Quenya zR5Ì#

-va

suffix. adjectival, adjectival ending, of, possession, possessive or adjectival ending, with

-wa after consonants

[PE17/059.1302; PE17/064.2902; PE17/064.3001; PE17/076.2412; PE17/147.1615; VT49/32.2603; WJ/368.3202; WJ/407.1807; WJ/407.1909; WJ/407.2004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mi

preposition. in, in the, in, within, of

[LotR/0377.3101; PE17/063.3702; PE17/063.3704; PE17/071.0307; PE17/092.3716; RGEO/58.0801; RGEO/58.4605; UT/305.1508; UT/317.1709; VT43/13.3005; VT43/30.3103; VT43/30.3104; VT43/30.4107; VT43/36.1506; VT43/36.1507; VT43/36.2009; VT43/36.2013; VT44/18.2102; VT44/34.1101; VT47/30.3003; VT49/35.3914] Group: Eldamo. Published by

o

preposition. from

[PE17/148.2907; PE22/168.1801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-o

suffix. genitive ending

[WJ/368.2407; WJ/369.0103; WJ/369.1409; WJ/369.1907; WJ/407.1601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ho

from

ho prep. "from" (3O); cf. -

ho

preposition. from

ó

with, accompanying

[PE 22:162] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

from

, lo (2) prep. "from", also used = "by" introducing the agent after a passive construction: nahtana ló Turin *"slain by Túrin" (VT49:24). A similar and possibly identical form is mentioned in the Etymologies as being somehow related to the ablative ending -llo, but is not there clearly defined (VT45:28). At one point, Tolkien suggested that lo rather than the ending -llo was used with proper names (lo Manwë rather than Manwello for "from Manwë"), but this seems to have been a short-lived idea (VT49:24).

-va

from

-va possessive ending, presumably related to the preposition va "from". In Eldaliéva, Ingoldova, miruvóreva, Oroméva, rómeva, Valinóreva (q.v. for references), Follondiéva, Hyallondiéva (see under turmen for references). Following a consonant, the ending instead appears as -wa (andamacilwa "of the long sword", PE17:147, rómenwa *"of the East", PE17:59). Pl. - when governing a plural word (from archaic -vai) (WJ:407), but it seems that -va was used throughout in late Exilic Quenya (cf. miruvóreva governing the plural word yuldar in Namárië). Pl. -iva (-ivë*), dual -twa, partitive pl. -líva**.

va

from

va prep. "from" (VT43:20; prefixed in the form var- in var-úra "from evil", VT43:24). In VT49:24, va, au and o are quoted as variants of the stem awa "away from".

as

with

as prep. "with" (together with), also attested with a pronominal suffix: aselyë "with thee" (VT47:31, VT43:29). The conjunction ar "and" may also appear in assimilated form as before s; see ar #1.

as

with

o (2) prep. "with" (MC:216; this is "Qenya"; WJ:367 states that no independent preposition o was used in Quenya. Writers may rather use as.) See ó- below.

as

preposition. with

[VT43/29.1101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

car-

with

#car- (2) prep. "with" (carelyë "with thee"), prepositional element (evidently an ephemeral form abandoned by Tolkien) (VT43:29)

imi

in

imi prep. "in"; see mi (VT43:30)

imi

preposition. in

with

(2) prep. "with" (PE17:95)

preposition. with

[PE17/095.0106] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mi

in, within

mi prep. "in, within" (MI, VT27:20, VT44:18, 34, VT43:30; the latter source also mentions the variant imi); "in the" (Nam, RGEO:66; CO gives mi; the correct forms should evidently be mi = "in" and = mi i "in the"; VT49:35 also has with a long vowel, though the gloss is simply "in"). Used in PE17:71 (cf. 70) of people clad "in" various colours, e.g. mi mísë "in grey". Allative minna "to the inside, into" (MI), also mina (VT43:30). The forms mimmë and mingwë seem to incorporate pronominal suffixes for "us", hence ?"in us", inclusive and exclusive respectively. The pronoun -mmë denoted plural inclusive "we" when this was written, though Tolkien would later make it dual instead (see -mmë). Second person forms are also given: mil or milyë *"in you" (sg.), millë "in you" (pl.) (VT43:36). A special use of mi appears in the phrase Wendë mi Wenderon "Virgin of Virgins" (VT44:18); here mi appears superfluous to achieve the desired meaning, but this combination of singular noun + mi + plural genitive noun may be seen as a fixed idiom expressing that the initial noun represents the most prominent member of a class.

ó

preposition. with

[PE22/162.1212; PE22/162.2607; VT43/29.1301; VT43/29.1509; VT43/29.2402; VT43/29.2403; VT43/29.2404; VT43/29.2502; VT43/29.2503; VT43/29.2504; VT43/29.2602; VT43/29.2603; VT43/29.2702; VT43/29.2703; VT43/29.2704; VT43/29.2705; VT43/29.2802; VT43/29.2803; VT43/36.1006; VT43/36.1106; VT43/36.1209] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Sindarin iT2#7T5

en

preposition. of, of the

[Let/448.3510; LotR/0953.2205; LotR/1134.2504; MR/373.2401; MR/373.2705; PE17/097.1203; PE17/097.1909; PE17/097.1914; PE17/097.2002; PE17/097.2105; PE17/097.2111; PE17/097.2210; PE17/097.2403; PE17/097.3015; PE17/097.3104; PE17/102.2703; PE17/126.2305; PE17/141.2413; S/197.2001; S/203.1004; S/216.2406; UT/040.3810; UT/040.3901; UT/054.2002; UT/100.1314; UT/150.2109; UT/153.0604; UT/245.1805; VT41/11.2504; VT41/16.0410; VT41/16.0506; VT50/23.0102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na

preposition. of, along with, with, accompanied by, provided with, associated with, of (the), of the, provided by, marked with, with, with, with, by

[LotR/0469.1903; LotR/0469.2402; PE17/028.1706; PE17/028.3508; PE17/082.0208; PE17/097.1805; PE17/097.2205; PE17/147.1202; PE17/147.1205; PE17/147.1402; PE17/147.1506; PE17/147.1704; PE17/147.1813; PE21/79.2512; PM/348.3402; UT/140.2010; VT50/21.0708; VT50/23.0101; WJ/160.4405; WJ/187.3402; WJI/Taur-na-Chardhîn.002] Group: Eldamo. Published by

o

preposition. (?origin), from, from, of, of

@@@ for o + in = uin, compare no + i = nui (Ety/NU)

[LotR/0238.0501; LotR/0238.0701; LotR/0305.0602; LotR/0729.3901; PE17/024.1902; PE17/042.2502; PE17/148.2911; RGEO/62.3604; RGEO/63.0501; RGEO/63.0701; RGEO/64.0402; RGEO/64.0605; RGEO/64.1304; SD/129.0807; SD/129.0809; SD/129.0903; WJ/366.3409; WJ/367.0501; WJ/370.0306] Group: Eldamo. Published by

o

preposition. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker)

According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

[Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-3] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

o

preposition. from

_ prep. _from, of. In older S. o had the form od before vowels. o menel aglar elenath ! lit. 'from Firmament glory of the stars !'.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20-1:42:54] < _au(t) _< stem_ awa_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

o

preposition. from

_ prep. _from. . This gloss was rejected.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:148] < AWA, WĀ go, move (from speaker), go away, depart. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

en

of the

poss. art. of the.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:102] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

od

preposition. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker)

According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

[Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-3] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

uin

preposition. of the

[SD/129-31] o+i. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

na

preposition. to, towards, at

[Ety/374, LotR/I:XII] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

-i

suffix. adjectival, adjectival suffix

[VT42/10.3107] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ned

preposition. (uncertain meaning) in, of (about time, e.g. giving a date)

[Another possible interpretation: "another, one more" (related to Q. net(e)), VT/47:40]

[SD/129-31] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

na

preposition. with, by (also used as a genitive sign)

[Ety/374, LotR/I:XII] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

min-

preposition. (in) between (referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things)

[Minhiriath LotR/Map, VT/47:11,14] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

mîn

preposition. (in) between (referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things)

[Minhiriath LotR/Map, VT/47:11,14] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

an-

prefix. with, by

be

preposition. in, as, like

A preposition appearing in the King’s Letter, glossed “in”. Carl Hostetter’s suggested it is connected to the root √MI/IMI “in” via the strengthened form MBI that appears in Q. imbë¹ “between” (VT31/19-20). David Salo instead proposed that it may be a cognate of Q. ve¹ “as, like” derived from primitive ✶, suffixed with a form of the definite article -n and having the sense “as in the [Shire-reckoning]” (SG/226). This second option seems more likely to me; the primitive form ✶ was not published when Carl Hostetter made his analysis.

[SD/129.0205] Group: Eldamo. Published by

di

preposition. with

_ prep. _with. Q. .

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:95] < _dē_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

di

preposition. with

[PE17/095.0102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mi

preposition. in

na

with

(in instrumental sense?) na (followed by lenition), with article nan (followed by ”mixed mutation”, according to David Salos reconstruction). The preposition has various meanings: ”with, by, near” and also ”to, toward, at; of”

ne-

prefix. in

vi

in

(prep.) 1) vi (VT44:23), with article vin; 2) ne, ned (used of time in the source), possibly followed by hard mutation (SD:129); 3) , unstressed di (beneath, under) (VT45:37). Note: a homophone means ”bride, lady”.

vi

preposition. in

[VT/44:21,27] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

vi

preposition. in

[PE22/165.2319; VT44/22.3901; VT44/27.1601; VT50/18.0307; VT50/18.3008; VT50/18.3009; VT50/19.1506] Group: Eldamo. Published by

en

of the

en-, e- (sg. genitival article): interjection

en

of the

en-, e-, genitival article, mostly only used in the singular (in the plural, in or i + nasal mutation is used), though infrequently en is used in the pl. as well. Followed by ”mixed mutation” according to David Salos reconstructions.

Telerin 1RjR7T5

-o

suffix. of

[WJ/369.1904] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ho

preposition. from

[PE21/78.3303] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech

ishi

preposition. in, inside

Usually placed after the noun in Black Speech, c.f. burzum-ishi (darkness-inside).

[PE17/11] Published by

sha

preposition. with

[LotR/0445.1709; PE17/079.0302; PM/083.0911] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Adûnaic

an-

prefix. genitive prefix, genitive/adjectival prefix, of

A prefix translated as “of” (SD/247) and one of the ways that genitive relationships are expressed in Adûnaic (SD/429). According to Tolkien, “it is not a preposition ... it is the equivalent of an inflexion or suffix” (SD/435). As such, it is used to form adjectives from nouns, as anadûni “western, *of the West” from adûni “the West”. When following another noun, it is often elided so that the a is lost, as in Ârû ’nAdûnâi “King of the Númenóreans” (SD/429) and Bâr ’nAnadûnê “Lord of Númenor” (SD/428). This elision occurs in most examples, but seems not to happen in some cases:

  • When the an- is separated from the modified noun: balîk hazad an-Nimruzîr “ships seven of-Nimruzîr” (SD/247).
  • When the modified nouns is declined into the subjective case: Bârim an-Adûn “Lords of the West” (SD/247).
  • However, when the subjective noun ends in a vowel, elision still occurs: narîka ’nBâri ’nAdûn “Eagles of the Lords of the West” (SD/251).

Tolkien used a dash to separate an- from the noun to which it is prefixed but omitted the dash when the prefix was elided. Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (AAD/10) that Ad. an- may be related to the Sindarin genitive marker S. na² “with, by”

[SD/247.0803; SD/247.1403; SD/251.0302; SD/428.3905; SD/429.3202; SD/435.2004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

preposition. from

A prepositional suffix translated “from” (SD/429). In a few places, the suffix appears with the glide-consonant v (pronounced [w]) between it and a preceding u-vowel (SD/247, 249). It is likely related to the Quenya genitive inflection Q. -o.

Conceptual Development: At an earlier conceptual stage, this suffix was a grammatical inflection, the draft-genitive (SD/438).

[SD/247.10031; SD/249.03041; SD/365.27011; SD/382.44071; SD/429.0608] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-an

suffix. common subjective suffix

The subjective suffix for singular common-nouns, reduced to -n when the noun ends in a vowel (SD/430, 436).

Element in: AD. anadûni

[SD/436.1512; SD/430.0602] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Khuzdûl

-u

suffix. of, of, in

[PE17/036.2504; PE17/047.2702-1; TI/174.2705] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ul

suffix. genitive ending, of

[PE17/047.2402; PE17/047.3103; PE17/047.3206; RC/269.1111] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

na

preposition. with, by, of

[Ety/ERÉK.029; Ety/NĀ¹.013; Ety/NAUK.037; Ety/PHAU.016; Ety/PHUY.017; Ety/SPAR.014; Ety/THŌN.048; EtyAC/NĀ¹.035; LR/284.4010; SM/077.3402; WR/380.0810] Group: Eldamo. Published by

o

preposition. from, from, of, of

[Ety/ƷŌ̆.028; TI/182.1806] Group: Eldamo. Published by

o

preposition. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker)

According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

[Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-3] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

na

preposition. to, towards, at

[Ety/374, LotR/I:XII] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

na

preposition. with, by (also used as a genitive sign)

[Ety/374, LotR/I:XII] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

an-

prefix. with, by

[Ety/374] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

an-

prefix. with, by

[Ety/NĀ¹.017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

di

preposition. in

[EtyAC/NDI.012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ne-

prefix. in

[Ety/STAK.027-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nedh-

prefix. in, inside, mid-

See also the preposition ned , and the noun ened for a discussion of this form

[Ety/376] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

an

preposition. of

[WR/287.0703; WR/388.0411] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

preposition. from

[VT47/35.2104] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adverb. from, coming from, as described by a genitive, from [?being] {near, behind, past[?] >>} as described[?] by a [?genitive]

Element in: P. hōmen

[WJ/370.0104; PE22/168.1502; PE22/168.1802; WJ/368.2405; WJ/369.4008; WJ/361.2510] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ʒō

preposition. from

[PE21/78.3212] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ăwă

preposition. from

[PE17/148.2909] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ya

suffix. adjectival, adjectival suffix

[PE21/78.1704; PE21/81.0508; PE21/81.0603; PE22/136.2405; VT42/10.2801; VT42/25.0603; VT42/25.1611; VT42/25.1701; VT49/17.0601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

(n)di

root. in

suffix. adjectival

[WJ/382.0609] Group: Eldamo. Published by

suffix. adjectival

[PE21/82.1409; WJ/382.0609] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dē/lē

preposition. with

[PE17/095.0103; PE17/095.0105] Group: Eldamo. Published by

preposition. in, in, within

[PE17/092.3715; VT47/30.3002] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya zR5Ì#

-o

suffix. genitive ending

[GG/10.1905; GG/10.2006; GG/10.2105] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ho

preposition. from

[Ety/ƷŌ̆.023; PE21/60.0808; PE21/60.2508] Group: Eldamo. Published by

to

preposition. in

[PE22/125.1901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ô

preposition. from

[GL/17.2306] Group: Eldamo. Published by

va

preposition. from, with

[PE14/054.2301; PE15/75.1205] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-va

suffix. adjectival

[PE14/047.1308; PE14/054.0903-2; PE14/054.0904-2; PE14/054.0905-2; PE14/079.2911; PE14/079.2913; PE15/68.8401-2; QL/030.0901-2; QL/030.3101-2; QL/031.7501-2; QL/033.0201-2; QL/037.5102-2; QL/038.6001-2; QL/038.6301-2; QL/039.5601-2; QL/039.7701-2; QL/040.1301-2; QL/041.4201-2; QL/042.0701-2; QL/044.2601-2; QL/044.8901-2; QL/046.5101-2; QL/047.4801-2; QL/048.6301-2; QL/049.0901-2; QL/051.2801-2; QL/052.2201-2; QL/053.0701-2; QL/060.6901-2; QL/061.7501-2; QL/062.7501-2; QL/065.1601-2; QL/067.1401-2; QL/067.1501-2; QL/068.0301-2; QL/071.6101-2; QL/071.7701-2; QL/073.4701-2; QL/076.8101-2; QL/078.3601-2; QL/082.2201-2; QL/083.9001-2; QL/086.4501-2; QL/086.6001-2; QL/091.7701-2; QL/091.8101-2; QL/096.0401-2; QL/096.4301-2; QL/098.6001-2; QL/102.2101-2; QL/102.2901-2; QL/105.7501-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ve

preposition. with

[PE22/119.1304] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

go

preposition. from, from, away, from, away; patronymics, patronymic

A preposition “from, away” marked as both Ilkorin (Ety/ƷŌ̆; PE21/60) and Doriathrin (EtyAC/ƷŌ̆). It developed from primitive ᴹ✶ʒō̆ (Ety/WŌ), with the initial [ɣ] becoming [g]. It was also used as patronymic, as in go-Thingol “*child of Thingol” (Ety/ƷŌ̆).

Conceptual Development: This preposition may be a restoration of the Gnomish patronymic G. go-.

[Ety/ƷŌ̆.026; Ety/WŌ.146; EtyAC/ƷŌ̆.008; PE21/60.0708] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-th

suffix. plural suffix

A suffix appearing in one Ilkorin plural: Eglath “Elves” ← Egla (Ety/ELED). This example is notable as the only attested plural of an Ilkorin noun ending in a vowel. It may have the same origin as the Noldorin class-plural suffix -ath.

Conceptual Development: This suffix is the same as the common Gnomish plural suffix -th, also used with nouns ending in vowels (GG/10, 13-14).

[Ety/ELED.087-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

(n)di

root. in

[EtyAC/NDI.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

imi

root. in

mī/imi

root. in

[Ety/MI.001; EtyAC/IMÍ.001; EtyAC/IMÍ.027; EtyAC/IMÍ.030; EtyAC/MI.020; EtyAC/MI.022; EtyAC/MI.025; EtyAC/MI.026; EtyAC/NDI.003; EtyAC/NDI.004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

a

preposition. of, of the, to, at, with

[GG/07.0911; GL/17.1101; GL/49.5808; LT1A/Cûm a Gumlaith.002; LT1A/Uolë Kúvion.074; LT1I/Gilfanon.003; LT2A/Cûm an-Idrisaith.002; LT2A/Falasquil.029; LT2A/Teld Quing Ilon.009; LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin.002; PE13/093.1504; PE13/108.0101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na(n)

preposition. of (the)

[GG/07.0701; GG/09.0907; GG/09.2105; GG/09.2106; GG/09.2801; GG/11.0204; GG/11.0605; GG/15.1307; GG/15.2806; GG/15.2906; GL/17.0103; GL/42.7902; GL/44.0903; GL/46.6602; GL/59.0201; GL/59.0202; LT1A/Turuhalmë.074; LT2A/Dor-na-Dhaideloth.002; LT2A/Duilin.153; LT2A/Duilin.162; LT2A/Fôs’Almir.036; LT2A/Nauglafring.009; PE13/095.0805] Group: Eldamo. Published by

da

preposition. with, into

[GL/17.0301; GL/29.2301; GL/29.2305] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mu

preposition. from

[GL/58.8401] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ba

preposition. in

[GL/21.0301; GL/21.0305; GL/21.0308; GL/21.0310] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bi

preposition. in

[GL/20.8604; GL/22.8601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bir

preposition. in, within, inside

Elements

WordGlossSource
biin, within, insideGL/22.8601

[GL/22.8701] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

hin

preposition. from

[MC/217.1903] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech, Nandorin, Noldorin, Quendya, Quenya, Sindarin, Telerin are languages conceived by Tolkien and they do not belong to us; we neither can nor do claim affiliation with Middle-earth Enterprises nor Tolkien Estate.