’s decision that the Sindarin word for “and” was a rather than ar, a change that first appeared Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s (TI/182). By the late 1950s Tolkien was experimenting with new roots √AD(A) and √AS for the meaning “beside” and the derivation of Q. ar, S. a “and”; see those entries for later developments in this semantic space of “beside”.

As for the root √AR itself, it shifted in meaning to “beyond, further than” in Quenya Notes (QN) from 1957, becoming the basis for “royal” roots like √ARAN “king” or √ARAT “noble” (PE17/147). In this revised meaning, it might still be able to retain a “privative” sense in Sindarin words like †arnoediad “unnumbered” (perhaps = “✱beyond numbering”), though it is also possible Tolkien simply never revisited the etymology of this Sindarin word.

Derivatives

  • ara “beyond, further than” ✧ PE17/147
  • Q. ar “and, and; [ᴱQ., ᴹQ.] but” ✧ SA/ar
  • S. a “and; †by, near, beside” ✧ SA/ar
  • S. ar- “without; by; **beside, [N.] outside; [S.] without; by, beside, [G.] along with, compared with”

Element in

  • ARAN “good, excellent, noble” ✧ PE17/147
  • ARI “good, excellent, noble” ✧ PE17/147
  • RĀ/ARA “noble, high, royal” ✧ PE17/147
  • ARAT “good, excellent, noble” ✧ PE17/147
  • Q. Araman “Outside Aman, *Beside Aman” ✧ SA/ar
  • S. arnoediad “unnumbered, without reckoning” ✧ SA/ar

Variations

  • ar- ✧ SA/ar
  • ara ✧ VT43/33
Primitive elvish [PE17/147; SA/ar; VT43/33] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ara

preposition and adverb. beyond, further than

Derivations

  • AR “beyond, further than; outside; beside, alongside, beyond, further than; outside; beside, alongside; [ᴱ√] spread, extend sideways” ✧ PE17/147

Variations

  • ara/ar/rā ✧ PE17/147
Primitive elvish [PE17/147] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tāra

adjective. high

Derivations

  • TĀ/TAƷ “high, high, [ᴹ√] lofty; noble”

Element in

Variations

  • tār(a) ✧ PE17/186
Primitive elvish [PE17/067; PE17/186] Group: Eldamo. Published by

as

root. beside

As discussed in the entry for √AR, for a considerable time in Tolkien’s life the basis for the word “and” was the root √AR with the sense “beside”, so that Q. A ar B “A and B” originally had the sense “A beside B”. However, at some point during the writing of the Lord of the Rings he decided that the Sindarin word for “and” was a, making √AR no longer suitable for its etymology.

From this point forward Tolkien toyed with two possible roots for “beside; and”, either √AD and √AS, with another option √ÑAR considered and rejected in 1957 (PE17/169). It seems Tolkien vacillated between the √AD and √AS, so an exact timeline is hard to nail down. Their primary difference would be in the prevocalic form of Sindarin “and”: either edhil adh edain [ada > aða] or edhil ah edain [asa > aha] for “elves and men”. The most detailed breakdown of these two possibilities appeared in Tolkien’s notes on words in The Lord of the Rings, probably written in the late 1950s (PE17/41). In these notes he kept flipping back and forth between ancient asa and ada, though ultimately settling on ada.

However, ah appeared in the title of the document Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth “The Debate of Finrod and Andreth” most likely written in 1959 (MR/329), and in a 1968 note Tolkien said the primitive form was as with S. ah “and” before vowels and a before consonants (VT43/30). So either Tolkien reversed himself again and adopted √AS, or he continued to vacillate. For purposes of Neo-Eldarin, I think it is best to assume the root was √AS.

One result of the change of √AR >> √AS/√AD is that the Sindarin prefix ar- could no longer mean “beside” as it did in Noldorin. Indeed, in notes on The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor written in the late 1960s he said “Arnen originally was intended to mean ‘beside the water’, sc. Anduin, but ar- in this sense is Quenya, not Sindarin” (VT43/17). This leaves us with no good word for “beside” in Sindarin; at one point I coined a neologism sa for this purpose, but it is a real stretch.

As a final note, these 1950s and 1960s roots were not the first time Tolkien used √AS for something like “beside”. All the way back in the 1910s, Tolkien had the root √AS(A) in both the Quenya and Gnomish Lexicons (QL/33; GL/48) with derived forms like ᴱQ. ar “to, against, next, on (wall)” (QL/33), G. hath- “close to, by, beside, touching” (GL/48), and [maybe] G. art “beside, alongside of” (GL/20), though the last form may be unconnected given the unlikeliness of s > r in Gnomish.

Derivatives

  • as(a) “and” ✧ VT47/31
    • Q. ar “and, and; [ᴱQ., ᴹQ.] but” ✧ PE17/041; PE17/041; VT47/31
    • S. a “and; †by, near, beside” ✧ PE17/041; PE17/041; VT43/30; VT47/31
  • asa- “*beside” ✧ VT47/31
  • ᴺQ. arëa “authority”
  • Q. as “with”
  • ᴺS. sa “beside, alongside, next (to)”

Element in

  • ᴺ✶. askōlimā “equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able”
  • ᴺS. asgolui “equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able”

Variations

  • asa ✧ VT47/31
  • AS ✧ VT48/25
Primitive elvish [VT47/31; VT48/25] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lā̆

preposition/adverb. beyond

Derivations

  • LAƷ “cross, pass over, go beyond” ✧ PE17/065

Derivatives

  • Q. “beyond, over, across, athwart” ✧ PE17/065; PE17/065

Element in

  • orlā “over” ✧ PE17/065
  • pelola “beyond (the boundary)” ✧ PE17/065

Variations

  • laŋa ✧ PE17/065
Primitive elvish [PE17/065] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tā/taʒ

root. high, high, [ᴹ√] lofty; noble

This root and ones like it were used for “high” things for much of Tolkien’s life. It first appeared as unglossed ᴱ√TAHA in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s with derivatives like ᴱQ. “high; high above, high up”, ᴱQ. tahōra or tayóra “lofty”, and ᴱQ. tāri “queen”; it had a variant form ᴱ√TAʕA where the ʕ might be a malformed Y (QL/87). The corresponding forms in the contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon were G. “high” and G. dara “lofty” (GL/29), indicating the true form of the root was ᴱ√DAHA, since initial voiced stops were unvoiced (d- > t-) in Early Qenya (PE12/17). Primitive forms like ᴱ✶dagá > ᴱN. /ᴱQ. “high” in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s indicates the root continued to begin with D for the following decade (PE13/141, 161).

In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien gave this root as ᴹ√TĀ/TAƷ “high, lofty; noble” with derivatives like ᴹQ. tára “lofty, high”, ᴹQ. tári “queen” and N. taen “height, summit of high mountain” (Ety/TĀ). In Definitive Linguistic Notes (DLN) from 1959 Tolkien gave the root as √TAG or Tā- “high”, and in notes from around 1967 Tolkien gave √TAƷ as the explanation of the initial element of Q. Taniquetil and contrasted it with √TĂR “stand” (PE17/186). In 1970 green-ink revisions to the Outline of Phonology (OP2), Tolkien wrote a marginal note giving √TAƷ > “high”, but this note was rejected with a statement “transfer to Gen. Structure. No [ʒ] existed in Eldarin” (PE19/72-73 note #22).

This last rejection seems to be part of Tolkien’s general vacillation on the nature and phonetic evolution of velar spirants in Primitive Elvish in 1968-70. For purposes of Neo-Eldarin, I would assume the root form was √TAH or √TAƷ > √ as the basis for “high” words, much like √MAH or √MAƷ > ✶ was the basis for “hand” words.

Derivatives

  • tagra ✧ PE17/186
    • Q. tára “lofty, tall, high” ✧ PE17/186
    • S. taer “lofty, lofty, *high” ✧ PE17/186
  • tāra “high”
  • Q. -tar “honorific”
  • Q. tar “honorific, sir, madam”
  • Q. tar- “high, high; [ᴹQ.] king or queen (in compounds)”
  • Q. tára “lofty, tall, high” ✧ PE17/186
  • S. taer “lofty, lofty, *high” ✧ PE17/186

Variations

  • TAG/Tā- ✧ PE17/186
  • TAƷ ✧ PE17/186; PE17/186; PE19/073 (TAƷ)
  • ✧ PE19/073 ()
Primitive elvish [PE17/186; PE19/073] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kalinā

adjective. bright

Derivatives

  • Q. calina “light, bright, sunny, (lit.) illumined”

Elements

WordGloss
kal-“to shine, be bright”
-nā“adjective suffix; passive participle”
Primitive elvish [PE22/136] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

ar-

prefix. day

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. are “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ari “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹
    • ᴹ√AR “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Element in

  • N. Ar Fennuir “Day of the Fanturi, fourth day of the Valian week”
  • N. Ar Neleduir “Day of the three kings, fifth day of the Valian week”
  • N. Ar Nethwelein “Day of the younger Gods, fifth day of the Valian week”
  • N. Ar Uiar “Day of Ulmo, second day of the Valian week”
  • N. Ar Vanwe “Day of Manwe, first day of the Valian week” ✧ Ety/AR¹
  • N. Ar Vedhwen “Day of the Spouses, third day of the Valian week”
  • N. Ar Velegol “Day of Aule, alternate name of the third day of the Valian week”
  • N. Ar Ifan “*Day of Yavanna”
  • N. edinar “anniversary day”
  • N. Aroeren “Sea-day”
  • N. Aranor “*Sun-day”
  • N. Arvelain “*Day of the Valar”
  • N. Argalad “Tree Day”
  • N. Argaladath “*Day of the Trees”
  • N. Argilion “*Star-day”
  • N. Arithil “*Moon-day”
  • N. Arvenel “*Heavens-day”
  • N. penninar “full year (last day of year)”
  • N. Ardórin “?Day of Kings”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ari- > ar-[ari] > [are] > [ar]✧ Ety/AR¹

Variations

  • ar- ✧ Ety/AR¹

ar-

prefix. etym. beside

Noldorin [Ety/349] Group: SINDICT. Published by

ar-

prefix. without

Noldorin [Ety/349] Group: SINDICT. Published by

ar-

prefix. outside, beside; without

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. ar- “outside, beside” ✧ Ety/AR²

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “beside, outside” ✧ Ety/AR²; Ety/AWA

Element in

  • N. arnediad “without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless” ✧ Ety/AR²
  • N. arnœdiad “innumerable, countless, endless” ✧ Ety/NOT
  • N. aronoded “innumerable, countless, endless” ✧ Ety/NOT

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR² > ar-[ar-]✧ Ety/AR²

Variations

  • ar- ✧ Ety/AR²; Ety/AWA; Ety/NOT (ar-); Ety/NOT (ar-)
  • ar ✧ EtyAC/AWA
Noldorin [Ety/AR²; Ety/AWA; Ety/NOT; EtyAC/AWA] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aur

noun. day, sunlight, morning

Noldorin [Ety/349, S/439] Group: SINDICT. Published by

aran

noun. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region)

Noldorin [Ety/360, S/428, LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:VII, SD/129-] Group: SINDICT. Published by

taur

noun. king (only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes)

In LotR/IV:IV, Frodo is called Daur, which might be the mutated form of this word

Noldorin [Ety/389, Ety/395] Group: SINDICT. Published by

âr

noun. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region)

Noldorin [Ety/389] Group: SINDICT. Published by

âr

noun. king

penninar

noun. last day of the year

Noldorin [Ety/400, X/Z] pant+în+aur. Group: SINDICT. Published by

dae

adverb. very

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. lai “very” ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ

Derivations

  • ᴹ√DAƷ “great” ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ

Element in

  • N. Daedhelos “Shadow of Fear” ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ (Daedeloth)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√DAƷ > dae[dai] > [dae]✧ EtyAC/DAƷ

Variations

  • dae ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ (dae)
Noldorin [EtyAC/DAƷ] Group: Eldamo. Published by

athan

preposition. beyond

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
ath-“on both sides, across”

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Westron

tûrac

noun. king

Changes

  • tūrantūrac- ✧ PM/053

Variations

  • tūrac- ✧ PM/053 (tūrac-)
  • tūran ✧ PM/060 (tūran)
Westron [PM/053; PM/060] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya 

ar-

prefix. outside, beside

Cognates

  • Ilk. ar- “outside, beside” ✧ Ety/AR²
  • N. ar- “outside, beside; without” ✧ Ety/AR²

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “beside, outside” ✧ Ety/AR²

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Arvalin “Outside Valinor” ✧ Ety/AR²

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR² > ar-[ar-]✧ Ety/AR²

ara

preposition/adverb. outside, beside

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “beside, outside” ✧ Ety/AR²

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR² > ara[ara]✧ Ety/AR²
Qenya [Ety/AR²; EtyAC/AR²] Group: Eldamo. Published by

are

noun. day

Cognates

  • N. ar- “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ari “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹
    • ᴹ√AR “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Are Fanturion “Day of the Fanturi, fourth day of the Valian week”
  • ᴹQ. Are Manwen “Day of Manwe, first day of the Valian week”
  • ᴹQ. Arendien “Midyear’s Day”
  • ᴹQ. Are Veruen “Day of the Spouses, third day of the Valian week”
  • ᴹQ. artuile “dayspring, early morn”
  • ᴹQ. Ar Ulmon “Day of Ulmo, second day of the Valian week”
  • ᴹQ. enar “tomorrow”
  • ᴹQ. Mettare “Year’s end”
  • ᴹQ. sinar “today, this morning”
  • ᴹQ. Tuilear “Springdays”
  • ᴹQ. yáre “former days”
  • ᴹQ. Koirear “Stirringdays”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ari- > are[ari] > [are]✧ Ety/AR¹

au-

prefix. without

aran

noun. king

Element in

Variations

  • aran ✧ PE22/106; PE22/124
  • Aran ✧ PE22/125
Qenya [PE22/106; PE22/124; PE22/125] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ava-

prefix. without

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AWA “away, forth; out” ✧ Ety/AR²; Ety/AWA

Element in

  • ᴺQ. avamarwa “homeless”
  • ᴹQ. avanóte “without number, numberless” ✧ Ety/AR²; Ety/AWA
  • ᴹQ. avaqet- “to refuse, forbid”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AWA > ava-[awa-] > [ava-]✧ Ety/AWA

Variations

  • au- ✧ Ety/AWA
Qenya [Ety/AR²; Ety/AWA] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tár

noun. king

Cognates

  • N. taur “king (of a whole tribe)” ✧ Ety/TĀ
  • Ilk. tôr “king” ✧ Ety/TĀ

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶tār(ō) “king” ✧ Ety/TĀ
    • ᴹ√TĀ/TAƷ “high, lofty; noble” ✧ Ety/TĀ; PE21/55

Element in

  • ᴹQ. tar- “high; king or queen (in compounds)” ✧ Ety/TĀ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶tārō > tár[tār]✧ Ety/TĀ

Variations

  • tār ✧ LR/047
Qenya [Ety/TĀ; LR/047] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ala

noun. day

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GALAN “bright” ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GALÁN > ala[gala] > [ɣala] > [ala]✧ EtyAC/GAL¹

lai

adverb. very

Cognates

  • N. dae “very” ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ

Derivations

  • ᴹ√DAƷ “great” ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√DAƷ > lai[dai] > [lai]✧ EtyAC/DAƷ

ette

adverb/adjective. outside

Cognates

  • ᴺS. eth “outside”

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ET “out, forth” ✧ Ety/ET

Element in

  • ᴹQ. ettele “outer lands, foreign parts” ✧ Ety/ET
  • ᴺQ. ettemo “foreigner”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ET > ette[ette]✧ Ety/ET

Variations

  • ette ✧ Ety/ET

Doriathrin

ar-

prefix. outside, beside

An Ilkorin prefix meaning “outside, beside”, the same as in Quenya and Noldorin (Ety/AR²).

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. ar- “outside, beside” ✧ Ety/AR²

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “beside, outside” ✧ Ety/AR²

Element in

  • Ilk. argad “exterior, outside, (lit.) outside the fence”
  • Ilk. Argador “[Land] Outside the Fence” ✧ Ety/AR²

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR² > ar-[ar-]✧ Ety/AR²
Doriathrin [Ety/AR²] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tôr

noun. king

A noun for “king” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tār(ō), also appearing in its plural form tórin (Ety/TĀ, BAL). Tolkien said that it was “only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes”, though apparently it also survived in compounds like Torthurnion “King of Eagles” (Ety/THOR) and Balthor “Vala-king” (Ety/BAL). It is an example of how [[ilk|[ā] became [ō]]] in Ilkorin, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tôr).

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. tár “king” ✧ Ety/TĀ

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶tār(ō) “king” ✧ Ety/TĀ
    • ᴹ√TĀ/TAƷ “high, lofty; noble” ✧ Ety/TĀ; PE21/55
  • ᴹ√TĀ/TAƷ “high, lofty; noble” ✧ Ety/THIN

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶tārō > tôr[tārō] > [tāro] > [tōro] > [tōr]✧ Ety/TĀ

Variations

  • Tor ✧ Ety/THIN (Dor. Tor); Ety/THOR
  • tórin ✧ EtyAC/BAL
Doriathrin [Ety/BAL; Ety/TĀ; Ety/THIN; Ety/THOR; EtyAC/BAL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gelion

adjective. bright

An adjective meaning “bright” derived from the root ᴹ√GAL, the basis of the river name Gelion (Ety/GYEL). There isn’t enough information to deduce its primitive form, but Helge Fauskanger suggested ✱✶galjānā (AL-Ilkorin/gelion), which seems reasonably plausible.

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAL “shine” ✧ Ety/GYEL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAL > gelion[galjānā] > [galjāna] > [galjōna] > [galiōna] > [geliōna] > [geliōn] > [gelion]✧ Ety/GYEL
Doriathrin [Ety/GYEL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Old Noldorin 

aran

noun. king

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ƷAR “have, hold”

Derivatives

  • N. aran “king, lord (of a specific region)”
Old Noldorin [PE22/027] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

ar

root. day

A root in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “day” with various derivatives like ᴹQ. are, N. aur “day” and ᴹQ. arin “morning” (Ety/AR¹). In Tolkien’s later writings, the Quenya word for “day” became aurë (RC/727; S/190), and in 1957 Quenya Notes he devised a new etymology for these day-words from the root √UR “heat” as in ✶auri “heat, period of sun” (PE17/148). That opens the question whether the various 1930s Quenya “morning” words from ᴹ√AR remain valid, but many Neo-Quenya writers (including me) retain them since there aren’t really any good alternatives. They might be salvageable as derivatives of the later root √AS “warmth” (so that “day” = “hot” and “morning” = “warm”).

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶ari “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹
    • ᴹQ. are “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹
    • N. ar- “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹
  • ᴹQ. ára “dawn, day” ✧ Ety/AR¹
  • ᴹQ. arie “daytime” ✧ Ety/AR¹
  • ᴹQ. arin “morning” ✧ Ety/AR¹
  • ᴹQ. arya “day (twelve hours)” ✧ Ety/AR¹
  • N. arad “daytime, a day” ✧ Ety/AR¹
  • N. aur “day, morning” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Árien “Sun-maiden” ✧ Ety/AR¹
  • ᴹQ. artuile “dayspring, early morn” ✧ Ety/TUY
  • ᴹQ. Aryante “Day-bringer” ✧ Ety/ANA¹
  • N. Eriant “Day-bringer” ✧ Ety/AR¹
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/ANA¹; Ety/AR¹; Ety/TUY] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ari

noun. day

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. are “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹
  • N. ar- “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR¹ > ari-[ari]✧ Ety/AR¹

Variations

  • ari- ✧ Ety/AR¹
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/AR¹; EtyAC/AR¹] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tār(ō)

noun. king

Derivations

  • ᴹ√TĀ/TAƷ “high, lofty; noble” ✧ Ety/TĀ; PE21/55

Derivatives

  • Ilk. tôr “king” ✧ Ety/TĀ
  • ᴹQ. tár “king” ✧ Ety/TĀ
  • N. taur “king (of a whole tribe)” ✧ Ety/TĀ

Variations

  • tārō ✧ Ety/TĀ; Ety/TĀ
  • tā-r ✧ PE21/55
  • tā-ro ✧ PE21/55
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/TĀ; PE21/55] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ala-

prefix. very

Derivations

  • ᴱ√ALA “spread‽”

Element in

Middle Primitive Elvish [PE21/41] Group: Eldamo. Published by

al

prefix. without

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LA “no, not; to be not” ✧ Ety/AR²

Derivatives

  • N. al- “no, not”

Element in

  • N. Alchorin “Not-of-Kôr” ✧ Ety/AR²
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/AR²] Group: Eldamo. Published by

galan

root. bright

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. ala “day” ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
  • ᴹQ. alan “daytime” ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
  • ᴺS. glaen “serene, clear, fair (espec. of weather)”
  • S. glân “white, [bright shining] white; [N.] clear; [G.] pure, †bright; [ᴱN.] clean”
  • N. glan “clear” ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
  • ᴺS. glanna- “to cleanse, purify, purge, *to clear, make clear”

Variations

  • GALÁN ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/GAL¹] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

ar-

prefix. beside, along with, compared with

Derivations

  • ᴱ√ASA “*beside, close to”

Element in

Gnomish [GL/20; LT1A/Eruman] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mandra

adjective. noble

Derivations

  • ᴱ√MANA “*good (moral)”
Gnomish [GL/56; LT1A/Mánir] Group: Eldamo. Published by

danuin

masculine name. Day

Changes

  • DanosDanuin ✧ LT1/222
  • DanaDanuin ✧ LT1/222
  • DanaDanuin ✧ LT1A/Danuin
  • DanosDanuin ✧ LT1I/Danuin
  • DanaDanuin ✧ LT1I/Danuin

Variations

  • Danos ✧ LT1/222 (Danos); LT1I/Danuin (Danos)
  • Dana ✧ LT1/222 (Dana); LT1A/Danuin (Dana); LT1I/Danuin (Dana)
Gnomish [LT1/217; LT1/222; LT1A/Danuin; LT1I/Danuin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dân

noun. day

adjective. high

Cognates

  • Eq. “high; high above, high up” ✧ LT1A/Qalmë-Tári

Derivations

  • ᴱ√DAHA “*high” ✧ LT1A/Qalmë-Tári; LT1A/Taniquetil
  • ᴱ✶dagá ✧ PE13/112; PE13/112
    • ᴱ√DAHA “*high”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√TAHA > [daxā] > [daxa] > [dā]✧ LT1A/Qalmë-Tári
ᴱ✶daga- > da[dagā] > [daga] > [daɣa] > [dā]✧ PE13/112
ᴱ✶dagain > dagīn > dain[dagain] > [dagīn] > [daɣīn] > [dain]✧ PE13/112

Variations

  • da ✧ PE13/112
Gnomish [GL/29; LT1A/Qalmë-Tári; LT1A/Taniquetil; PE13/112] Group: Eldamo. Published by

odra

adverb. very

tîr

noun. king

tûr

noun. king

Cognates

  • Eq. tur “king” ✧ LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi

Derivations

  • ᴱ√TURU “am strong” ✧ LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi
  • ᴱ✶tūr(ǝ) ✧ PE13/115

Element in

Variations

  • Tur ✧ GG/15; GG/15
  • tîr ✧ PE13/115
Gnomish [GG/15; GL/72; LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi; PE13/115] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ûthi

noun. outside

Derivations

  • ᴱ√Ū “under”

Early Ilkorin

tak

adjective. high

tök

adjective. high

Cognates

  • En. “high” ✧ PE13/141; PE13/161

Derivations

  • ᴱ✶dagá ✧ PE13/141; PE13/161
    • ᴱ√DAHA “*high”

Variations

  • ta[k] ✧ PE13/141
Early Ilkorin [PE13/141; PE13/161] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

agos

adverb. very

Changes

  • agasagos ✧ PE13/124

Element in

Variations

  • agas ✧ PE13/124 (agas)
Early Noldorin [PE13/124] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adjective. high

Changes

  • da ✧ PE13/141

Cognates

  • Eilk. tök “high” ✧ PE13/141; PE13/161
  • Eq. “high; high above, high up” ✧ PE13/141; PE13/161
  • Et. daga “high” ✧ PE13/141; PE13/161

Derivations

  • ᴱ✶dagá ✧ PE13/141; PE13/161
    • ᴱ√DAHA “*high”

Variations

  • ✧ PE13/141
  • da ✧ PE13/141 (da)
Early Noldorin [PE13/141; PE13/161] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tîr

noun. king

Cognates

  • Eq. tur “king” ✧ PE13/154

Element in

  • En. balthir “evil king”
  • En. idir “no king” ✧ PE13/148
  • En. tîr idir “king without a crown” ✧ PE13/148
  • En. uthir “without a king” ✧ PE13/155 (uthir)

Variations

  • tír ✧ PE13/148; PE13/154
  • thir ✧ PE13/155 (thir)
Early Noldorin [PE13/148; PE13/154; PE13/155] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Solosimpi

daga

adjective. high

Cognates

  • En. “high” ✧ PE13/141; PE13/161

Derivations

  • ᴱ✶dagá ✧ PE13/141; PE13/161
    • ᴱ√DAHA “*high”
Solosimpi [PE13/141; PE13/161] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Primitive Elvish

ðana

root. day

A primitive form in the Gnome Lexicon of the 1910s with derivatives meaning “day” (GL/38). There were a variety of different roots for “day” in later writings such ᴹ√AR or √UR.

Derivatives

  • Eq. sana “day (24 hours)”
  • G. dana “day (24 hours)”
  • G. dôn “[unglossed]”

Element in

Variations

  • ðana ✧ GL/66 (ðana)
Early Primitive Elvish [GL/66] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

vardar

noun. king

Early Quenya [LT1A/Varda; QL/102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

erus(ta)

noun/adjective. outside

Cognates

  • G. edhos “just without, close by”

Derivations

Variations

  • erus ✧ QL/036
  • erusta ✧ QL/036
Early Quenya [QL/036] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kale

noun. day

Changes

  • kaletantare “day” ✧ PE14/043

Derivations

  • ᴱ√KALA “shine golden”
Early Quenya [PE14/043] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. day

Element in

  • Eq. Ambalar “the East” ✧ PE16/075

Variations

  • ✧ PE16/075
Early Quenya [PE16/075] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tur

noun. king

Cognates

  • En. tîr “king” ✧ PE13/154
  • G. tûr “king” ✧ LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi

Derivations

  • ᴱ√TURU “am strong” ✧ LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi; QL/095

Element in

  • Eq. turwen “princess” ✧ QL/096
  • Eq. túrin “king(dom)” ✧ QL/096
  • Eq. Sorontur “King of Eagles” ✧ LT1A/Sorontur
  • Eq. túrani “queen” ✧ QL/096
  • Eq. túranu “king” ✧ QL/096
  • Eq. turillo “prince” ✧ QL/096
  • Eq. turinqi “queen” ✧ LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi; QL/096
  • Eq. turqin “queen” ✧ QL/096 (turqin)
  • Eq. Turondo

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√TURU > Tur[tur]✧ QL/095

Variations

  • -tur ✧ LT1A/Sorontur
  • túr ✧ PE13/154; PE16/138
  • Tur ✧ QL/096
Early Quenya [LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi; LT1A/Sorontur; PE13/154; PE16/138; QL/096] Group: Eldamo. Published by

selka

adjective. bright

Derivations

  • ᴱ√SELE “*bright” ✧ QL/083

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√SELE > selka[selkā] > [selka]✧ QL/083
Early Quenya [PME/083; QL/083] Group: Eldamo. Published by

túranu

noun. king

Variations

  • tūranu ✧ QL/095
Early Quenya [QL/095] Group: Eldamo. Published by

enqe

preposition. without

Variations

  • Enqe ✧ QL/035
Early Quenya [QL/035] Group: Eldamo. Published by