aran noun "king"; pl. arani (WJ:369, VT45:16, PE17:186); gen.pl. aranion "of kings" in asëa aranion, q.v.; aranya "my king" (aran + nya) (UT:193). Aran Meletyalda "king your mighty" = "your majesty" (WJ:369); aran Ondórëo, "a king of Gondor" (VT49:27). Also in arandil "king's friend, royalist", arandur "king's servant, minister" (Letters:386); Arantar masc. name, "King-Lord" (Appendix A); Arandor "Kingsland" region in Númenor (UT:165); the long form Arandórë appears as a name of Arnor in PE17:28 (elsewhere Arnanórë, q.v.) Othercompounds ingaran, Noldóran, Núaran, q.v.
- S. aran “king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person, king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person; [N.] lord (of a specific region)” ✧ PE17/147
- Q. arandil “king’s friend, royalist”
- Q. arandur “minister, steward, (lit.) king’s servant”
- Q. aranel “princess”
- Q. aranië “kingdom”
- Q. aran Lestanórëo “King of Doriath” ✧ WJ/369
- Q. aran linta ciryalion “*king of swift ships” ✧ PE17/147
- Q. aran linta ciryalíva “*king of swift ships” ✧ PE17/147
- Q. Aran Meletyalda “king your mighty” ✧ WJ/369
- Q. Aranórë “Kingsland”
- Q. Arantar “*High King”
- ᴺQ. arantyalmë “chess, (lit.) king-game”
- Q. aranus(së) “kingship”
- Q. Aranwë “*King-person”
- Q. aranya “*royal”
- Q. asëa aranion “kingsfoil, asëa of the Kings” ✧ LotR/0864; PE17/049; PE17/100
- Q. Ciriáran “Mariner King, *(lit.) Ship King”
- Q. Elwë, aran Sindaron “Elwe, King of the Sindar” ✧ WJ/369
- Q. i arani Eldaive “The kings of the Eldar” ✧ WJ/369
- Q. i arani Eldaron “The kings of the Eldar” ✧ WJ/369
- Q. ingaran “high-king”
- Q. Noldóran “King of the Ñoldor”
- Q. savin Elessar ar i nánë aran Ondórëo “I believe that E[lessar] really existed and that he was a King of Gondor” ✧ PE22/158; VT49/27
- ᴺQ. tararan “emperor, (lit.) high-king”
Aran Endór“King of Middle-earth” ✧ MR/121 ( Aran Endór)
Development Stages Sources √ARA > aran [aran] ✧ PE17/118 √ARAN > aran [aran] ✧ PE17/147
- Aran ✧ MR/121 (
Aran); PE17/147; WJ/369; WJ/369; WJ/369
haran (#harn-, as in pl. harni) noun "king, chieftain" (3AR, TĀ/TA3, VT45:17; for "king", the word aran is to be preferred in LotR-style Quenya). In a deleted entry in the Etymologies, haran was glossed "chief" (VT45:17)
taran (1) noun "king", possibly ephemeral variant of aran, q.v. (PE17:186)
Word Gloss inga “top, highest point, top, highest point, [ᴹQ.] first” aran “king”
ingaran noun "high-king" (PM:340), compounded from inga and aran
vardar noun "king" (LT1:273; rather aran in LotR-style Quenya)
-tar or tar-, element meaning "king" or "queen" in compounds and names (TĀ/TA3), e.g. Valatar; compare the independent nouns tár, tári. Prefix Tar- especially in the names of the Kings and Queens of Númenor (e.g. Tar-Amandil); see their individual names (like Amandil in this case), cf. also Tar-Mairon "King Excellent", title used by Sauron (PE17:183). Also in Tareldar "High-elves"; see also Tarmenel.
ala- (3), also al-, a prefix expressing "good" or "well" (PE17:146), as in alaquenta (q.v.) Whether Tolkien imagined this ending to coexist with the negative prefix of the same form (#2 above) is unclear and perhaps dubious.
beneficial, helpful, kindly
asëa (þ) 1) adj. "beneficial, helpful, kindly" _(so according to a late note where the word is derived from *ATHAYA)_; hence also: 2) asëa (þ) noun,name of the healing plant called in Sindarin athelas(PE17:148), in English (representing Westron) called "kingsfoil", cf. longer Quenya name asëa aranion (þ) "asëa of kings" (LotR3:V ch. 8). Cf. aran.
tár noun "king" (only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes); the pl. tári "kings" must not be confused with the sg. tári "queen" (TĀ/TA3). Prefix tar-, compare -tar above. The normal Quenya word for "king" is aran, but compare Tarumbar.
king of the noldor
Noldóran ("ñ")noun "King of the Noldor" (PM:343; evidently noldo + aran).
Amarië fem. name; perhaps derived from mára "good" with prefixing of the stem-vowel and the feminine ending -ië (Silm)
ména noun "region" (MEN). Not to be confused with the present/continuative tense of #men- "go".
region, any (fairly extensive) region between obstacles such as rivers or mountains
yón (2), variant of yondë, q.v. Defined as "a region, any (fairly extensive) region _between obstacles such as rivers or mountains" (PE17:43)_
noun. child, child, *offspring; [ᴹQ.] creature
A word for “child” appearing in various late notes and phrases (NM/31; PM/391; VT49/42), derived from the root √NŌ/ONO “beget, be born” and once appearing in a variant form onwe (PE17/170). Giving its derivation, its actual meaning may be closer to “✱offspring”, as first suggested to me by Tamas Ferencz.
- √NŌ/ONO “beget, give birth to; be born, beget, give birth to; be born; [ᴱ√] become” ✧ PE17/170; PE17/170
- Q. Aulëonnar “Children of Aulë” ✧ PM/391
- ᴺQ. heconna “child born out of wedlock, bastard”
- Q. nai amanya onnalya ter coivierya “*may your (sg.) child be blessed throughout his/her life” ✧ VT49/42
- Q. nai calambar onnalda ter coivierya “*may your (pl.) child be light-fated throughout his/her life” ✧ VT49/42
- Q. Onnalúmë “Time of the Children”
- Q. Onnarië “Time of Children”
- Q. onya “my child”
Development Stages Sources √ON/NO > onwe [onwe] ✧ PE17/170 √ONO/NŌ > onna [onna] ✧ PE17/170
- onwe ✧ PE17/170; PE17/170; PE17/170
onwë noun "child" (PE17:170)
túr, tur noun "king" (PE16:138, LT1:260); rather aran in LotR-style Quenya, but cf. the verb tur-. Also compare the final element -tur, -ntur "lord" in names like Axantur, Falastur, Fëanturi, Vëantur (q.v.)
hína noun "child", also hina used in the vocative to a (young) child (also hinya "my child", for hinanya) (WJ:403). Pl. híni (surprisingly not **hínar) in Híni Ilúvataro "Children of Ilúvatar" (Silmarillion Index); dative hínin in VT44:35. In compounds -hin pl. -híni (as in Eruhíni, "Children of Eru", SA:híni). According to one source, the word is hín(i) and solely plural (PE17:157), but this is obviously contradicted by some of the sources quoted above.
A word for “child” derived from the root √KHIN (PE17/157; WJ/403), most notably an element in Eruhíni “Children of God”, a term for Elves and Men as the children of Eru. This word illustrates that hína has an abnormal plural form: híni rather than the expected ✱✱hínar. A variant hina with a short i was “only used in the vocative addressing a (young) child, especially in hinya (< hinanya) ‘my child’ (WJ/403)”.
Conceptual Development: The term Êruhîn “Children of God” first appeared as an Adûnaic word in the 1940s (SD/247-8, 358), later adapted as Quenya Eruhíni and Sindarin Eruchîn, which seems to be the source of Q. hína and S. hên “child”. At one point Tolkien coined masculine and feminine variants Q. hindo and Q. hindë, but they were deleted (PE17/157). Tolkien occasionally used an alternate Quenya form sén (MR/423; UT/274), perhaps out of a desire to have a Sindarin form Eruhîn that was closer to the original Adûnaic form; this variant continued to appear as late as 1969, where sén was written below Eruhíni as a variant form in Late Notes on Verbs (LVS: PE22/158).
Development Stages Sources √KHIN > hīn(i) [kʰīni] > [xīni] > [hīni] ✧ PE17/157 ✶khīnā/khinā > hína [kʰīnā] > [xīnā] > [hīnā] > [hīna] ✧ WJ/403
- hina ✧ WJ/403
selda adj.?noun? (meaning not clear, related to seldë "child" (meaning changed by Tolkien from "daughter") and seldo "boy". Thus selda may be an adjective "childlike", since -a is a frequent adjectival ending. Alternatively, as suggested in VT46:13, selda may be a neuter noun "child", corresponding to masc. seldo "boy" and fem. seldë "girl" (before Tolkien changed the meaning of the latter to "child"). (SEL-D, cf. VT46:22-23)
seldo noun (meaning not quite clear, likely the masculine form of seldë "child", hence *"boy") (SEL-D, VT46:13, 22-23)
seldë noun "child" (meaning changed by Tolkien from "daughter"; in his later texts the Quenya word for "child" is rather hína, and the final status of seldë is uncertain. See also tindómerel.) (SEL-D, VT46:13, 22-23) In one late source, Tolkien reverts to the meaning "daughter", but this may have been replaced by anel, q.v.
`Vm#1~C6 noun. elf-king, elfking, elven-king