Quenya 

már

noun. habitation

habitation

Quenya [PE 19:76] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

már

home, house, dwelling

már (mar-) (2) noun "home, house, dwelling" (also "house" in the sense of family as in Mardil, q.v.). See mar above for references. In Mar-nu-Falmar, Mardil, and as final element in Eldamar, Fanyamar, Valimar, Vinyamar..

mar

earth

mar (1) noun "earth" (world), also "home, dwelling, mansion". Stem mard- (VT46:13, PE17:64), also seen in the ablative Mardello "from earth" (FS); the word is used with a more limited sense in oromardi "high halls" (sg. oromar, PM17:64), referring to the dwellings of Manwë and Varda on Mt. Taniquetil (Nam, RGEO:66). The initial element of Mardorunando (q.v.) may be the genitive mardo (distinguish mardo "dweller"). May be more or less identical to már "home, house, dwelling" (of persons or peoples; in names like Val(i)mar, Vinyamar, Mar-nu-Falmar, Mardil) (SA:bar, VT45:33, VT47:6). Már is however unlikely to have the stem-form mard-; a "Qenya" genitive maren appears in the phrase hon-maren, q.v., suggesting that its stem is mar-. A possible convention could therefore be to use már (mar-) for "home, house" (also when = household, family as in Mardil, q.v.), whereas mar (mard-) is used for for "earth, world". Early "Qenya" has mar (mas-) "dwelling of men, the Earth, -land" (LT1:251); notice that in LotR-style Quenya, a word in -r cannot have a stem-form in -s-.

hand

noun "hand" (MA3, LT2:339, Narqelion, VT39:10, [VT45:30], VT47:6, 18, 19); the dual "a pair of hands" is attested both by itself as mát (VT47:6) and with a pronominal suffix as máryat "his/her (pair of) hands" (see -rya, -t) (Nam, RGEO:67). The nominative plural form was only máli, not **már (VT47:6), though plurals in -r may occur in some of the cases, as indicated by the pl. allative mannar "into hands" (FS). Mánta "their hand", dual mántat "their hands" (two hands each) (PE17:161). Cf. also the compounds mátengwië "language of the hands" (VT47:9) and Lungumá "Heavyhand" (VT47:19); also compare the adj. -maitë "-handed". See also málimë.

noun. hand

hand

Quenya [PE 18:35] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

noun. hand

The most common Quenya word for “hand”, which Tolkien usually derived from a root √MAH or √MAƷ “hand; handle, wield”. The weak consonant h or ʒ in the root was lost very early, so that primitive ✶ was one of a rare set of ancient monosyllabic nouns ending in a vowel. Tolkien said that of the various hand words, was “the oldest (probably) and the one that retained a general and unspecialized sense — referring to the entire hand (including wrist) in any attitude or function” (VT47/6).

As a part of the body, “hand” was usually referred to in the singular () or dual (mát). This was true when referring to the hands of groups of people as well. For example, to say that “the Elves raised their hands”, you would say either i Eldar ortaner mánta (singular, one hand each) or i Eldar ortaner mántat (dual, both hands each), with the possessive suffix -nta “their”.

The plural form már “hands” (or archaic †mai) was almost never used, in part because it conflicted with Q. már “dwelling”. The singular form was also used in general statements and proverbs: “hand is cleverer than foot” má anfinya epe tál (ná). A collection of otherwise unrelated hands would likely use the partitive-plural form: máli “some hands”, which in this case could also serve as the general plural (VT47/12 Note 2). See the discussions on PE17/161 and VT47/6 for more information.

This word is also unusual in that it retains its long vowel before consonant clusters in inflected forms such as mánta “their hand” (PE17/161) or márya “his/her hand” (PE17/69). As Tolkien described it:

> is usually shortened to la before 2 consonants, according to the usual Q. procedure, but the long vowel can be retained, especially for additional emphasis, as in other cases where pronominal affixes follow a long vowel, as in márya “his hand” (PE22/160).

Conceptual Development: This word dates all the way back to ᴱQ. “hand” from Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, derived from the early root ᴱ√MAHA “grasp” (QL/57). ᴹQ. “hand” also appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the root ᴹ√MAƷ “hand” (Ety/MAƷ). Tolkien mentioned this word with great frequency, usually derived from √MAH or √MAƷ (as noted above) though he sometimes considered deriving it from √MAG instead.

Cognates

  • S. maw “hand” ✧ PE17/162; VT47/06
  • T. “hand” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/06

Derivations

  • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ PE17/069; PE17/162; PE19/100; VT39/11; VT47/19
  • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ PE17/161; VT47/18
  • “hand” ✧ PE19/102; VT47/06
    • maha “hand, the manager” ✧ PE19/074; PE19/102; VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/35
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/18
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ PE21/70
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
  • maha “hand, the manager” ✧ PE19/106; VT47/18
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/18
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
MAƷ > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ PE17/069
MAG > [maga] > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ PE17/161
MAƷ > [mā]✧ PE17/162
MAƷ > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ PE19/100
māh > [māh] > [mā]✧ PE19/102
māʒ > [māɣ] > [mā]✧ PE19/106
maha > [maha] > [mā]✧ VT39/11
> [mā]✧ VT47/06
māʒ(ă) > [māɣa] > [mā]✧ VT47/18
mag > [māga] > [māɣa] > [mā]✧ VT47/18
MAƷA > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ VT47/19

Variations

  • ✧ PE17/069; PE17/161; VT39/09; VT39/11; VT47/18; VT47/18
  • ✧ PE19/102
  • ✧ PE19/106
Quenya [LotR/0377; PE17/069; PE17/070; PE17/130; PE17/135; PE17/161; PE17/162; PE19/100; PE19/102; PE19/106; PE22/160; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; VT39/09; VT39/11; VT47/03; VT47/06; VT47/12; VT47/18; VT47/19; VT49/10] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. hand

Quenya [PE 22:160] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

imbar

noun. Habitation

Mardil

(one) devoted to the house

Mardil masc. name, "(one) devoted to the house", sc. the "house" of the kings (Appendix A; interpreted in Letters:386). This indicates that the first element can mean "house" in the sense of family or household (see mar, már). This Mardil is described as a good steward, possibly suggesting that mardil ("one devoted to the house/family") could itself function as a common noun "(faithful) steward".

mélamar

home

mélamar noun "home", Exilic Quenya word of emotional sense: place of ones birth or the familiar places from which one has been separated (PE17:109). Mélamarimma noun "Our Home", an expression used by Exilic Noldor for Aman.

Mar-nu-Falmar

home under waves

Mar-nu-Falmar noun "Home under Waves", name of the sunken Númenor (Silm). See mar, már.

kemen

earth

kemen noun "earth"; see cemen.

cambë

noun. hand, (hollow of) hand

Derivations

  • KAB “hold, contain, retain, possess, have in hand, hold, contain, retain, possess, have in hand; [ᴹ√] hollow”

cemi

earth, soil, land

cemi noun "earth, soil, land"; Cémi ("k")"Mother Earth" (LT1:257; the "Qenya" word cemi would correspond to cemen in LotR-style Quenya)

nonda

hand, especially in [?clutching]

nonda noun "hand, especially in [?clutching]" (VT47:23; Tolkien's gloss was not certainly legible)

os

house, cottage

os (ost-) noun "house, cottage" (LT2:336; hardly valid in LotR-style Quenya writers may use coa or már)

indo

house

indo (2) noun "house" (LT2:343), probably obsoleted by #1 above (in Tolkiens later Quenya, the word for "house" appears as coa).