Quenya zR5Ì#

-a

suffix. adjectival suffix

This suffix is frequently used to create the adjective form of a noun, especially in the form -ëa for nouns ending in . This function dates back to CE. ✶.

[PE17/149.0706-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-mo

suffix. agental suffix

[MR/049.2606-2; WJ/400.0506] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-r(o)

suffix. agental suffix

[VT41/13.2805-2; WJ/371.2904-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Sindarin iT2#7T5

-(r)on

suffix. agental suffix

[PE17/170.0417-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-or

suffix. agental suffix

[LotR/0081.4105-3] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Adûnaic

-an

suffix. common subjective suffix

The subjective suffix for singular common-nouns, reduced to -n when the noun ends in a vowel (SD/430, 436).

Element in: AD. anadûni

[SD/436.1512; SD/430.0602] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an-

prefix. genitive prefix, genitive/adjectival prefix, of

A prefix translated as “of” (SD/247) and one of the ways that genitive relationships are expressed in Adûnaic (SD/429). According to Tolkien, “it is not a preposition ... it is the equivalent of an inflexion or suffix” (SD/435). As such, it is used to form adjectives from nouns, as anadûni “western, *of the West” from adûni “the West”. When following another noun, it is often elided so that the a is lost, as in Ârû ’nAdûnâi “King of the Númenóreans” (SD/429) and Bâr ’nAnadûnê “Lord of Númenor” (SD/428). This elision occurs in most examples, but seems not to happen in some cases:

  • When the an- is separated from the modified noun: balîk hazad an-Nimruzîr “ships seven of-Nimruzîr” (SD/247).
  • When the modified nouns is declined into the subjective case: Bârim an-Adûn “Lords of the West” (SD/247).
  • However, when the subjective noun ends in a vowel, elision still occurs: narîka ’nBâri ’nAdûn “Eagles of the Lords of the West” (SD/251).

Tolkien used a dash to separate an- from the noun to which it is prefixed but omitted the dash when the prefix was elided. Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (AAD/10) that Ad. an- may be related to the Sindarin genitive marker S. na² “with, by”

[SD/247.0803; SD/247.1403; SD/251.0302; SD/428.3905; SD/429.3202; SD/435.2004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ân

suffix. agental suffix

A suffix that is used in some examples for agental-formation: creating nouns from verbs that indicate the agent who performs the verb’s action. The clearest example is sapthân “wise man” derived (after some ancient sound modifications) from saphad- “to understand”. This formation means “one who understands”. Less clear examples are magân “wright, builder”, perhaps from a verb mag- “to build”, and kathuphazgân “conquerer”, perhaps a combined of katha “all” and a verb ?phazag- “to take”, meaning “*one who takes all”.

It is not clear how this suffix related to the similar participle suffix -ân¹ used for form adjectives from verbs. See the entry on participle for further discussion. Andreas Moehn suggested (EotAL/TAN) that -ân as an agental formation may be related to anâ “human being”.

[SD/429.15073] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

-ion

suffix. adjectival suffix

[Ety/TIL.017-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(r)on

suffix. agental suffix

[Ety/BAD.014-2; Ety/BARÁD.049-2; Ety/KHAT.008-2; Ety/MEL.035-2; Ety/MEL.041-2; EtyAC/MAK.143-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-or

suffix. agental suffix

[Ety/MAK.034-2; Ety/ÑGOL.035-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

-ndo

verb. agental suffix

Primitive adûnaic

-ān

suffix. agental suffix

An apparent primitive form of the Classical Adûnaic agental suffix -ân², attested in the Primitive Adûnaic word saphdān = SAPHAD + -ān (SD/421).

[SD/421.33041] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Old Noldorin

-ro

prefix. agental suffix

[Ety/LED.031-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

-en

suffix. adjectival suffix

An adjectival suffix appearing as both -en and -in, and in one place as -on: Brithon. The -en form can be easily explained as a derivative of the primitive suffix ᴹ✶-inā, with the primitive [i] becoming [e] due to Ilkorin a-affection, the same origin as the Noldorin adjectival suffix -en. The -in variant is more difficult to explain. At least one example lómen had variations with both -en and -in, so perhaps the two forms represented vacillation on the function of Ilkorin a-affection, or an alternate primitive form ᴹ✶-ină where the final ă was lost before a-affection.

Alterately, -in could be a Doriathrin-specific variant, since the forms where it appears are all Doriathrin, while the forms where -en appear are marked Ilkorin, excepting only lómen which was itself revised from lómin.

[Ety/LAM.020-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-th

suffix. plural suffix

A suffix appearing in one Ilkorin plural: Eglath “Elves” ← Egla (Ety/ELED). This example is notable as the only attested plural of an Ilkorin noun ending in a vowel. It may have the same origin as the Noldorin class-plural suffix -ath.

Conceptual Development: This suffix is the same as the common Gnomish plural suffix -th, also used with nouns ending in vowels (GG/10, 13-14).

[Ety/ELED.087-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya zR5Ì#

-ina

suffix. adjectival suffix

[PE15/77.4401-2; QL/031.3701-2; QL/031.7401-2; QL/043.2301-2; QL/043.6401-2; QL/043.8201-2; QL/044.3702-2; QL/044.9001-2; QL/045.3101-2; QL/047.5101-2; QL/051.7801-2; QL/057.1301-2; QL/057.3401-2; QL/058.3601-2; QL/074.3801-2; QL/075.1201-2; QL/075.4501-2; QL/080.2501-2; QL/081.1001-2; QL/081.1801-2; QL/083.4301-2; QL/083.7601-2; QL/084.4201-2; QL/084.8201-2; QL/086.6801-2; QL/086.9401-2; QL/087.3401-2; QL/088.5501-2; QL/088.6901-2; QL/088.7801-2; QL/091.2201-2; QL/093.6701-2; QL/094.6301-2; QL/094.7701-2; QL/094.8201-2; QL/102.2201-2; QL/105.1901-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-mo

suffix. agental suffix

-ro

suffix. agental suffix

-a

suffix. adjectival suffix

[Ety/ERE.014-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a

suffix. adjectival suffix

[PE14/047.1611-3; PE14/051.1904-2; PE14/079.2801-2; PE15/67.3304-1; PE15/73.0503-2; PE16/100.2406-3; QL/030.0801-2; QL/030.8401-2; QL/033.4101-2; QL/033.6901-2; QL/034.0801-2; QL/035.1501-2; QL/037.1601-3; QL/037.5101-2; QL/039.6501-2; QL/039.7901-2; QL/042.1301-2; QL/043.4301-2; QL/047.1601-2; QL/047.7201-2; QL/048.5401-2; QL/048.6201-2; QL/048.9201-2; QL/049.1401-2; QL/049.1601-2; QL/051.4001-2; QL/051.5801-2; QL/051.6501-2; QL/052.7501-2; QL/053.6401-3; QL/053.6701-3; QL/053.6901-2; QL/053.7001-3; QL/053.7301-3; QL/054.5701-2; QL/054.6101-2; QL/054.6801-2; QL/054.7301-2; QL/054.7501-3; QL/055.0301-2; QL/055.5401-2; QL/055.9001-2; QL/056.0101-2; QL/056.5301-2; QL/056.6201-2; QL/056.7202-2; QL/056.7601-2; QL/057.0201-2; QL/057.3301-2; QL/057.5501-2; QL/057.6501-2; QL/058.3901-2; QL/060.7901-2; QL/061.6301-2; QL/061.6601-2; QL/063.4101-2; QL/063.5301-2; QL/064.5401-2; QL/064.7001-2; QL/065.1701-2; QL/066.4001-2; QL/067.8501-2; QL/067.8601-3; QL/068.2001-2; QL/068.2101-2; QL/068.2901-2; QL/069.0601-1; QL/069.8101-2; QL/070.8601-2; QL/072.1801-2; QL/072.3801-2; QL/073.8101-2; QL/074.5101-2; QL/074.5401-2; QL/074.8301-2; QL/075.2401-2; QL/076.2201-2; QL/076.2401-2; QL/076.3001-2; QL/077.1301-2; QL/077.1901-2; QL/077.4002-2; QL/077.7001-2; QL/077.7901-2; QL/078.0501-2; QL/078.1901-2; QL/079.3601-2; QL/080.7701-2; QL/081.4401-2; QL/081.6101-2; QL/082.5101-2; QL/083.5001-2; QL/083.5201-2; QL/086.7801-2; QL/087.3301-2; QL/088.5701-2; QL/088.6801-2; QL/090.2901-2; QL/091.0301-2; QL/091.0302-2; QL/091.2302-2; QL/091.4101-2; QL/091.4401-2; QL/091.6301-2; QL/092.3701-2; QL/092.7501-2; QL/092.7601-2; QL/092.8501-2; QL/094.2303-2; QL/095.7801-2; QL/096.0601-2; QL/096.0701-2; QL/097.8001-2; QL/099.8301-2; QL/101.2501-2; QL/101.7701-2; QL/102.0401-2; QL/103.1201-2; QL/103.6901-2; QL/105.4001-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ra

suffix. adjectival suffix

[QL/030.1801-2; QL/048.7801-2; QL/066.8601-2; QL/071.5101-2; QL/091.8701-2; QL/094.0101-2; QL/105.6601-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-mo

suffix. agental suffix

[QL/052.1601-2; QL/058.7001-2; QL/078.3201-2; QL/100.1501-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

-ndo

verb. agental suffix

Gnomish

-(i)on

suffix. adjectival suffix

[GL/17.7801-2; GL/20.0801-3; GL/21.8101-2; GL/25.0601-2; GL/25.5101-2; GL/25.5301-2; GL/27.0401-2; GL/33.9101-2; GL/34.1902-2; GL/36.5001-2; GL/37.7201-2; GL/46.6001-2; GL/46.7701-2; GL/46.9201-2; GL/48.5501-2; GL/48.7301-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(r)on

suffix. agental suffix

[GL/18.7501-2; GL/21.2301-2; GL/22.2801-2; GL/24.1701-2; GL/28.8701-2; GL/36.5703-2; GL/36.6701-2; GL/36.8501-2; GL/41.3501-2; GL/42.3601-2; GL/44.1701-2; GL/47.1401-2; GL/49.4201-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-og

suffix. adjectival suffix

[GL/18.0501-2; GL/18.8301-2; GL/19.1101-2; GL/23.6501-2; GL/27.2701-2; GL/27.6501-2; GL/28.7301-2; GL/29.5801-2; GL/30.8801-2; GL/31.2401-2; GL/31.5101-2; GL/32.4001-2; GL/32.5601-2; GL/33.0701-2; GL/33.3601-2; GL/34.7301-2; GL/34.8301-2; GL/35.5301-2; GL/39.3701-2; GL/41.0401-2; GL/42.4001-2; GL/42.7601-2; GL/46.7401-2; GL/47.5701-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-or

suffix. agental suffix

[GL/18.7801-2; GL/31.6101-2; GL/33.7301-2; GL/34.6201-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

-eb

suffix. adjectival suffix

[PE13/108.7501-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-og

suffix. agental suffix

[GL/34.4801-2; GL/43.0501-2; GL/47.1001-2; PE13/109.0102-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech, Nandorin, Noldorin, Quendya, Quenya, Sindarin, Telerin are languages conceived by Tolkien and they do not belong to us; we neither can nor do claim affiliation with Middle-earth Enterprises nor Tolkien Estate.