-tar or tar-, element meaning "king" or "queen" in compounds and names (TĀ/TA3), e.g. Valatar; compare the independent nouns tár, tári. Prefix Tar- especially in the names of the Kings and Queens of Númenor (e.g. Tar-Amandil); see their individual names (like Amandil in this case), cf. also Tar-Mairon "King Excellent", title used by Sauron (PE17:183). Also in Tareldar "High-elves"; see also Tarmenel.
taran (1) noun "king", possibly ephemeral variant of aran, q.v. (PE17:186)
vardar noun "king" (LT1:273; rather aran in LotR-style Quenya)
vala- (2) vb. "to rule", only with reference to the Valar (see Vala). Future tense valuva is attested (WJ:404)
Valapower, god, angelic power
Vala (1) noun "Power, God, angelic power", pl. Valar or Vali (BAL, Appendix E, LT2:348), described as "angelic governors" or "angelic guardians" (Letters:354, 407). The Valar are a group of immensely powerful spirits guarding the world on behalf of its Creator; they are sometimes called Gods (as when Valacirca, q.v., is translated "Sickle of the Gods"), but this is strictly wrong according to Christian terminology: the Valar were created beings. The noun vala is also the name of tengwa #22 (Appendix E). Genitive plural Valion "of the Valar" (FS, MR:18); this form shows the pl. Vali, (irregular) alternative to Valar (the straightforward gen. pl. Valaron is also attested, PE17:175). Pl. allative valannar *"to/on the Valar" (LR:47, 56; SD:246). Feminine form Valië (Silm), in Tolkiens earlier material also Valdë; his early writings also list Valon or Valmo (q.v.) as specifically masc. forms. The gender-specific forms are not obligatory; thus in PE17:22 Varda is called a Vala (not a Valië), likewise Yavanna in PE17:93. Vala is properly or originally a verb "has power" (sc. over the matter of Eä, the universe), also used as a noun "a Power" _(WJ:403). The verb vala- "rule, order", exclusively used with reference to the Valar, is only attested in the sentences á vala Manwë! "may Manwë order it!" and Valar valuvar "the will of the Valar will be done" (WJ:404). However, Tolkien did not originally intend the word Valar to signify "powers"; in his early conception it apparently meant "the happy ones", cf. valto, vald- (LT2:348)_. For various compounds including the word Vala(r), see below.
turnë pa.t. of tur-(TUR)
turinqui ("q") noun "queen" (LT1:260; apparently the fem. of tur. In Tolkien's later Quenya, "queen" is tári.)
túr, tur noun "king" (PE16:138, LT1:260); rather aran in LotR-style Quenya, but cf. the verb tur-. Also compare the final element -tur, -ntur "lord" in names like Axantur, Falastur, Fëanturi, Vëantur (q.v.)
Also glossed as “queenly”, “she that is high”, “Queen”.
Variations of the word: Tári.
Word Gloss Source tar she that is high, Queen SA/tar.001
Word Form Gloss Source tári- stem queen PE17/067.3202 tárin dative *to ... queen VT49/40.1211 Tarinya 1st-sg-poss - UT/179.1911 tário genitive of the queen PE17/076.2901; PM/364.0209 tārio genitive queen’s RGEO/59.0107 táríva possessive of the queen PE17/076.2901
tári noun "queen", used especially of Varda (TĀ/TA3, LT1:264), etymologically "she that is high" (SA:tar). Dative tárin in the Elaine inscription (VT49:40), genitive tário in Namárië. Elentári "Starqueen", a title of Varda. (Nam, RGEO:67). Tarinya "my queen" (UT:179; sic, not *tárinya). Táris or tárissë "queenship" (PE17:155)
tár noun "king" (only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes); the pl. tári "kings" must not be confused with the sg. tári "queen" (TĀ/TA3). Prefix tar-, compare -tar above. The normal Quenya word for "king" is aran, but compare Tarumbar.
aran noun "king"; pl. arani (WJ:369, VT45:16, PE17:186); gen.pl. aranion "of kings" in asëa aranion, q.v.; aranya "my king" (aran + nya) (UT:193). Aran Meletyalda "king your mighty" = "your majesty" (WJ:369); aran Ondórëo, "a king of Gondor" (VT49:27). Also in arandil "king's friend, royalist", arandur "king's servant, minister" (Letters:386); Arantar masc. name, "King-Lord" (Appendix A); Arandor "Kingsland" region in Númenor (UT:165); the long form Arandórë appears as a name of Arnor in PE17:28 (elsewhere Arnanórë, q.v.) Othercompounds ingaran, Noldóran, Núaran, q.v.
Malantur, masc. name. Apparently includes -(n)tur "lord, ruler". The initial element is unlikely to connect with the early "Qenya" element mala- "hurt, pain", and may rather reflect the root MALAT "gold" (PM:366): Malat-ntur > Malantur "Gold-ruler"? (UT:210)
heru- vb. "to rule" (LT1:272; rather tur- in LotR-style Quenya)
Also glossed as “master”, “Lord”.
Variations of the word: heru.
heru (also hér) noun "lord, master" (PM:210, KHER, LT1:272, VT44:12); Letters:283 gives hér (heru); the form Héru with a long vowel refers to God in the source where it appears (i Héru "the Lord", VT43:29). In names like Herumor "Black Lord" and Herunúmen "Lord of the West" (SA:heru). The form heruion is evidently a gen.pl. of heru "lord": "of the lords" (SD:290); herunúmen "Lord-of-West" (LR:47), title of Manwë. Pl. númeheruvi "Lords-of-West" (*"West-lords") in SD:246, a title of the Valar; does this form suggest that #heruvi is the regular plural of heru?
hér noun "lord" (VT41:9), also heru, q.v.
Also glossed as “chieftain”, “lord or king of a specified region”.
haran (#harn-, as in pl. harni) noun "king, chieftain" (3AR, TĀ/TA3, VT45:17; for "king", the word aran is to be preferred in LotR-style Quenya). In a deleted entry in the Etymologies, haran was glossed "chief" (VT45:17)
Also glossed as “King”.
Variations of the word: Aran.
Word Form Gloss Source arani plural kings WJ/369.1109; WJ/369.1113 aranion genitive plural of the Kings LotR/0864.4201; LotRI/Asëa aranion.002; PE17/049.0712; PE17/100.1603 aranya 1st-sg-poss - UT/193.3202
varni noun "queen" (LT1:273; rather tári in Tolkien's later Quenya)