Primitive elvish

day

root. *great

The root √DAY appeared in Definitive Linguistic Notes (DLN) from 1959 beside √NDAY “dreadful, abominable, detestable”, possibly having that same meaning (PE17/151). In this note Tolkien said that in Quenya √DAY was not used, and that the strengthened form √NDAY was in Quenya blended with √NAY “cause bitter pain, grief”.

I suspect that the “dreadful” meaning applied only to the strengthened form √NDAY, since the unstrengthened form √DAY is the most likely basis for the adjective ✶daira > S. daer “great, large” (VT42/11), as seen in names such as S. Athrad Dhaer “Great Ford” (WJ/338) and S. Lond Daer “Great Haven” (UT/263). In the sense “great”, √DAY may have been a restoration of the rejected root ᴹ√DAƷ “great” from The Etymologies of the 1930s (EtyAC/DAƷ).

Whether √DAY meant “great” or “dreadful”, it seems to have replaced another root from The Etymologies of the 1930s: ᴹ√DAY “shadow” (Ety/DAY). The Noldorin word N. dae “shadow” was an element in the 1930s names Daedhelos “Shadow of Fear” and Dor-Daideloth “Land of the Shadow of Dread” (LR/405). But in the aforementioned 1959 note, Tolkien derived S. daedelos from √NDAY and translated it as “horrible fear” (PE17/151), consistent with the name Sindarin name for Mirkwood: Taur e-Ndaedelos “Forest of the Great Fear” (LotR/1134). Likewise in later versions of the Silmarillion, S. Dor Daedeloth was translated “Land of Great Dread” (WJ/183) with no mention of “shadow”. Thus it seems ᴹ√DAY “shadow” was abandoned.

Derivatives

  • daira “large, great” ✧ VT42/11
    • S. daer “great, large” ✧ VT42/11
  • ᴺQ. lai “very”
  • ᴺS. dae “very”

Element in

  • NDAY “dreadful, abominable, detestable” ✧ PE17/151
Primitive elvish [PE17/151; VT42/11] Group: Eldamo. Published by

il

root. all

A root meaning “all” in Tolkien’s writings from the 1930s through 1960s (VT48/25) with derivatives in both Quenya and Sindarin, the most notable being Q. Ilúvatar “All-father” (MR/39). Its earliest precursor is the root ᴱ√ILU “ether, the slender airs among the stars” from the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, whose derivatives include various sky-words as well as ᴱQ. Ilúvatar, since in this early period the name meant “Heavenly Father” (QL/42). The meaning of the root shifted to ᴹ√IL “all” in The Etymologies of the 1930s (Ety/IL), and it retained this sense thereafter.

Derivatives

  • ilū “all, everything, the whole”
    • Q. ilu “everything, all, the whole, everything, all, the whole; [ᴹQ.] universe, world; [ᴱQ.] ether” ✧ VT39/20
    • ᴺS. ilu “universe, the whole, cosmos”
  • Q. il- “every, *all”
  • Q. ilya “every, each, all (of a particular group of things), every, each, all (of a particular group of things), [ᴹQ.] the whole”
  • S. il “*all”

Element in

  • ᴺS. illad “everything”
Primitive elvish [VT48/25] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anār

noun. Sun

Derivations

  • NAR “fire, fire, [ᴹ√] flame”

Derivatives

  • Q. Anar “Sun” ✧ SA/nár
  • S. Anor “Sun” ✧ SA/nár

Variations

  • (a)nar ✧ SA/nár
Primitive elvish [SA/nár] Group: Eldamo. Published by

wath

noun. shadow

Derivations

  • WATH “*shade, [ᴹ√] shade”

Derivatives

  • S. gwath “shadow, dim light, shadow, dim light, [N.] shade” ✧ PE17/041
Primitive elvish [PE17/041] Group: Eldamo. Published by

áse

noun. sunlight

Derivations

  • AS “warmth” ✧ PE17/018

Derivatives

  • Q. árë “sunlight, warmth (especially of the sun); day” ✧ PE17/018
Primitive elvish [PE17/018] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kalat

noun. light

Derivatives

Variations

  • kalā́t- ✧ PE18/087
Primitive elvish [PE18/087; PE21/71] Group: Eldamo. Published by