Quenya 

ar-

outside

ar- (1) prefix "outside" (AR2), element meaning "beside" (VT42:17), "by" (PE17:169; in the same source the glosses "near, by, beside" were rejected). Cf. ara.

ar-

brightest

ar- (2), also ari-, prefix for superlative (compare arya #1, 2), hence arcalima "brightest", arimelda *"dearest" (PE17:56-57). In the grammar described in the source, this prefix was to express superlative as the highest degree (in actual comparison), whereas the alternative prefix an- rather expressed "very" or "exceedingly" with a more purely augmentative or adverbial force, but these distinctions do not seem to have been clearly present at all stages of Tolkiens work. See an- #2, am- #2.

Ara-

noble

Ara-, ar- a prefixed form of the stem Ara- "noble" (PM:344). In the masc. names Aracáno "high chieftain", mothername (amilessë, q.v.) of Fingolfin (PM:360, cf. 344), Arafinwë "Finarfin" (MR:230)

tar-

affix. high, high; [ᴹQ.] king or queen (in compounds)

Cognates

  • S. -dor “*king, lord”

Derivations

  • TĀ/TAƷ “high, high, [ᴹ√] lofty; noble”

Element in

Variations

  • tar- ✧ PE22/148; SA/tar
Quenya [PE22/148; SA/tar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar

day

ar (2) noun "day" (PE17:148), apparently short for árë, occurring in the names of the Valinorean week listed below. Tolkien indicated that ar in these names could also be arë when the following element begins in a consonant (VT45:27). Usually the word for "day" in LotR-style Quenya is rather aurë (or ), q.v.

am-

signifying addition, increase

am- (2) prefix used in comparison, "signifying addition, increase" (PE17:90), or with genitive superlative: elenion ancalima "brightest of stars" (PE17:91). Originally identical with #1 above. The form am- as such is in late Quenya only used before p and (presumably) before vowels; the longer form ama- came to be preferred before r and l; before other consonants, the prefix assumes the form an- (pronounced, but not in Romanized Quenya orthography written, - before c) (PE17:90-92). Phonologically we would expect am- before y- (since my is an acceptable Quenya combination); however, Tolkien used an- in the word anyára (q.v.) See an- #2 and compare ar- #2.

an-

very

an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára "very old" or "oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca ("k") "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d, the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically -) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept in the _Elaine inscription). (PE17:92)_

ara

outside, beside, besides

ara prep.(and adv.?) "outside, beside, besides" (AR2, VT49:57). According to VT45:6, the original glosses were "without, outside, beside", but Tolkien emended this. Arsë "he is out", VT49:23, 35, 36. As for ar(a), see ar #1. VT49:25 lists what seems to be ar(a) combined with various pronominal suffixes: Singular anni > arni "beside me", astyë "beside you" (informal), allë "besides you" (formal), arsë "beside him/her", plural anwë > armë "beside us" (exclusive), arwë "beside us" (inclusive), astë > ardë "beside you" (plural), astë > artë "beside them"; dual anwet > armet "beside us (two)". (Here Tolkien presupposes that ara represents original ada-.) The same source lists the unglossed forms ari, arin that may combine the preposition with the article, hence "beside the" (VT49:24-25)

au-

without

au- (3) privative prefix, = "without" (AWA)

tar

beyond

tar (2) prep. "beyond" (FS)

-tar

king

-tar or tar-, element meaning "king" or "queen" in compounds and names (TĀ/TA3), e.g. Valatar; compare the independent nouns tár, tári. Prefix Tar- especially in the names of the Kings and Queens of Númenor (e.g. Tar-Amandil); see their individual names (like Amandil in this case), cf. also Tar-Mairon "King Excellent", title used by Sauron (PE17:183). Also in Tareldar "High-elves"; see also Tarmenel.

aran

noun. king

Cognates

  • S. aran “king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)” ✧ PE17/147

Derivations

  • RĀ/ARA “noble, high, royal” ✧ PE17/118
  • ARAN “good, excellent, noble” ✧ PE17/147

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ARA > aran[aran]✧ PE17/118
ARAN > aran[aran]✧ PE17/147

Variations

  • Aran ✧ MR/121 (Aran); PE17/147; WJ/369; WJ/369; WJ/369
Quenya [LotR/0864; LotRI/Asëa aranion; MR/121; PE17/049; PE17/100; PE17/118; PE17/147; PE17/186; PE22/158; VT49/27; WJ/369] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aran

king

aran noun "king"; pl. arani (WJ:369, VT45:16, PE17:186); gen.pl. aranion "of kings" in asëa aranion, q.v.; aranya "my king" (aran + nya) (UT:193). Aran Meletyalda "king your mighty" = "your majesty" (WJ:369); aran Ondórëo, "a king of Gondor" (VT49:27). Also in arandil "king's friend, royalist", arandur "king's servant, minister" (Letters:386); Arantar masc. name, "King-Lord" (Appendix A); Arandor "Kingsland" region in Númenor (UT:165); the long form Arandórë appears as a name of Arnor in PE17:28 (elsewhere Arnanórë, q.v.) Othercompounds ingaran, Noldóran, Núaran, q.v.

ava-

without

ava- (3) prefix "without" (AR2, AWA). In some cases apparently used as a mere negation prefix: The form avalerya in VT41:6 is seemingly a negated form of the verb lerya- "release, set free"; the verb avalerya- is suggested to have the same meaning as the root KHAP = "bind, make fast, restrain, deprive of liberty". Likewise, the verb avalatya- from the same source seems to mean "to close, shut", this being a negated form of a verb *latya- "open" (q.v.)

tár

king

tár noun "king" (only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes); the pl. tári "kings" must not be confused with the sg. tári "queen" (TĀ/TA3). Prefix tar-, compare -tar above. The normal Quenya word for "king" is aran, but compare Tarumbar.

árë

day

árë noun "day" (PM:127) or "sunlight" (SA:arien). Stem ári- _(PE17:126, where the word is further defined as "warmth, especially of the sun, sunlight"). Also name of tengwa #31; cf. also ar # 2. Originally pronounced ázë; when /z/ merged with /r/, the letter became superfluous and was given the new value ss, hence it was re-named essë (Appendix E)_. Also árë nuquerna *"árë reversed", name of tengwa #32, similar to normal árë but turned upside down (Appendix E). See also ilyázëa, ilyárëa under ilya. In the Etymologies, this word has a short initial vowel: arë pl. ari (AR1)

arata

high, lofty, noble

arata adj. "high, lofty, noble" (PE17:49, 186). Also used as a a noun with nominal pl. form Aratar "the Supreme", the chief Valar, translation of the foreign word Máhani adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:402). Aratarya "her sublimity"; Varda Aratarya "Varda the lofty, Varda in her sublimity" (WJ:369). In one source, Aratar is translated as a singular: "High One" (PE17:186)

arato

noble

arato noun "a noble" (PE17:147), in PE17:118 given as aratō and there glossed "lord" (often = "king"). Cf. aráto. The form cited in the latter source, aratō with a long final vowel, is evidently very archaic (compare Enderō under Ender); later the vowel would become short. (PE17:118)

haran

king, chieftain

haran (#harn-, as in pl. harni) noun "king, chieftain" (3AR, TĀ/TA3, VT45:17; for "king", the word aran is to be preferred in LotR-style Quenya). In a deleted entry in the Etymologies, haran was glossed "chief" (VT45:17)

taran

king

taran (1) noun "king", possibly ephemeral variant of aran, q.v. (PE17:186)

arquen

noble

arquen noun "a noble" (WJ:372), "knight" (PE17:147)

vardar

king

vardar noun "king" (LT1:273; rather aran in LotR-style Quenya)

Ae

day

Ae (Quenya?) noun "day" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK - ae was written over ar [# 2] in the names of the Valinorean week, but ar was not struck out.)

ala

day

[ala (7) noun "day", also alan "daytime". The forms allen, alanen listed after these words could be inflected forms of them, genitive "of daytime", constracted (allen = al'nen) and uncontracted. However, Tolkien struck out all of this (VT45:13).]

ava

outside, beyond

ava (1) adv.? noun? prep.? "outside, beyond" (AWA, VT45:6)

han

beyond

han prep. "beyond" (compare the _postposition pella of similar meaning) (VT43:14)_

han

preposition. beyond

Derivations

  • HAN “add to, increase, enhance, enrich, honour (especially by gift); give” ✧ VT43/14

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
HAN > han[han]✧ VT43/14

ita

very, extremely

ita, íta adv. 2) "very, extremely" (PE17:112). Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkiens efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the "same" version of Quenya.

lai

very

[lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8)]

day

noun "day" (of the sun), a full 24-hour cycle (Appendix D) composed of aurë (day, daylight) and lómë "night" (VT49:45). Short - in compounds like Ringarë (q.v.). Allative rénna (VT49:45).

high

2) adj. "high" (LT1:264; there spelt . This is hardly a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya, but cf. tára "lofty".)

nec-

without, -less

nec- prefix "without, -less" (PE17:167), cf. -enca, q.v.

nec-

prefix. without

Derivations

  • NEK “divide, separate, part; deprive” ✧ PE17/167

Element in

  • ᴺQ. necermëa “insubstantial, immaterial”
  • ᴺQ. necestel “hopelessness, despair, desperation”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
NEK > nec-[nek-]✧ PE17/167

túr

king

túr, tur noun "king" (PE16:138, LT1:260); rather aran in LotR-style Quenya, but cf. the verb tur-. Also compare the final element -tur, -ntur "lord" in names like Axantur, Falastur, Fëanturi, Vëantur (q.v.)

-enca

without, -less

-enca suffix "without, -less" (PE17:167), cf. nec-, q.v.

halda

adjective. high, tall

Quenya [PE 22:103; PE 22:148] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

pella

beyond

pella "beyond", apparently a postposition rather than a preposition: Andúnë pella "beyond the West", elenillor pella "from beyond the stars" (Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya) In one version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer, Tolkien used pell' (evidently an elided form of pella) as a _preposition, but this version was abandoned (VT43:13)_

tána

high, lofty, noble

tána (meaning unclear, probably adj. "high, lofty, noble") (TĀ/TA3). Compare tára.

calima

bright

calima adj. "bright" (VT42:32); cf. ancalima; in PE17:56, arcalima appears as another superlative "brightest" (see ar- #2).

etsë

outside, exterior

etsë noun "outside, exterior", glosses changed from ?"issuing" and ?"spring" (VT45:13)

pen

without, not having

[pen prep. "without, not having" (PE17:171). Cf. Ú #1.]

ettë

outside

ettë noun(and/or adv.?) "outside" (ET)

ú

without, destitute of

ú (1) adv. and prep. "without, destitute of" (VT39:14). Usually followed by genitive: ú calo "without light" (cala). In one source, ú is seemingly also used as a negative verb "was not" (VT49:13), but Tolkien revised the text in question.

arata

high, lofty, noble

arata adj. "high, lofty, noble" (PE17:49, 186). Also used as a a noun with nominal pl. form Aratar "the Supreme", the chief Valar, translation of the foreign word Máhani adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:402). Aratarya "her sublimity"; Varda Aratarya "Varda the lofty, Varda in her sublimity" (WJ:369). In one source, Aratar is translated as a singular: "High One" (PE17:186)

eldatár

`Vm#1~C6 noun. elf-king, elfking, elven-king

Quenya [Compound of elda and tar] Group: Neologism. Published by

lai

adverb. very

Derivations

  • DAY “*great”