Quenya zR5Ì#

-sta

suffix. 2nd person dual possessive, of you two, your (dual)

[VT49/16.3706; VT49/45.3504] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-sta

northlands

-sta (2) ending occurring in the names of certain lands(VT43:15), e.g. the Forostar or "Northlands" of Númenor (UT:165)

-sta

suffix. {verbal noun}

[PE 22:137] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

-sta

suffix. land, *part

[UT/165.2608-2; UT/165.2701-2; UT/165.2703-3; UT/165.2705-3; VT39/16.2402-1; VT39/20.3209; VT42/30.1812] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-sta

your

-sta (1) "your", dual 2nd person possessive pronominal ending: "of you two" (VT49:45, 16), cf. -stë (q.v.) Genitive -sto in veryanwesto "of your wedding" (VT49:45) and tengwiesto "of your reading" (VT49:47), allative -stanna in parmastanna "on your book" (VT49:47). An archaic ending of similar form could also be the third person dual "of the two of them" (but according to VT49:51, the corresponding subject ending was changed to -ttë, and then the ending for "their" would presumably become -tta)

-sta⁴

suffix. their (dual)

[PE17/132.2307; VT49/16.3806] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-stë

noun. verbal noun suffix

-tya,

your, thy

-tya, pronominal ending, 2nd person sg. intimate/familiar "your, thy" (VT49:16, 38, 48); compare -tyë

ta

they, them

ta (3) pron. "they, them", an "impersonal" 3rd person pl. stem, referring "only to 'abstracts' or to things (such as inanimates) not by the Eldar regarded as persons" (VT43:20, cf. ta as an inanimate Common Eldarin plural pronoun, VT49:52). Compare te, q.v. The word ta occurring in some versions of Tolkien's Quenya Lord's Prayer may exemplify this use of ta as an "impersonal" plural pronoun: emmë avatyarir ta** "we forgive them" (VT43:8, 9; this refers to trespasses, not the trespassers). However, since Tolkien also wanted ta to mean "that" (see #1 above), he may seem to be somewhat dissatisfied with ta "they, them", introducing variant forms like tai (VT49:32) to free up ta as a sg. pronoun. In one document, tai was in turn altered to te (VT49:33), which could suggest that the distinction between animate and inanimate "they, them" was abandoned and the form te (q.v.) could be used for both. In some documents, Tolkien seems to use tar as the plural form (VT49:56 mentions this as an uncertain reading in a source where the word was struck out; compare ótar under ó**-).

tai

they, them

tai (2) pron. "they, them", 3rd person pl., used with reference to inanimates rather than persons or living things (VT49:32, see ta #3 above). Perhaps to avoid the clash with tai "that which", the pronoun tai "they, them" was altered to te in at least one manuscript (VT49:33), so that it would merge with the pronoun used of living beings and the distinction between animate and inanimate would be abandoned (see te).

-cca

your

[-cca ("k") ?"your", apparently an abandoned 2nd person plural or dual possessive (VT49:49). Compare -lca.]

-lca

your

[-lca ("k") ?"your", apparently an abandoned 2nd person plural possessive (VT49:49). Cf. -cca.]

-lda

your

-lda (1) "your", 2nd person pl. possessive suffix (VT49:16). Onnalda *"your child" (VT49:42). In an earlier manuscript, this ending was used for singular "you" instead, attested in the phrase Arwen vanimalda "Arwen your beauty", sc. "O beautiful Arwen", and in meletyalda "your majesty" (WJ:369) Arwen vanimalda was however changed to Arwen vanimelda in the second edition of LotR, Tolkien reinterpreting the last word (see vanimalda). The ending for singular "your" appears as -lya elsewhere. (LotR1:II ch. 6)

-lto

they

-lto, "Qenya" pronominal ending "they"; see -ltë

-ltë

they

-ltë, 3rd person pl. pronominal suffix, "they" (VT49:51; cariltë "they do", VT49:16, 17). It alternates with -ntë in Tolkiens manuscripts (VT49:17, 57). In his early material, the ending also appears as -lto, occurring in Fíriel's Song (meldielto "they are beloved" and cárielto "they made"), also in LT1:114: tulielto "they have come" (cf. VT49:57). Compare -lta, -ltya as the ending for "their".

-ntë

suffix. they

[PE17/057.2502; PE17/190.2809; UT/317.1509; VT49/17.2801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ntë

they

-ntë "they", pronomimal ending, inflexion of 3rd person plural when no subject is previously mentioned (CO; see also VT49:49). This ending competes with -ltë (q.v.) in Tolkiens conception (VT49:57; for "they do", both carintë and cariltë are attested, VT49:16 vs. 17). The corresponding pronominal possessive suffix appears as -ntya or -nta in various sources.

-ttë

they

-ttë (1) "they", dual 3rd person pronominal ending ("the two of them") (VT49:51), replacing (also within the legendarium) the older ending -stë (which was later used for the second person only). This older ending -stë corresponds to a possessive ending -sta "their" (VT49:16), but this was presumably likewise altered to *-tta as the new ending for dual "their" = "of the two of them".

Forostar

northlands

Forostar place-name, the "Northlands" of Númenor (UT:165)

te

they, them

te pron. "they, them", 3rd person pl. (VT49:51, LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308). The pronoun te represents an original stem-form (VT49:50). Dative ten, téna or tien "for them, to them" (q.v.) Stressed (VT49:51). Ótë "with them", q.v. VT43:20 connects te "them" with a discussion of Common Eldarin pronominal stems (ca. 1940s), where te is the "personal" 3rd person pl. stem, referring to persons rather than abstracts or inanimates (which are denoted by ta instead; see, however, the entry ta #3 regarding the problems with this form, and the hints that te may possibly be used with reference to inanimates as well)). Also consider the reflexive pronoun intë "themselves", the final element of which is apparently this pronoun te; see also for the dual form.

toi

pronoun. they

toi

they

toi pron. "they" (FS; replaced by te in LotR-style Quenya?)

they, them

pron. "they, them", 3rd person dual ("the two of them"), both "personal and neuter" (the pronoun can be used of persons and things alike). (VT49:51) Tolkien also considered tet for the same meaning, listing it alongside in one source (VT49:56), but this form was apparently abandoned.

parma

noun. book

book, writing, composition

[PE 18:51 PE 18:101] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

parma

book

parma noun "book", also name of tengwa #2 (PAR, Appendix E). In early "Qenya", the gloss was "skin, bark, parchment, book, writings" (LT2:346); Tolkien later revisited the idea that parma basically is a noun "peel" and refers to bark or skin (as primitive writing materials, PE17:86): "peel, applied to bark or skin, hence "book", bark (literally skinning, peeling off), parchment, book; a book (or written document of some size")" (PE17:123). In the meantimeTolkien had associated the word with a root PAR meaning "compose, put together" (LR:380); the word loiparë "mistake in writing" (q.v.) may also suggest that the root PAR at one point was to mean "write", so that a parma was a "written thing". Instrumental form parmanen "with a book" or "by means of a book" (PE17:91, 180), parmastanna "on your book" (with the endings -sta dual "your", -nna allative) (VT49:47), parmahentië noun "book reading" (PE17:77). Other compounds: parmalambë noun "book-language" = Q[u]enya (PAR), #parma-resta noun "book-fair", attested with the endings -lya "thy" and the allative ending -nna (parma-restalyanna *"upon your book-fair") (VT49:38, 39). Parma as the name of the tengwa letter for P occurs compunded in parmatéma noun "p-series", labials, the second column of the Tengwar system (Appendix E).

-sta

suffix. verbal noun suffix

Sindarin iT2#7T5

-eg

suffix. your

_2nd sg./pl. poss. suff. your.Maybe the familiar form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Later -gen_. -el, -gen

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-el

suffix. your

_2nd sg./pl. poss. suff. _your. Maybe the polite form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Later -lein. -eg, -lein

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-gen

suffix. your

_2nd sg. poss. suff. your.Maybe the familiar form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Earlier -eg_. -eg

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

parf

noun. book

-lein

suffix. your

_2nd sg. poss. suff. your.Maybe the polite form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Earlier -el_. -el

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

hîn

they

(of women) hîn. It is unclear whether Tolkien maintained this ”Noldorin” pronoun in Sindarin.

parf

book

parf (i barf, o pharf), pl. perf (i pherf), coll. pl. parvath

Telerin 1RjR7T5

-tá

suffix. verbal noun

[PE22/137.2705] Group: Eldamo. Published by

parma

noun. book

[PE21/78.1401; PE21/78.1403] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

-ath

suffix. collective plural

[Ety/SI.016-2; PE21/57.2215-2; PE21/57.3221; PE21/64.0702] Group: Eldamo. Published by

parf

noun. book

[Ety/380] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

parf

noun. book

[Ety/PAR.012; Ety/PAR.013; EtyAC/PAR.013] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

-stā

suffix. collective suffix

[PE21/82.1310; PE21/82.1311] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-b(iy)ē

suffix. -ing

[PE22/129.0214; PE22/129.0215] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-m(iy)ē

suffix. -ing

[PE22/129.0216; PE22/129.0217] Group: Eldamo. Published by

parmā

noun. book

Qenya zR5Ì#

-sta

suffix. close grouping

[PE18/035.0712; PE21/57.2106; PE21/57.2107] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ta

pronoun. they, 3rd pl. neut. pronoun

[PE14/052.1813; PE14/053.1106; PE14/053.2007; PE14/053.2506; PE14/085.1216] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tekka

noun. book

[QL/090.5801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

si

pronoun. they, 3rd pl. fem. pronoun

[PE14/052.1811; PE14/053.1105; PE14/053.2006; PE14/053.2505; PE14/054.1215; PE14/085.1212; PE16/057.3905] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tu

pronoun. they, 3rd pl. masc. pronoun

[PE14/052.1809; PE14/053.1104; PE14/053.2004; PE14/053.2005; PE14/053.2504; PE14/054.1214; PE14/054.1216; PE14/057.1901; PE14/059.1712; PE14/059.2004; PE14/085.1210] Group: Eldamo. Published by

parma

noun. book, book, writings, parchment, skin, bark, skin, bark; parchment; †book, writings, skin, bark; parchment; book, writings

[LT2A/Parma Kuluinen.018; PE14/046.2701; PE15/70.6904; PE16/133.4001; PME/072.4903; QL/072.4401] Group: Eldamo. Published by

toi

pronoun. they

[LR/072.1101; LR/072.1401; LR/072.3801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

inti

pronoun. they

[PE22/124.0907] Group: Eldamo. Published by

intin

pronoun. they

@@@ Regarding -n see “the final -m/n that sometimes appears at the end of object pronouns in pl. and belongs to them, not to the subject.” (PE22/94) as suggested by Aleksandr Zaprjagaev: plus.google.com

[PE22/124.0907] Group: Eldamo. Published by

parma

noun. book

[Ety/PAR.007; EtyAC/PAR.008; PE18/051.3005; PE21/08.0407; PE21/58.1612; PE21/59.3521; PE21/59.3602; PE21/60.1202; PE21/60.1207; PE21/60.2912; PE21/61.1903; PE21/61.1908; PE22/018.2412; PE22/019.2403; PE22/022.0303; PE22/046.1501; PE22/046.1609; PE22/046.1801; PE22/050.1503; PE22/061.1311; PE22/063.0910; PE22/063.1107] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tekte

noun. book

[QL/090.6401; QL/090.6402] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-sta

suffix. verbal noun, infinitive, gerund

Element in: MQ. kiryasta, MQ. mausta, MQ. tengwesta

-sta

suffix. verbal noun, infinitive, gerund

[PE14/056.2501; QL/031.7901-2; QL/036.2702-2; QL/036.7402-2; QL/046.0901-2; QL/049.1301-2; QL/049.7901-2; QL/052.1201-2; QL/062.1101-2; QL/072.4001-3; QL/072.7901-2; QL/077.4701-2; QL/089.2801-3; QL/091.4301-2; QL/100.0901-2; QL/101.3002-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-sta

suffix. verbal noun, infinitive, gerund

Doriathrin

-ath

noun. collective plural

A class-plural suffix, identical to N. -ath (PE21/57). It is possible this suffix was also used as (and was perhaps inspired by) the Gnomish general plural suffix -th.

[PE21/57.2215-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Old Noldorin

parma

noun. book

[Ety/PAR.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

-stā

suffix. -ing

[Ety/KHAW.0231; PE18/048.1910] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-asta

suffix. collective plural

[PE18/035.0605; PE21/57.2201; PE21/57.2202; PE21/64.0602; PE21/64.0603; PE21/64.0604] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-b(iy)ē

suffix. -ing

[PE22/092.3006; PE22/092.3007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-iyē

suffix. -ing

[PE22/092.3005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-m(iy)ē

suffix. -ing

[PE22/092.3008; PE22/092.3009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

khe

pronoun. they

[PE22/094.1903] Group: Eldamo. Published by

parmā

noun. book

[Ety/PAR.005; PE18/051.3003; PE21/58.0211; PE21/58.1509; PE21/58.1510; PE21/58.1512; PE21/58.1513; PE21/58.3908; PE21/58.3909; PE21/61.1819; PE21/61.1912; PE21/64.1401; PE21/64.1402] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech, Nandorin, Noldorin, Quendya, Quenya, Sindarin, Telerin are languages conceived by Tolkien and they do not belong to us; we neither can nor do claim affiliation with Middle-earth Enterprises nor Tolkien Estate.