Quenya 

hela

or

hela conj. "or", apparently an ephemeral form, replaced by hya (VT49:14-15). The editor theorizes that hela literally meant "other than" (VT49:15)

hya

conjunction. or

Derivations

Element in

Variations

  • hya ✧ VT49/14

hya

or

hya conj. "or" or noun "other thing" (VT49:14)

or

over

or prep. "over" (CO); in early "Qenya", this preposition was also defined as "on, upon" (LT1:256, MC:216). Prefixed or- is translated "up" in ortil, q.v.

or

preposition. above, above, [ᴱQ.] upon; on

Cognates

  • N. or “above, above; [G.] onto, on top, on”

Element in

var

or

var (1) conj. "or" (QL:100). In Tolkiens later Quenya, the word hya appears for "or". A phrase involving a double varvar may mean "either…or" in one early (untranslated) text, according to Christopher Gilsons interpretation (PE15:32, 39)

an

for

an (1) _conj. and prep. _"for" (Nam, RGEO:66), an cé mo quernë… "for if one turned…" (VT49:8), also used adverbially in the formula an + a noun to express "one more" (of the thing concerned: an quetta "a word more", PE17:91). The an of the phrase es sorni heruion an! "the Eagles of the Lords are at hand" (SD:290) however seems to denote motion towards (the speaker): the Eagles are coming. Etym has an, ana "to, towards" (NĀ1). The phrase an i falmalī _(PE17:127) is not clearly translated but seems to be a paraphrase of the word falmalinnar "upon the foaming waves" (Nam)_, suggesting that an can be used as a paraphrase of the allative ending (and if falmalī is seen as a Book Quenya accusative form because of the long final vowel, this is evidence that an governs the accusative case). In the "Arctic" sentence, an is translated "until". Regarding an as used in Namárië, various sources indicate that it means an "moreover, further(more), to proceed" (VT49:18-19) or ("properly") "further, plus, in addition" (PE17:69, 90). According to one late source (ca. 1966 or later), an "is very frequently used after a full stop, when an account or description is confirmed after a pause. So in Galadriels Elvish lament […]: An sí Tintallë, etc. [= For now the Kindler, etc…] This is translated by me for, side an is (as here) often in fact used when the additional matter provides an explanation of or reason for what has already been said". Related is the use of an + noun to express "one more"; here an is presumably accented, something the word would not normally be when used as a conjunction or preposition.

ten

for

ten (2) conj. "for", in Fíriel's Song; apparently replaced by an in LotR-style Quenya.

olla

over

olla prep "over" (= beyond, of things passed over, as in "I went over a river" or "they went over the hill") (PE17:65)

oro-

rise

oro- (2) vb. "rise" (LT1:256; Tolkien's later Quenya has orta-, but cf. oro #1)

orta-

rise

orta- vb. "rise", also transitive "raise, lift up", pa.t. ortanë (Nam, RGEO:67, ORO; misreading "ortani" in Letters:426). According to PE17:63-64, this pa.t. form ortanë is only transitive ("raised"), whereas the intransitive pa.t. ("rose") is orontë. Cf. orya-.

orya-

rise

orya- vb. "rise" (intrasitive only, contrast orta-), pa.t. oronyë (PE17:64)

apa

on

apa (2) prep. denoting "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall). Apa is said to have this meaning in various Tolkien manuscripts (VT44:26), but apa is also used for "after" (see apa #1 above), and the two were probably never meant to coexist in a single variant of Quenya. The clash may be avoided by consistently using the variants , pa (q.v.) mentioned by Tolkien in the sense of apa #2. Another variant gives apa, "on (above but touching)" (VT49:18).

on

, pa (1) prep. "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall); also used = "touching, as regards, concerning" (VT44:26). Another variant gives (and apa) with the meaning "on (above but touching)". (2) Variants of apa "after" (VT44:36), which preposition is in one source also ascribed the first meaning here discussed. For Neo-Quenya purposes, and pa may be used for "on" or "concerning", whereas apa is used for "after" (see entries for apa #1 and #2), or pa may also be seen as a shorter form of apa "after", as in the phrase yéni pa yéni *"years upon years" (VT44:36)

-ro

he

-ro pronominal ending "he", in antaváro, q.v. In Tolkiens later Quenya, the ending -s covers both "he", "she" and "it".

orta/orya

verb. rise

Quenya [PE 22:104, 114, 117; PE 22:133; PE 22:157,159,163f] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

parma

book

parma noun "book", also name of tengwa #2 (PAR, Appendix E). In early "Qenya", the gloss was "skin, bark, parchment, book, writings" (LT2:346); Tolkien later revisited the idea that parma basically is a noun "peel" and refers to bark or skin (as primitive writing materials, PE17:86): "peel, applied to bark or skin, hence "book", bark (literally skinning, peeling off), parchment, book; a book (or written document of some size")" (PE17:123). In the meantimeTolkien had associated the word with a root PAR meaning "compose, put together" (LR:380); the word loiparë "mistake in writing" (q.v.) may also suggest that the root PAR at one point was to mean "write", so that a parma was a "written thing". Instrumental form parmanen "with a book" or "by means of a book" (PE17:91, 180), parmastanna "on your book" (with the endings -sta dual "your", -nna allative) (VT49:47), parmahentië noun "book reading" (PE17:77). Other compounds: parmalambë noun "book-language" = Q[u]enya (PAR), #parma-resta noun "book-fair", attested with the endings -lya "thy" and the allative ending -nna (parma-restalyanna *"upon your book-fair") (VT49:38, 39). Parma as the name of the tengwa letter for P occurs compunded in parmatéma noun "p-series", labials, the second column of the Tengwar system (Appendix E).

parma

noun. book

book, writing, composition

Quenya [PE 18:51 PE 18:101] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

tar-

affix. high, high; [ᴹQ.] king or queen (in compounds)

Cognates

  • S. -dor “*king, lord”

Derivations

  • TĀ/TAƷ “high, high, [ᴹ√] lofty; noble”

Element in

Variations

  • tar- ✧ PE22/148; SA/tar
Quenya [PE22/148; SA/tar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arata

high, lofty, noble

arata adj. "high, lofty, noble" (PE17:49, 186). Also used as a a noun with nominal pl. form Aratar "the Supreme", the chief Valar, translation of the foreign word Máhani adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:402). Aratarya "her sublimity"; Varda Aratarya "Varda the lofty, Varda in her sublimity" (WJ:369). In one source, Aratar is translated as a singular: "High One" (PE17:186)

amba

adverb. up(wards)

Cognates

  • S. am “up, up, [G.] upwards, towards head of, above”

Derivations

  • AMA “addition, increase, plus” ✧ PE17/091
  • AM “go up, go up, [ᴹ√] up” ✧ PE17/157

Element in

  • ᴺQ. ambahep- “to maintain, (lit.) upkeep”
  • ᴺQ. ambalasar “stalagmite, (lit.) up-growing stone”
  • Q. ambalotsë “uprising-flower”
  • Q. Ambaráto “*High Champion”
  • Q. Ambaróna “Eastern (Land)” ✧ PE17/082; PE17/091; RC/385
  • Q. ambarónë “dawn, dawn; [ᴹQ.] uprising, sunrise, Orient”
  • Q. Ambarto “*High and Lofty” ✧ PM/354
  • Q. Ambarussa “Top-russet” ✧ PM/354

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
AMA > amba[amba]✧ PE17/091
AM > amba-[amba]✧ PE17/157

Variations

  • amba- ✧ PE17/082; PE17/157
  • amba ✧ PE17/091; PM/354; RC/385; UT/255
Quenya [PE17/082; PE17/091; PE17/157; PM/354; RC/385; UT/255] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amba

up, upwards

amba 1) adv. "up, upwards" (AM2, PE17:157). Apparently also ama (UNU).

amu

up, upwards

amu adv. "up, upwards" (LT2:335; in Tolkien's later Quenya amba)

i eru i or ilyë mahalmar ëa

(the one/they) who; (that) which

i (2) relative pronoun "(the one/they) who; (that) which" (both article and relative pronoun in CO: i Eru i or ilyë mahalmar ëa: the One who is above all thrones", i hárar "(they) who are sitting"); cf. also the phrase i hamil mára "(that) which you deem good" (VT42:33). Notice that before a verb, i means "the one who", or, in the case of a plural verb, "those who"; e.g. i carir quettar ómainen "those who form words with voices" (WJ:391). According to VT47:21, i as a relative pronoun is the personal plural form (corresponding to the personal sg. ye and the impersonal sg. ya). This agrees with the example i carir..., but as is evident from the other examples listed above, Tolkien in certain texts also used i as a singular relative pronoun, both personal (Eru i...) and impersonal (i hamil). In the sense of a plural personal relative pronoun, i is also attested in the genitive (ion) and ablative (illon) cases, demonstrating that unlike the indeclinable article i, the relative pronoun i can receive case endings. Both are translated "from whom": ion / illon camnelyes "from whom you received it" (referring to several persons) (VT47:21).

am-

prefix. up, up, [ᴱQ.] upwards

Derivations

  • AM “go up, go up, [ᴹ√] up”

Element in

tána

high, lofty, noble

tána (meaning unclear, probably adj. "high, lofty, noble") (TĀ/TA3). Compare tára.

an

adverb/conjunction. for, but, then, or; moreover, furthermore

Derivations

  • and(ă) “moreover, to go on further, to say more” ✧ PE17/090
    • ANAD “long; far” ✧ PE17/090
  • am(a) “moreover, furthermore, to proceed” ✧ PE17/091
    • AMA “addition, increase, plus” ✧ PE17/091
  • NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/146

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
and(ă) > an[anda] > [and] > [an]✧ PE17/090
am(a) > an[ama] > [am] > [an]✧ PE17/091
ANA/NĀ > an[an]✧ PE17/146

Variations

  • An ✧ LotR/0377; PE17/069; PE17/091; RGEO/58; RGEO/59
Quenya [LotR/0377; PE17/069; PE17/090; PE17/091; PE17/147; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; VT49/18; VT49/19] Group: Eldamo. Published by

entë

moreover, further, furthermore, what is more

entë (1) conj. "moreover, further, furthermore, what is more" (VT47:15, VT48:14). Compare yunquentë as a variant of yunquenta, q.v.

am-

up

am- (1) prefix "up" (AM2)

ama

up

ama adv.? element not glossed, evidently meaning "up" like the prefix am-, or an alternative form of amba (UNU)

amba

adverb. up

Quenya [PE 22:21] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

essë

he

essë (2) pron? "he" (and also "she, it"?), possible emphatic 3rd sg. emphatic pronoun, attested in the sentence essë úpa nas "he is dumb" (PE17:126)

halda

adjective. high, tall

Quenya [PE 22:103; PE 22:148] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

se

he, she, it

se (1) pron. "he, she, it" also object "him, her, it", 3rd person sg. Used "of living things including plants" (VT49:37; the corresponding inaimate pronoun is sa). The pronoun comes directly from se as the original stem-form (VT49:50). Stressed form , VT49:51, attested in object position in melin sé "I love him" (VT49:21). Ósë "with him/her", VT43:29; see ó-. Long dative/allative sena "[to/for] him" or "at him", VT49:14, allative senna "to him/her" (VT49:45, 46). Compare the reflexive pronoun insë *"himself, herself".

high

2) adj. "high" (LT1:264; there spelt . This is hardly a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya, but cf. tára "lofty".)

ecar

conjunction. or

Cognates

Quenya Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

herca

conjunction. or

Cognates

Quenya Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

arata

high, lofty, noble

arata adj. "high, lofty, noble" (PE17:49, 186). Also used as a a noun with nominal pl. form Aratar "the Supreme", the chief Valar, translation of the foreign word Máhani adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:402). Aratarya "her sublimity"; Varda Aratarya "Varda the lofty, Varda in her sublimity" (WJ:369). In one source, Aratar is translated as a singular: "High One" (PE17:186)