Quenya 

nár

noun. fire (as an element), fire (as an element); [ᴹQ.] flame

The basic Quenya word for “fire” derived from the root √NAR of the same meaning (PE17/29, 38), more specifically “fire as an element” or as a force or abstract concept (PE17/183), versus ruinë “a fire, a blaze” which is an individual fire or blaze in the physical world. In The Etymologies of the 1930s it appeared as ᴹQ. nár or náre “flame” derived from the root ᴹ√NAR “flame, fire” (Ety/NAR¹).

Conceptual Development: The Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s had as a derivative of the root ᴱ√SAH(Y)A “be hot” the word ᴱQ. “Fire, especially in temples, etc. A mystic name identified with Holy Ghost” (QL/81), and this “mystic name” was also mentioned in the Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa (PME/81). Thus it seems ᴱQ. was “mystic fire”, as opposed to ᴱQ. uru which was ordinary “fire” (QL/98).

Cognates

  • S. naur “fire, fire, [N.] flame” ✧ PE17/038; SA/nár

Derivations

  • NAR “fire, fire, [ᴹ√] flame” ✧ PE17/038

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
(A)NAR > nár[nār]✧ PE17/038

Variations

  • Nar ✧ LotR/1110 (Nar)
  • nār- ✧ PE17/183
Quenya [LotR/1110; PE17/029; PE17/038; PE17/183; SA/nár] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nár

flame

nár noun "flame", also nárë (NAR1).Translated "fire" in some names, see Aicanár(o), Fëanáro (where nár apparently has the masculine ending -o added to it). According to PE17:183, nár- is "fire as an element" (a concrete fire or blaze is rather called a ruinë).

nárë

flame

nárë, also short nár, noun "flame" (NAR1, Narqelion). Translated "fire" in some names, see Aicanáro, Fëanáro (where nár apparently has the masculine ending -o, though in the latter name it may also be the genitive ending since Fëa-náro** is translated "Spirit of Fire"). At one point, Tolkien mentioned "nār-" as the word for "fire (as an element)" (PE17:183). Cf. ruinë** as the word for "a fire" (a concrete instance of fire) in the same source.

is

(1) vb. "is" (am). (Nam, RGEO:67). This is the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns "in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another" (VT49:28). Also in impersonal constructions: ringa ná "it is cold" (VT49:23). The copula may however be omitted "where the meaning is clear" without it (VT49:9). is also used as an interjection "yes" or "it is so" (VT49:28). Short na in airë [] na, "[] is holy" (VT43:14; some subject can evidently be inserted in the place of [].) Short na also functions as imperative: alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heaven be to God" (VT44:32/34), also na airë "be holy" (VT43:14); also cf. nai "be it that" (see nai #1). The imperative participle á may be prefixed (á na, PE17:58). However, VT49:28 cites as the imperative form. Pl. nar or nár "are" (PE15:36, VT49:27, 9, 30); dual nát (VT49:30). With pronominal endings: nányë/nanyë "I am", nalyë or natyë "you (sg.) are" (polite and familiar, respectively), nás "it is", násë "(s)he is", nalmë "we are" (VT49:27, 30). Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps to be taken as representing the aorist: nain, naityë, nailyë (1st person sg, and 2nd person familiar/polite, respectively); does a following na represent the aorist with no pronominal ending? However, the forms nanyë, nalyë, , nassë, nalme, nar (changed from nár) are elsewhere said to be "aorist", without the extra vowel i (e.g. nalyë rather than nailyë); also notice that *"(s)he is" is here nassë rather than násë (VT49:30).Pa.t. nánë or "was", pl. náner/nér and dual nét "were" (VT49:6, 9, 10, 27, 28, 30, 36). According to VT49:31, "was" cannot receive pronominal endings (though nésë "he was" is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29), and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen "I was", anel "you were", anes "(s)he/it was" (VT49:28-29). Future tense nauva "will be" (VT42:34, VT49:19, 27; another version however gives the future tense as uva, VT49:30). Nauva with a pronominal ending occurs in tanomë nauvan "I will be there" (VT49:19), this example indicating that forms of the verb may also be used to indicate position. Perfect anaië "has been" (VT49:27, first written as anáyë). Infinitive (or gerund) návë "being", PE17:68. See also nai #1.

ná-

verb. to be, to be, [ᴱQ.] exist

Changes

  • nāner ✧ VT49/09
  • nārnăr ✧ VT49/30

Cognates

  • Ad. -n “predicate suffix”
  • S. na- “to be”

Derivations

  • “be (the same as another), exist” ✧ PE17/093

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
> [nā]✧ PE17/093

Variations

  • ✧ LotR/0377; PE17/090; PE17/093; PE22/154; PE22/167; VT42/33; VT49/09; VT49/23
  • na ✧ Minor-Doc/1955-CT; PE17/057; PE17/074; PE17/074; PE17/090; PE17/162; VT43/13; VT43/30
  • ✧ PE17/058; RGEO/59; VT49/09 (); VT49/28; VT49/30
  • nā- ✧ PE22/166; VT49/27; VT49/28 (nā-)
  • nā̀ ✧ RGEO/58
  • ✧ RGEO/60
  • nā̆ ✧ VT49/30
  • nār ✧ VT49/30 (nār)
Quenya [LotR/0377; Minor-Doc/1955-CT; PE17/057; PE17/058; PE17/059; PE17/074; PE17/090; PE17/093; PE17/126; PE17/162; PE22/154; PE22/158; PE22/166; PE22/167; PE22/168; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; RGEO/60; VT42/33; VT42/34; VT43/13; VT43/14; VT43/15; VT43/16; VT43/23; VT43/30; VT43/34; VT44/34; VT49/09; VT49/10; VT49/19; VT49/23; VT49/27; VT49/28; VT49/29; VT49/30] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Fëanáro

spirit of fire

Fëanáro masc. name "Spirit of Fire", in Sindarized form Fëanor(SA:nár, PHAY, MR:206). The word apparently includes the masculine ending -o. Compare fëa, nár.

velca

flame

velca ("k") noun "flame" (LT1:260; nár, nárë would be the normal word in Tolkien's later Quenya)

-ië

suffix. is

- (3) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantië "he is fallen", márië "it is good" (< *númessë "in the west", melda "beloved", *talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina "gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be", verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song. This suffix is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya: - is an infinitival or gerundial ending in CO, for ye "is" Namárië has , and the phrase "lost is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwië.

ye

is

ye (2) copula "is" (FS, VT46:22); both earlier and later sources rather point to (q.v.) as the copula "is", so ye may have been an experiment Tolkien later abandoned. Future tense yéva, q.v.

úyë

is

úyë vb., a form occurring in Fíriel's Song (cf. VT46:22), apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")

Sindarin 

naur

noun. flame

Sindarin [Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV] Group: SINDICT. Published by

naur

noun. fire

Sindarin [Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV] Group: SINDICT. Published by

na-

verb. to be

Changes

  • dôddád ✧ VT44/22
  • dádhae ✧ VT44/22
  • haeno ✧ VT44/24

Cognates

  • Q. ná- “to be, to be, [ᴱQ.] exist”

Derivations

  • “be (the same as another), exist”

Element in

Variations

  • dôd ✧ VT44/22 (dôd)
  • dád ✧ VT44/22 (dád)
  • hae ✧ VT44/22 (hae)
Sindarin [VT44/22; VT44/24; VT50/23] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lacha-

verb. to flame

Sindarin Group: SINDICT. Published by

lach

noun. (leaping) flame

Sindarin [S/433, X/LH] Group: SINDICT. Published by

lacho

verb. flame!

Sindarin [UT/65] Group: SINDICT. Published by

lacha

flame

(verb) *lacha- (i lacha, i lachar). Only the imperative form lacho is attested.

lach

flame

(noun) 1) lach (leaping flame), pl. laich; 2) naur (in compounds nar-, -nor) (fire, sun), pl. noer, coll. pl. norath, 3) rill (construct ril) (brilliance, glittering reflected light), no distinct pl. form except with article (idh rill).

Khuzdûl

nár

masculine name. Nár

Khuzdûl [LotRI/Nár; PMI/Nár] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

naur

noun. fire

Noldorin [Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV] Group: SINDICT. Published by

naur

noun. flame

Noldorin [Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV] Group: SINDICT. Published by

naur

noun. flame

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. nár(e) “flame” ✧ Ety/NAR¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NAR “flame, fire” ✧ Ety/NAR¹

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NAR¹ > naur[nār] > [nǭr] > [nour] > [naur]✧ Ety/NAR¹
Noldorin [Ety/EK; Ety/NAR¹; PE22/034; TI/187] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cûl

noun. flame

A word for “flame” in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the root ᴹ√KUL “golden-red”, but this word was deleted (EtyAC/KUL).

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. kulo “flame” ✧ EtyAC/KUL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KUL “golden-red” ✧ EtyAC/KUL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√KUL > cûl[kūl]✧ EtyAC/KUL
Noldorin [EtyAC/KUL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lhach

noun. (leaping) flame

Noldorin [S/433, X/LH] Group: SINDICT. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Qenya 

ná-

verb. to be

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NĀ/ANA “be, exist” ✧ Ety/NĀ²
  • ᴹ✶ “was; then, ago” ✧ PE22/096

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NĀ² > [nā]✧ Ety/NĀ²
ᴹ✶nḗ > [nē]✧ PE22/096

Variations

  • ✧ Ety/NĀ²
Qenya [Ety/NĀ²; PE22/096] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nár(e)

noun. flame

Cognates

  • N. naur “flame” ✧ Ety/NAR¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NAR “flame, fire” ✧ Ety/NAR¹

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NAR¹ > nár[nār]✧ Ety/NAR¹

Variations

  • nár ✧ Ety/NAR¹
  • náre ✧ Ety/NAR¹

kulo

noun. flame

A word for “flame” in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the root ᴹ√KUL “golden-red”, but this word was deleted (EtyAC/KUL).

Cognates

  • N. cûl “flame” ✧ EtyAC/KUL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KUL “golden-red” ✧ EtyAC/KUL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√KUL > kulo[kulo]✧ EtyAC/KUL

ye-

verb. to be

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ “to be” ✧ PE22/123

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√YE > [jē]✧ PE22/123

Variations

  • ✧ PE22/123 ()
Qenya [LR/072; PE22/011; PE22/107; PE22/115; PE22/117; PE22/119; PE22/120; PE22/123] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

eʒ-

verb. to be

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ “be”

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. ea- “to be; to exist, have being, be found extant in the real world” ✧ PE22/122; PE22/122; PE22/122; PE22/122

Variations

  • eʒe ✧ PE22/122
  • eñe ✧ PE22/122
Middle Primitive Elvish [PE22/122] Group: Eldamo. Published by

root. to be

Changes

  • YEĒ “to be” ✧ PE22/122

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. ye- “to be” ✧ PE22/123
  • ᴹQ. -ie “stative suffix” ✧ EtyAC/YĒ

Variations

  • Ī ✧ EtyAC/YĒ
  • I ✧ PE18/060
  • YE ✧ PE18/084 (YE); PE22/123 (YE)
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/YĒ; PE18/060; PE18/084; PE22/123] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ē

root. to be

Middle Primitive Elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

ī

root. to be

Middle Primitive Elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

na-

verb. to be

Changes

  • nithi ✧ GL/58

Cognates

  • Eq. ná- “to be, exist”

Derivations

  • ᴱ√ “be, exist”

Element in

Variations

  • na-¹ ✧ GL/58
  • ni ✧ GL/58 (ni)
Gnomish [GG/09; GL/58] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cantha

noun. flame

A noun in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s glossed “flame” (GL/25), probably based on the early root ᴱ√KṆŘṆ [KṆÐṆ] “shine” (QL/47).

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
KṆÐṆ“shine”
-tha“noun or adjective suffix”

Early Noldorin

lhacha

noun. flame

Early Noldorin [PE13/148] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

velka

noun. flame

A noun in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s glossed “a flame” derived from the early root ᴱ√(M)BELEKE (GL/22).

Cognates

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√melek/mbelek/belek > velka[βelkā] > [βelka] > [velka]✧ GL/22
Early Quenya [GL/22; LT1A/Melko] Group: Eldamo. Published by

e-

verb. to be

Derivations

  • ᴱ√Ī “be” ✧ PE16/140

Element in

Early Quenya [PE14/051; PE14/054; PE14/057; PE16/062; PE16/066; PE16/140; PE16/141; PE16/143] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ó-

verb. to be

Derivations

  • ᴱ√Ō “be, exist” ✧ QL/069

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√Ō > ō-[ō-]✧ QL/069

Variations

  • ō- ✧ QL/069
Early Quenya [QL/069] Group: Eldamo. Published by