Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Middle Primitive Elvish


root. round, about

A root in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “round, about”, with various derivatives like N. o “about, concerning” and ᴹQ. osto/N. ost “city, town with wall round” (Ety/OS). Tolkien also considered variant forms ᴹ√OD and ᴹ√OTH, the latter glossed “fort” (EtyAC/OS). This root in The Etymologies is a later iteration of unglossed ᴱ√OSO [’OSO] from the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s with derivatives like ᴱQ. ossa “wall and moat” and ᴱQ. ostar “township” (QL/71). It also had derivatives in the contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon such as G. ost “enclosure, yard; town” and G. osta- “to surround with walls, build up; fortify, protect” (GL/63). This early root probably meant something like “✱enclosure”.

In the Quendi and Eldar essay from 1959-60, Q. osto and S. ost were instead derived from the root √SOT “shelter, protect, defend”, but this root has no other derivatives.

Neo-Eldarin: For purposes of Neo-Eldarin, ᴹ√OS “round, about” is too useful to discard, and I prefer it over the later root √SOT, though √(O)S-OT might be salvaged as an extension of √OS.


  • ᴺQ. os “around, about, round”
  • ᴹQ. osto “city, town with wall round, fort” ✧ Ety/OS
  • N. o “about, concerning” ✧ Ety/OS
  • N. os- “about” ✧ Ety/OS
  • N. ost “city, town (with wall round)” ✧ Ety/OS
  • ᴺS. osta- “to surround with walls, build up, fortify, protect; to surround”
  • ᴺS. ostor “enclosure, circuit of walls, *town wall”
  • N. othrond “underground city, fortress” ✧ Ety/ROD

Element in

  • ᴺQ. ospor “chaff”
  • ᴺQ. osquetië “context”
  • ᴺQ. ostec- “to describe”
  • N. Belegost “Great Fortress, Great City” ✧ Ety/BEL
  • N. Gondost “Gondolin” ✧ Ety/GOND
  • N. Nargothrond “fortress of Narog” ✧ Ety/NÁRAK
  • ᴺS. ostol- “to circumnavigate, come around”


  • OD ✧ EtyAC/OS
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/BEL; Ety/GOND; Ety/NÁRAK; Ety/OS; Ety/ROD; EtyAC/OS] Group: Eldamo. Published by


root. round


  • ᴹ✶kornā “round, globed” ✧ Ety/KOR
    • ᴹQ. korna “round, globed” ✧ Ety/KOR
    • N. corn “round, globed” ✧ Ety/KOR
  • ᴹ✶kǭro “Kôr” ✧ Ety/KOR
    • ᴹQ. Kôr ✧ EtyAC/KOR
    • N. Caur “Kôr” ✧ EtyAC/KOR; EtyAC/KOR
  • ᴹQ. koron “globe, ball” ✧ Ety/KOR
  • ᴹQ. Kôr ✧ Ety/KOR
  • ᴹQ. korin “circular enclosure, circular enclosure, [ᴱQ.] great circular hedge” ✧ Ety/KOR
  • N. Caur “Kôr” ✧ Ety/KOR
  • N. cerin “round enclosure” ✧ Ety/KOR
  • N. coron “globe, ball” ✧ Ety/KOR

Element in

Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/KOR; Ety/RIN] Group: Eldamo. Published by