Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Middle Primitive Elvish


root. *open, [ᴱ√] open, wide, spreading

An unglossed root in The Etymologies of the 1930s with derivatives like ᴹQ. panta- “to unfurl, spread out, open” and N. panna- “to open, enlarge”, along with ᴹQ. panta “open” and N. pann “wide” (Ety/PAT). It seems to be a later iteration of ᴱ√PATA² or ᴱ√PṆTṆ from the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s glossed “open, spread out, show” with very similar derivatives like ᴱQ. panta “open, wide, spreading” and ᴱQ. panta- “open, unfold, spread” (QL/72). In Tolkien’s later writings, ✱√PAT seems to mean “step” or “walk”; see that entry for details.

Neo-Eldarin: Despite the later shift in meaning for √PAT, I think this earlier sense “open (wide)” can be salvaged by assuming that form of the root is actually ✱√PANAT or ✱√PANTA, which is consistent with most of its derivatives. For the non-verbal senses of “open”, I think √LAT is generally better.


  • ᴹ✶pantā “open” ✧ Ety/PAT
    • ᴹQ. panta “open, open, [ᴱQ.] wide, spreading” ✧ Ety/PAT
  • ᴹ✶patnā “wide” ✧ Ety/PAT
    • N. pann “wide” ✧ Ety/PAT
  • ᴺQ. patil “key”
  • ᴹQ. panta- “to unfurl, spread out, open” ✧ Ety/PAT
  • ᴺS. padol “key”
  • N. panna- “to open, enlarge” ✧ Ety/PAT
  • ᴺS. patha- “to reveal, show”
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/PAT; EtyAC/PATH] Group: Eldamo. Published by