An unglossed root in the *Qenya Lexicon* of the 1910s, probably actually ✱ᴱ√*RUƷU*, with derivatives like ᴱQ. *rú* “dwelling, village, hamlet”, ᴱQ. *rue* “rest, stillness, remaining, steadfastness”, and ᴱQ. *ruin* “peace” (QL/80). There were a number of likely-related words in the contemporaneous *Gnomish Lexicon* such as G. *rô* “enduring, long suffering; quiet, gentle, docile”, G. *rû* “dwelling, house”, and G. *rûtha-* “dwell, remain”, though Tolkien seems to have rejected the Gnomish forms beginning with *rô-* (GL/66). There are no signs of this root in Tolkien’s later writing, but I think it is worth positing a Neo-Root ᴺ√*RUH* “✱still” to preserve some of these early words.

## Early Primitive Elvish

## oro

root. *sow

## Derivatives

## oro

root. steepness, rising

## Derivatives

- ᴱ✶orotse “impetus, speed, haste, rash courage”
- Eq. or “on; above, upon” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë; QL/070
- Eq. orikon “heather” ✧ QL/070
- Eq. orme “summit, crest, hilltop” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë; QL/070
- Eq. ormin “top”
- Eq. oro “hill” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë; QL/070
- Eq. oronta “steep” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë; QL/070
- Eq. Orossi “Fays of the Mountains” ✧ LT1A/Orossi
- Eq. orosta “ascension” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë; QL/070
- Eq. orta “above” ✧ QL/070
- Eq. orto- “to raise” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë; QL/070
- Eq. orwa “lofty” ✧ QL/070
- Eq. oro- “to rise” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë; QL/070
- Eq. oryat “badger” ✧ QL/070
- En. orost “?rising”
- G. oros “rising” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë
- G. or “(av.) on, on top; (prep.) on, onto” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë
- G. or- “on, onto, up, in addition to”
- G. orm “hill top, summit” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë
- G. orod “mountain” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë
- G. ortha “upper”
- G. orthi “up”
- G. ront “high, steep” ✧ GL/66; LT1A/Tavrobel
- G. rost “slope, hill side, ascent” ✧ GL/66; LT1A/Tavrobel
- G. rosta “ascent, uprising, rising” ✧ GL/66; LT1A/Tavrobel
## Element in

- Eq. oryat “badger”
## Variations

rō-/oro-✧ GL/66ORO✧ LT1A/Kalormë; LT1A/Oromë; LT1A/Orossirō/oro✧ LT1A/Tavrobel

## ořo

root. *dawn

## oso

root. ‽

## Derivatives

## oðo

root. *dawn

## Derivatives

## Variations

ORO²✧ LT1A/OromëOŘO✧ QL/070

## gwori

root. ‽

## Changes

→~~WORI~~GWORI✧ QL/104## Derivatives

## Variations

WORI✧ QL/104 ()~~WORI~~

## po

root. ‽

## Derivatives

## Element in

## ru’u

root. ‽

## Derivatives

- Eq. rú “dwelling, village, hamlet” ✧ QL/080
- Eq. rú “steadfastness, faith, trustiness” ✧ QL/080
- Eq. rue “rest, stillness, remaining, steadfastness” ✧ QL/080
- Eq. ruin “peace” ✧ QL/080
- Eq. rungwa “stiff, solid” ✧ QL/080
- Eq. rúse “weary”
- Eq. rúya “unmoved, steadfast” ✧ QL/080
- G. rô- “to remain, stay, stand; to endure”
- G. rô “enduring, long suffering; quiet, gentle, docile”
- G. rôs “endurance, meekness, patience, gentleness”
- G. rû “dwelling, house”
- G. ruin “inhabited, tilled”
- G. rûs “endurance, long suffering, patience”
- G. rust “inhabitation; cultivation, tillage”
- G. rûtha- “to dwell, remain”

## pol-i

root. ‽

## Derivatives

## am(u)

root. up(wards)

## Derivatives

- Eq. am(u)- “up(wards)” ✧ LT2A/Amon Gwareth; QL/030
- Eq. amu “up(wards)” ✧ QL/030
- Eq. amunte “sun-rise, (lit.) lifting” ✧ LT2A/Amon Gwareth; QL/030
- Eq. amun “hill” ✧ LT2A/Amon Gwareth; QL/030
- Eq. amunta “up, risen (of the sun)” ✧ QL/030
- Eq. anwa “high up, place high” ✧ QL/030
- Eq. amu- “to raise” ✧ LT2A/Amon Gwareth; QL/030
- G. am “up, upwards, towards head of, above” ✧ LT2A/Amon Gwareth; PE13/109
- G. amon “hill, mount, steep slope” ✧ LT2A/Amon Gwareth
- En. amra- “
to rise,to rise; [G.] to go up and down, live in the mountains, wander”- G. antha “upper”
## Variations

amū✧ PE13/109

## bē Reconstructed

root. ‽

## Derivatives

## Variations

PĒ✧ QL/072

## hama

root. ‽

## Derivatives

## Element in

## Variations

HAM✧ QL/039

## nulu

root. ‽

An unglossed root in the

Qenya Lexiconof the 1910s marked by Tolkien with a “?” having a single derivative ᴱQ.NÛLE“lead” (QL/68). There are no signs of this root elsewhere in Tolkien’s later writing, and even in the early period he generally used ᴱQ.kanufor “metallic lead” (LT1/100; QL/44).## Derivatives

- Eq. núle “lead” ✧ QL/068

## siŋi

root. ‽

The root ᴱ√

SIŊIappeared unglossed in theQenya Lexiconof the 1910s with derivatives ᴱQ.singe“salt” and (adjective) ᴱQ.singwa“salt” (QL/83). It had similar derivatives the contemporaneousGnomish Lexicon: G.singandsingrin“salt”, noun and adjective (GL/67). I think it is worth positing a Neo-Root ᴺ√SIÑGIto salvage these early words.## Derivatives

- Eq. singe “salt” ✧ QL/083
## Element in

- G. sing “salt”

## sē

root. ‽

## Derivatives

## Variations

SENE²✧ QL/082

## sṣtyṣ

root. ‽

The unglossed root ᴱ√

SṢT͡YṢappeared in theQenya Lexiconof the 1910s with derivatives like ᴱQ.sastya“sore, galled” and ᴱQ.sist(sisty-) “ulcer, sore” (QL/86). The latter word was also mentioned assistein “ulcer, boil” as a derivative of ᴱ✶sṣtē(PE12/14), and the primitive form was given assistyi, though Tolkien did say it was indicative of ancient syllabicṣ(PE12/3). However, in the Early Noldorin Dictionary of the 1920s it seems primitive ᴱ✶sṣt-= “✱hiss” (PE13/163); see the entry on ᴹ√SUS“hiss” for discussion.

Neo-Eldarin:For purposes of Neo-Eldarin I think it is worth positing a Neo-Root ᴺ√SISTIto salvage some of these early words.## Derivatives

## Variations

sistyi-✧ PE12/003SṢT͡YṢ✧ QL/086

## tum(b)u

root. ‽

## Derivatives

- ᴹ✶tundu “hole”

- ᴹQ. tundo “hole” ✧ PE21/08
- Eq. túma “moving”
- Eq. tum- “to dive”
- Eq. tumbe “trumpet, (large) horn” ✧ LT1A/Tombo
- Eq. tumbo “dale, vale” ✧ LT1A/Tombo; QL/095
- Eq. tumna “deep, profound, dark or hidden” ✧ LT1A/Tombo; QL/095
- ᴺQ. tumya- “to dip, baptize”
- Eq. tunda “hole”
- G. tumla- “to excavate, hollow out” ✧ LT1A/Tombo
- G. tûm “valley” ✧ LT1A/Tombo
- G. tum “hollow” ✧ LT1A/Tombo
- G. tumli “dale” ✧ LT1A/Tombo
- G. Udum
## Variations

TUMU✧ LT1A/TomboTUM(B)U²✧ QL/095

## vḷkḷ

root. ‽

An unglossed root in the

Qenya Lexiconof the 1910s with derivatives like ᴱQ.valkane“torture” and ᴱQ.vilkin“bitter, evil”, serving as the basis for ᴱQ.Valkarauke, the Qenya name of Balrogs (QL/100). In later writings the initial element of this name was derived from √BAL“(divine) power”.## Derivatives

An unglossed root in the

Qenya Lexiconof the 1910s with derivatives like ᴱQ.oksa“joint” and ᴱQ.oswe“hip” (QL/71). In Tolkien’s later writings “joint” words seem to be based on √LIM“link, join” as in Q.málimë/S.molif“wrist, (lit.) hand-link” (VT47/6), but ᴱQ.oswe“hip” may be salvaged as a derivative of ᴹ√OS“round, about” referring instead to a rotating joint rather than a link.