Quenya 


master, defeat, have victory over

turu- (1) vb. "master, defeat, have victory over" (PE17:113, not clearly said to be Quenya, but the Q name Turucundo "Victory-prince" is listed immediately afterwards). Compare tur-; cf. also *turúna.



turu- (2) vb. "kindle" (a "Qenya" form from LT1:270; rather narta- or tinta- in LotR-style Quenya)


verb. to master, defeat, have victory over, to defeat, have victory over, master


  • TUR “dominate, master, conquer; power [over others], mastery (legitimate or illegitimate), control (of other wills); strong, mighty in power, dominate, master, conquer; power [over others], mastery (legitimate or illegitimate), control (of other wills); strong, mighty in power; [ᴹ√] victory; [ᴱ√] am strong” ✧ PE17/113

Element in

Phonetic Developments

TUR > turu-[turu-]✧ PE17/113
Quenya [PE17/113; S/223; UT/138] Group: Eldamo. Published by


wield, control, govern

tur- vb. "wield, control, govern" (1st pers. aorist turin "I wield" etc.), pa.t. turnë (TUR). The verb is elsewhere defined "master, conquer, win" (PE17:115), virtually the same meanings are elsewhere assigned to turu- #1, q.v.



*turúna passive participle "mastered", only attested attested in the elided form turún' (UT:138, apparently incomplete spelling turun in Silm ch. 21). The form may be understood as the passive participle of the verb turu- "master, defeat, have victory over" (PE17:113), the sole available example of a U-stem verb appearing in such a participle form. Compare -na #4.


adjective. mastered



tunda- vb. "kindle" (LT1:270; rather tinta- or narta- in Tolkien's later Quenya)


verb. to kindle, to kindle, [ᴹQ.] (cause to) shine, light up, [ᴱQ.] set light to

This causative verb meaning “kindle, cause to shine” was based on the root √KAL “light; shine” and had a lengthy history in Tolkien’s Elvish languages. ᴱQ. kalta- “kindle, set light to” first appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√KALA “shine golden” (QL/44), but in The Etymologies of the 1930s ᴹQ. kalta- was only glossed “shine” (Ety/KAL). However in the Quenya Verbal System of the 1940s kaltā́ was given as an example of causative verbs and glossed “cause to shine, light up, or kindle (lamp etc.)” (PE22/114). In Common Eldarin: Verb Structure from the early 1950s (primitive) kalta- was glossed “cause to shine, kindle” (PE22/156). This verb also appeared in Late Notes on Verb Structure (LVS) from 1969 as an element in the adjective Q. lacaltaima “not possible to be kindled”.


  • kalta- “cause to shine, kindle”
    • KAL “light; shine, be bright, light; shine, be bright, [ᴱ√] shine golden” ✧ PE22/129

Element in

  • Q. lacaltaima “not possible to be kindled” ✧ PE22/156


  • kalta- ✧ PE22/156



lerta- vb. "can" in the sense "be free to do", being under no restraint (physical or other). Lertan quetë "I can speak (because I am free to do so, there being no obstacle of promise, secrecy, or duty)". Where the absence of a physical restraint is considered, this verb can be used in much the same sense as pol- (VT41:6)



narta- vb. "kindle" (VT45:37)


kindle, cause to sparkle

tinta- vb. "kindle, cause to sparkle", cf. Tintallë (TIN, SA:tin, MR:388)


no longer part of verbal conjugation

-na (4), ending used to form passive participles as well as some adjectives and nouns; see -ina. According to PE17:68, the ending -na was "no longer part of verbal conjugation"; the derived words are thus considered independent adjectives (sometimes nouns) rather than regularly derived passive participles, the obvious etymological connection to certain verbal stems notwithstanding. Where adding the ending to a root would produce the combinations tn, pn, kn (cn), metathesis occurs to produce nt, (np >) mp, nc, as in nanca *"slain" for older ¤ndakna, or hampa "restrained, delayed, kept" vs. the root KHAP "retain, keep, detain". Following -l, the suffix -na turns into -da, as in yulda "draught, the amount drunk" for older yulna (this being an example of a noun being derived with this ending, though Tolkien might also explain yulda as containing a distinct ending -da [q.v.] denoting the result of a verbal action). The word *turúna "mastered" (q.v., only attested in elided form turún) would seem to be a passive participle formed from the verb turu- "master" (PE17:113), suggesting that in the case of U-stem verbs, their final -u is lengthened to ú when -na is added.


noun. wood (as material)

A word for “wood” mentioned in passing in notes on the Quendi and Eldar essay from 1959-60 (VT39/6), also appearing in a list of “large & small” roots from around 1968 with the gloss “wood as material” and derived from the root √TAW “wood” (PE17/115).

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien instead had ᴹQ. tavar “wood (material)” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tawar of the same meaning, from the extended root ᴹ√TÁWAR “wood, forest” (Ety/TÁWAR). In this earlier conception, the awa became ava rather than reducing to oa because the initial a was stressed. Stress alone was probably not enough to preserve ancient áwa in Tolkien’s later conception of the language’s phonetic development.


  • S. taw “wood as material” ✧ PE17/115


  • TAW “wood” ✧ PE17/115

Element in

Phonetic Developments

TAW > töa[tawa] > [toa]✧ PE17/115
Quenya [PE17/115; VT39/06] Group: Eldamo. Published by



pol- (1) vb. "can" = have physical power and ability, as in polin quetë "I can speak (because mouth and tongue are free)". Cf. ista-, lerta- as verbs "can" with somewhat different shades of meaning. (VT41:6, PE17:181)