Quenya 

aira

holy

aira (2) adj. "holy"; see airë #1

airë

holy

airë (1) adj. "holy", #Airefëa "the Holy Spirit" (VT43:37, dative airefëan on the previous page), airetári or Airë Tári "holy queen" (a title of Varda, PM:363), genitive aire-tário "holy-queen's" (Nam, RGEO:67). However, according to PM:363, airë is the noun "sanctity", while aira is the adjective "holy". VT43:14 refers to an etymological note of "Sept.-Oct. 1957" where airë is said to be a noun "sanctity, holiness", and the adjective "holy" is given as airëa. However, the verb #airita- "hallow" seems to be formed from an adjective airë, airi- "holy". Evidently airë can function as both adjective ("holy") and noun ("holiness"); if so airë as adj. could represent a primitive adjective gaisi, whereas airë as noun may descend from gaisē. The former but not the latter would have the stem airi- (as observed in the derived verb #airita-), and compounds like airetári (rather than *airitári) would seem to contain properly the noun "holiness".

airë

noun. sea

An archaic word for “sea” which fell out of use to due conflict with “holy” words like aira or airë; it was a noun form of primitive ✶gaı̯ră (PE17/27). The more common modern word for “sea” is ëar.

Conceptual Development: ᴹQ. aire “sea” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of ᴹ√AYAR (Ety/AY); it appeared beside a form ᴹQ. airen that might be a genitive form, or might be a longer form; see the entry on ᴹQ. airon for discussion.

Cognates

  • S. gaear “sea” ✧ PE17/027

Derivations

  • gayār “sea, the terrifier” ✧ PE17/027
    • GAY(AR) “awe, dread; astound, make aghast; sea” ✧ PE17/027; PM/363; WJ/400

Element in

  • Q. airon “ocean” ✧ PE17/027

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
gaı̯ră > aire[gaira] > [ɣaira] > [aira]✧ PE17/027

Variations

  • aire ✧ PE17/027 (aire)

airë

sea

airë (2) noun "sea" (the form airen is given, intended as a genitive singular when Tolkien wrote this; in LotR-style Quenya it would rather be a dative sg.) (AYAR/AIR; cf. airon)

airen

noun. sea

Quenya [PE 22:23n] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

airëa

holy

airëa adj. "holy"; see airë.

ëar

sea

ëar noun "sea" (AYAR/AIR [gives also dat. sg. ëaren],WJ:413; see Letters:386 for etymology). Not to be confused with the pl. form of the verb ëa "be, exist". Pl. ëari "seas" (FS, LR:47); Eär "the Great Sea" (cf. ëaron "ocean"), ablative Eärello "from the Great Sea", et Eärello "out of the Great Sea" (EO). Eärë noun "the open sea" (SD:305). Compound ëaruilë noun "seaweed" (UY). Found in proper names like Eärendil "Sea-friend", Eärendur masc. name, *"Sea-servant"; in effect a variant of Eärendil(Appendix A). Eärendur was also used ="(professional) mariner" (Letters:386).Fem. name Eärwen "Sea-maiden" (Silm); Eärrámë "Sea-wing", "Wings of the Sea", name of Tuor's ship (RAM, AYAR/AIR, SA)

aina

holy

aina (2) adj "holy" (AYAN), derived from Ainu. Adopted and adapted from Valarin. According to VT43:32, the word is "obsolete, except in Ainur", apparently suggesting that airë or airëa (q.v.) was the normal term for "holy" in later Quenya. However, Tolkien repeatedly used aina in his translation of the Litany of Loreto: Aina Fairë "Holy Spirit", Aina Neldië "Holy Trinity", Aina Maria "Holy Mary", Aina Wendë "Holy Virgin". He also used Aina Eruontari for "holy Mother" in his rendering of the Sub Tuum Praesidium(WJ:399, FS, SA, VT43:32, VT44:5, 12, 17-18)

vilya

noun. air, sky

A word for “air” or “sky” appearing Appendix E of The Lord of the Rings from older †wilya, serving as the name of tengwa #24 [n] (LotR/1123). It is clearly a derivative of the root ᴹ√WIL (Ety/WIL). It has an abnormal plural form wilyar with initial w- in the 1950s version of the Nieninquë poem in the phrase yan i wilyar antar miquelis “✱to whom the air gives kisses” (PE16/96).

Conceptual Development: The notion of the “lower air” as a region dates all the way back to the earliest Lost Tales, where the innermost layer of air was called ᴱQ. Vilna (LT1/65). However, in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, the term was ᴱQ. Vilya “air (lower)” as a derivative of the early root ᴱ√VILI (QL/101). The word vilya “lower air” appeared English-Qenya Dictionary of the 1920s but was deleted (PE15/68), and this term appeared as both the singular “air” and plural “airs” in version of Nieninqe and its drafts circa 1930: yan/yar i vilya(r) anta miqilis “to whom the air(s) give kisses” (MC/215; PE16/90, 92).

In the Ambarkanta of the early 1930s, the lower air was {Wilwa >>} Vista (SM/236, 240 note #1), but it was Wilwa again in the earliest tales of Númenor from the 1930s (LR/12) and was ᴹQ. {vilwa >>} wilma in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the root ᴹ√WIL “fly, float in air” (Ety/WIL). Q. vilya “air, sky” in Appendix E seems to be the last iteration in this chain.

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I think vilya refers mainly to air as the region above the ground, as opposed to ᴹQ. vista “air (as a substance)”. You breath vista, but birds fly through vilya, and breezes flow through vilya like ripples in a lake.

Derivations

  • ᴹ√WIL “fly, float in air”

Element in

Variations

  • wilya ✧ LotR/1123 (wilya)
Quenya [LotR/1123; PE16/096] Group: Eldamo. Published by

vilya

air, sky

vilya noun "air, sky", also name of tengwa #24. Older wilya. (Appendix E). Early "Qenya" has Vilya (changed from Vilna) "lower air" (LT1:273); also vilya "air" (MC:215)

wilya

noun. air, sky

aista

holy

aista (1) adj. "holy" (VT43:37)

lírë

noun. song

Derivations

  • LIR “sing, warble, sing, warble, [ᴹ√] trill” ✧ PE17/067

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
LIR > līrĭ-[līri] > [līre]✧ PE17/067

Variations

  • líre ✧ PE17/067
Quenya [LotR/0377; PE17/067; PE17/076; PM/364; RGEO/58; RGEO/59] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lírë

song

lírë noun "song", stem #líri- in the instrumental form lírinen "in [the] song" or *"by [the] song" (Nam, RGEO:67)

vilwa

air, lower air

[vilwa < wilwa] noun "air, lower air" (distinct from the 'upper' air of the stars, or the 'outer') (WIL; in one place vilwa was not struck out, VT46:21) According to VT46:21, Tolkien considered vilda < wilda as a replacement form, but rejected it.

wilma

air, lower air

wilma noun "air, lower air" (distinct from the 'upper' air of the stars, or the 'outer') (WIL)

váya

sea

váya noun "sea" (considered as "waters, motion"). The wording of the source indicates that Tolkien only tentatively considered such a word (PE17:33)

vëa

sea

vëa (3) noun "sea" (MC:213, 214, 216; possibly obsoleted by #1 and #2 above, though some argue that the initial element of the late names Vëantur and Vëandur [q.v.] could be vëa #3 rather than #2 (it can hardly be #1) . In any case, the normal word for "sea" in LotR-style Quenya seems to be ëar.) Inflected vëan "sea" (MC:220), vëar "in sea" (a "Qenya" locative in -r, MC:213), vëassë "on sea" (MC:220). Cf. also vëaciryo.

lindë

air, tune, singing, song

lindë noun "air, tune, singing, song" (SA:gond, (LIN2, [GLIN]); lindelorendor "music-dream-land"; see laurelindórenan lindelorendor... _(LotR2:III ch. 4, cf. Letters:308). _Also compare lindi- in lindimaitar, q.v. (but the other compounds here cited do not give a lindë a stem-form lindi-).

valcanë

vague

valcanë ("k") adj. "vague" (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

wilwa

vague, fluttering to and fro

wilwa adj. "vague, fluttering to and fro" (_Markirya). _A similar word in the Etymologies was struck out: [wilwa > vilwa] "air, lower air" (distinct from the 'upper' air of the stars, or the 'outer') (WIL) According to VT46:21, Tolkien considered wilda > vilda as a replacement form, but rejected it.

hwesta

noun. breeze, breeze; [ᴹQ.] breath, puff of air

A noun in Appendix E of The Lord of the Rings glossed “breeze”, the name of tengwa #12 [c] (LotR/1123).

Conceptual Development: ᴹQ. hwesta “breath, breeze, puff of air” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of the root ᴹ√SWES “noise of blowing or breathing” (Ety/SWES).

Cognates

  • ᴺS. hwest “puff, breath, breeze”

Derivations

  • ᴹ√SWES “noise of blowing or breathing”

Element in

hwesta

breeze, breath, puff of air

hwesta (1) noun "breeze, breath, puff of air" (SWES), also name of tengwa #12 (Appendix E, VT46:17); hwesta sindarinwa "Grey-elven hw", name of tengwa #34 (Appendix E).

eressëa

adjective. lonely

Element in

Variations

  • erEssëa ✧ LotR/1116

eressëa

lonely

eressëa adj. "lonely" (ERE, LT1:269), "solitary" (cf. Letters:386). Eressëa place-name "Lonely (One)", often used by itself for Tol Eressëa, the Lonely Isle (Silm) or Solitary Isle (Letters:386, footnote)

Sindarin 

air

adjective. lonely

Derivations

  • eryā “isolated, lonely” ✧ PE17/028; VT50/18
    • ER “one, single, alone, one, single, alone; [ᴹ√] be alone, deprived; [ᴱ√] remain alone”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
eryā > eir > air[erjā] > [erja] > [eria] > [eri] > [eir] > [air]✧ PE17/028
eryā > erı̯a > erı̯ > irı̯ > îr[erja] > [erja] > [eria] > [eri] > [iri] > [ir] > [īr]✧ VT50/18

Variations

  • îr ✧ VT50/18; VT50/18
Sindarin [PE17/028; VT50/18] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aer

noun. sea

Tolkien changed this word several times, see aear , gaear

Sindarin Group: SINDICT. Published by

aer

adjective. holy

Sindarin [VT/44:21,24] Group: SINDICT. Published by

aear

noun. sea

aear

Sea

_n. _Sea, especially the Great (Western) Sea. Q. ear. nef aear, sí nef aearon lit. 'beyond the Sea, here beyond the Great Sea'. >> gaear, gaer

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20-1:27] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

aear

noun. sea

Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaear

Sindarin Group: SINDICT. Published by

gaer

Sea

_n._Sea, especially the Great (Western) Sea. Shorter form of gaear.Q. aire (obsolete). >> aear, gaear

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:27] < _gaı_9_ră _< GAY(AR). Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gaer

noun. sea

gaer

noun. sea

Sindarin [Ety/349, S/431, PM/363] Group: SINDICT. Published by

laer

noun. song

Element in

Variations

  • Laer ✧ S/209

laer

noun. song, long lay

Sindarin [Laer Cú Beleg S/406, VT/45:28, X/LH] Group: SINDICT. Published by

gaear

Sea

_n. _Sea, especially the Great (Western) Sea. Shorter form gaer. Q. ear. >> aear, gaer

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:27] < GAY(AR). Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gaear

noun. sea

Sindarin [Ety/349, PM/363, RGEO/73] Group: SINDICT. Published by

gaear

noun. sea

A word for “sea” variously attested as gaear (PE17/027; PM/363; WJ/400), gaer (PE17/27; PE17/149), and aear (Let/386; RGEO/65) in later writings. Of these, I prefer gaear.

Possible Etymology: The presence or absence of the initial g- depends on whether the word’s root is √AY(AR) (as it appears in The Etymologies and some later writings) or √GAY(AR) (as it appears in other later writings). See the entry of the root √GAY(AR) for a discussion of this vacillation. Similarly, the form gaer appears primarily as an element in compounds, and can be explained as a reduced form of gaear in that context. For these reasons, this entry uses gaear as the ordinary Sindarin word for “sea”. This has the additional advantage of disambuiguating it from the adjective gaer “dreadful”.

Conceptual Development: This word appeared as N. oer or oear “sea” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, reflecting the Noldorin sound change of ai to oe (Ety/AY). However name for the “Great Sea” was N. {Belegar >>} Belegaer in the narratives of this period (LR/19), and the name N. Rhûnaer “Eastern Sea” appeared in draft Lord of the Rings maps from 1943 (TI/307). The element N. oer did appear in the day-of-the-week name N. Aroeren “✱Sea-day” in drafts of The Lord of the Rings appendices, but this was revised to S. Oraeron (PM/130, 138).

Cognates

  • Q. airë “sea” ✧ PE17/027
  • Q. ëar “sea, great sea, sea, great sea, [ᴹQ.] open sea; water” ✧ Let/386; PE17/027; PM/363; RGEO/65; SA/ëar; WJ/400

Derivations

  • AY(AR) “sea” ✧ Let/386
  • GAY(AR) “awe, dread; astound, make aghast; sea” ✧ PE17/027; PE17/149; SA/gaer
  • gayār “sea, the terrifier” ✧ PE17/027; PM/363; WJ/400
    • GAY(AR) “awe, dread; astound, make aghast; sea” ✧ PE17/027; PM/363; WJ/400

Element in

  • S. Aerandir “Sea-wanderer”
  • S. Belegaer “Great Sea” ✧ PM/363; SA/ëar; SA/gaer
  • S. gaearon “ocean, (lit.) great sea” ✧ PE17/027; PE17/149; PM/363; RGEO/65
  • S. Gaerdil “*Sea-lover” ✧ PE17/027
  • ᴺS. gaeruil “seaweed”
  • S. Gaerys “Ossë” ✧ SA/gaer
  • ᴺS. gaessarn “pearl, (lit.) sea-pebble/stone”
  • S. nef aear, sí nef aearon “here ... beyond the Sea, beyond the wide and sundering Sea” ✧ LotR/0238; PE17/027; RGEO/63; RGEO/64
  • S. Tirith Aear “Sea-ward Tower”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
gaı̯ră > gaer[gaira] > [gair] > [gaer]✧ PE17/027
Gayar- > gaear[gaiara] > [gaiar] > [gaear]✧ PM/363

Variations

  • aear ✧ Let/386; RGEO/65
  • gaer ✧ PE17/027; PE17/149; SA/ëar; SA/gaer
Sindarin [Let/386; LotR/0238; PE17/027; PE17/149; PM/363; RGEO/63; RGEO/64; RGEO/65; SA/ëar; SA/gaer; WJ/400] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lind

noun. air, tune

Sindarin [Ety/369, X/LH, X/ND1] Group: SINDICT. Published by

lîr

noun. song, poem, lay

Sindarin [VT/45:28, X/LH] Group: SINDICT. Published by

aearon

noun. great sea, ocean

Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaearon

Sindarin Group: SINDICT. Published by

gaeron

noun. great sea, ocean

Sindarin [PM/363, PM/348, RGEO/72-73] Group: SINDICT. Published by

aerlinn

noun. (unknown meaning, perhaps a song about the sea, or possibly holy song)

Sindarin [RGEO/70, X/ND4] aer+lind (?) "sea-song" or (?) "holy song", OS *airelinde. Group: SINDICT. Published by

gaearon

noun. great sea, ocean

Sindarin [PM/363, PM/348, RGEO/72-73] Group: SINDICT. Published by

hwa

breeze

n. #breeze. >> hwá

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:34] < SWAW. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gwelu

noun. air (as substance)

Sindarin [Ety/398, X/W] Group: SINDICT. Published by

hwá

breeze

n. #breeze. >> hwa

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:34] < SWAW. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gwelu

air

2) (as substance) gwelu (i **welu), analogical pl. gwely (in gwely) if there is a pl. The attested form is archaic gwelw** (LR:398 s.v. WIL). Hence the coll. pl. is likely *gwelwath, if there is a coll. pl..

gwelwen

air

1) (as a region) gwelwen (i **welwen), pl. gwelwin (in gwelwin), also gwilith (i **wilith), no distinct pl. form except with article (in gwilith)

lind

air

3) (of music) lind (song, tune; singer, in the latter sense also used of rivers), no distinct pl. form, but coll. pl. linnath (WJ.309)

aear

sea

aear (ocean); pl. aeair. The shorter form aer (for N oer) is maybe best avoided since it can be confused with aer "holy", unless the latter is actually a lenited form of gaer. Forms with g-, representing an alternative concept of the word for ”sea”: gaear (i **aear) (ocean), pl. gaeair (i ngaeair = i ñaeair) (PM:363), also gaer (i **aer, no distinct pl. form except with article: i ngaer = i ñaer), but homophones of the latter mean "reddish, copper-coloured, ruddy" and also "dreadful, awful, fearful; holy".

gaer

holy

gaer (awful, fearful); lenited aear; no distinct pl. form. Note: homophones mean "reddish, copper-coloured, ruddy" and also "sea".

glîr

song

1) glîr (i **lîr, construct glir) (poem, lay), no distinct pl. form except with article (in glîr), coll. pl. glíriath. 2) laer (no distinct pl. form). Note: a homophone means ”summer”. 3) lind (air, tune; also = singer, in the latter sense also used of rivers), no distinct pl. form (WJ.309). See also HYMN regarding the word aerlinn**.

ereb

lonely

ereb (isolated), pl. erib

gwiltha-

verb. to air, expose to air

Derivations

  • ᴹ√WIL “fly, float in air”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan adaptations. Published by

hethu

vague

*hethu (foggy, obscure), analogical pl. hethy; lenited chethu. Cited in archaic form hethw (LR:364 s.v. KHIS, KHITH)

hwest

breeze

hwest (i chwest, o chwest) (puff, breath), pl. hwist (i chwist)

Adûnaic

azra

noun. sea

The Adûnaic word for “sea” (SD/429), appearing as azar in some early texts (SD/305). It is fully declined on SD/431.

Element in

Variations

  • azar ✧ PM/373; SD/305
Adûnaic [PM/373; SD/247; SD/305; SD/311; SD/429; SD/431; SD/435] Group: Eldamo. Published by

pharaz

noun. sea

A draft word for “sea”, deleted and replaced with azar (SD/305), which later become azra. This word reappeared later with a different meaning: pharaz “gold”.

Changes

  • pharazazar “sea” ✧ SD/305

Element in

  • Ad. PharazîrSea-lover” ✧ SD/305 (Pharazîr*)

Variations

  • pharaz ✧ SD/305 (pharaz)

Primitive elvish

ay(ar)

root. sea

Changes

  • AY(AR)GAY(AR) ✧ PE17/027

Derivatives

  • airō “ocean” ✧ PE18/097
    • Q. airon “ocean” ✧ PE17/149
  • Q. ëar “sea, great sea, sea, great sea, [ᴹQ.] open sea; water” ✧ Let/386
  • S. gaear “sea” ✧ Let/386

Element in

  • Q. ailin “a large lake, (large) lake, [ᴹQ.] pool” ✧ PE17/160
  • Q. Eärendil “Lover of the Sea” ✧ Let/386
  • S. ael “lake, pool”

Variations

  • AYAR ✧ Let/386; PE18/097
  • AYA(R) ✧ PE17/149; PE17/160
Primitive elvish [Let/386; PE17/027; PE17/149; PE17/160; PE18/097] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

aer

noun. sea

oear

noun. sea

Noldorin [Ety/349, PM/363, RGEO/73] Group: SINDICT. Published by

oear

noun. sea

lhaer

noun. song, long lay

Noldorin [Laer Cú Beleg S/406, VT/45:28, X/LH] Group: SINDICT. Published by

lhind

noun. air, tune

Noldorin [Ety/369, X/LH, X/ND1] Group: SINDICT. Published by

lhinn

noun. air, tune

Noldorin [Ety/369, X/LH, X/ND1] Group: SINDICT. Published by

lhinn

noun. air, tune

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. linde “air, tune” ✧ Ety/LIN²

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶lindē “*singing”
    • ᴹ√LIN “sing”
  • ᴹ√LIN “sing” ✧ Ety/LIN²; Ety/TIN

Element in

  • N. dúlin(n) “nightingale” ✧ Ety/LIN²; Ety/TIN
  • N. Glewellin “Song of Gold”
  • N. tuilinn “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√LIN² > lhind > lhinn[lindē] > [linde] > [lind] > [l̥ind] > [l̥inn]✧ Ety/LIN²
Noldorin [Ety/LIN²; Ety/TIN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

glîr

noun. song, poem, lay

Noldorin [Ety/359] Group: SINDICT. Published by

lhîr

noun. song, poem, lay

Noldorin [VT/45:28, X/LH] Group: SINDICT. Published by

gwelwen

noun. air, lower air

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s given as the equivalent of ᴹQ. vilwa “lower air” under the root ᴹ√WIL (Ety/WIL). Since ᴹQ. vilwa was changed to wilma, I’d abandon this word and use N. gwilith instead.

oer

noun. sea

Noldorin [Ety/349, S/431, PM/363] Group: SINDICT. Published by

oer

noun. sea

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. aire “sea” ✧ Ety/AY
  • ᴹQ. ear “(open) sea; water” ✧ Ety/AY

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AY(AR) “sea” ✧ Ety/AY; Ety/AY; Ety/UY

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÁYAR > oear[ajar] > [aiar] > [oear]✧ Ety/AY
ᴹ√AI̯R > oer[ajr] > [air] > [oer]✧ Ety/AY

Variations

  • oear ✧ Ety/AY
  • aer ✧ TI/307 (aer)
Noldorin [Ety/AY; Ety/UY; TI/307] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwilith

noun. air (as a region)

Noldorin [Ety/398] Group: SINDICT. Published by

gwelw

noun. air (as substance)

Noldorin [Ety/398, X/W] Group: SINDICT. Published by

gwelwen

noun. air, lower air (distinct from the upper air of the stars, or the outer)

Noldorin [Ety/398] gwelu+men. Group: SINDICT. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Valarin 

šebeth

noun. air

Qenya 

vista

place name. Air

Name for the region of Air in Silmarillion notes from the 1930s (SM/236). It is simply vista “air as substance” used as a name.

Elements

WordGloss
vista“air as substance”
Qenya [LRI/Vista; SM/236; SM/240; SM/241; SMI/Vista; SMI/Wilwa] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aire

noun. sea

Changes

  • aireairen “sea” ✧ PE22/023

Cognates

  • N. oer “sea” ✧ Ety/AY

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AY(AR) “sea” ✧ Ety/AY

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Alataire “Great Sea” ✧ Ety/AY

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AI̯R > aire[aira]✧ Ety/AY
Qenya [Ety/AY; PE22/023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

airen

noun. sea

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AY(AR) “sea” ✧ Ety/AY

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AI̯R > airen[airen]✧ Ety/AY
Qenya [Ety/AY; PE22/023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aina

adjective. holy

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶aı̯an- “holy” ✧ Ety/AYAN
    • ᴹ√(A)YAN “*holy” ✧ Ety/AYAN

Element in

  • ᴹQ. talantie “they are holy, blessed, and beloved — save the dark one: he is fallen” ✧ LR/072

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶aı̯an- > aina[aina]✧ Ety/AYAN
Qenya [Ety/AYAN; LR/072] Group: Eldamo. Published by

earen

noun. sea

linde

noun. air, tune

Cognates

  • N. glinn “song, poem, lay” ✧ Ety/GLIN
  • N. lhinn “air, tune” ✧ Ety/LIN²

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶lindē “*singing”
    • ᴹ√LIN “sing”
  • ᴹ√LIN “sing” ✧ Ety/GLIN; Ety/LIN²; Ety/TIN

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GLIN > linde[glinde] > [ɣlinde] > [linde]✧ Ety/GLIN
ᴹ√LIN² > linde[linde]✧ Ety/LIN²

Variations

  • linde ✧ Ety/GLIN (linde); Ety/LIN²; Ety/TIN (linde)
Qenya [Ety/GLIN; Ety/LIN²; Ety/TIN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

vea

noun. sea

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶vaiā “sea” ✧ PE21/17
    • ᴹ√WAY “enfold”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶vaı̯ā > vea[vajā] > [vea]✧ PE21/17

Variations

  • vea ✧ PE21/08; PE21/17
Qenya [PE21/08; PE21/17] Group: Eldamo. Published by

wilma

noun. inner or lower air

Changes

  • vilwawilma “air, lower air” ✧ Ety/WIL
  • WilwaVista ✧ SM/240
  • WilwaVista ✧ SMI/Wilwa

Cognates

  • N. gwelw “air (as a substance)” ✧ Ety/WIL
  • Ilk. gwelo “air, lower air” ✧ Ety/WIL

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶wilwā “air, lower air” ✧ Ety/WIL; Ety/WIL; EtyAC/WIL
    • ᴹ√WIL “fly, float in air” ✧ Ety/WIL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶wilwā > vilwa[gwilwā] > [ɣwilwā] > [wilwā] > [wilwa] > [vilwa]✧ Ety/WIL
ᴹ✶wilmā > wilma[gwilmā] > [ɣwilmā] > [wilmā] > [wilma] > [vilma]✧ Ety/WIL
ᴹ✶wilnā > vilda[gwilnā] > [ɣwilnā] > [ɣwildā] > [wildā] > [wilda] > [vilda]✧ EtyAC/WIL

Variations

  • vilwa ✧ Ety/WIL (vilwa); EtyAC/WIL
  • vilda ✧ EtyAC/WIL (vilda)
  • Wilwa ✧ LR/012; LRI/Wilwa; SM/240 (Wilwa); SMI/Wilwa
Qenya [Ety/WIL; EtyAC/WIL; LR/012; LRI/Wilwa; SM/240; SMI/Wilwa] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eressea

adjective. lonely

Element in

Doriathrin

gwelo

noun. air, lower air

A noun for “air” or “the lower air”, derived from the same primitive form ᴹ✶wilwā as its Quenya equivalent ᴹQ. Wilwa (Ety/WIL). Here the [[ilk|initial [w] became [gw]]]. Furthermore, after the [[ilk|final [a] was lost]], the [[ilk|final [w] became [u]]] and then became [o], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/gwelo).

Conceptual Development: In the Addenda and Corrigenda to The Etymologies, Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne indicated the Tolkien revised this form to gwelm at the same time as he change its primitive to ᴹ✶wilmā and the Quenya form to ᴹQ. Wilma (EtyAC/WIL). This entry keeps the earlier Ilkorin form gwelo because Tolkien never revised ᴹQ. Wilwa in the narratives of this period.

Changes

  • gwelogwelm “air, lower air” ✧ EtyAC/WIL

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. wilma “inner or lower air” ✧ Ety/WIL
  • N. gwelw “air (as a substance)” ✧ Ety/WIL

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶wilwā “air, lower air” ✧ Ety/WIL; Ety/WIL
    • ᴹ√WIL “fly, float in air” ✧ Ety/WIL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶wilwā > gwelu > gwelo[wilwā] > [wilwa] > [welwa] > [gwelwa] > [gwelw] > [gwelu] > [gwelo]✧ Ety/WIL
ᴹ✶wilmā > gwelm[wilmā] > [wilma] > [welma] > [gwelma] > [gwelm]✧ Ety/WIL

Variations

  • gwelm ✧ EtyAC/WIL
Doriathrin [Ety/WIL; EtyAC/WIL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

wis

root. air

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. vista “air as substance” ✧ Ety/WIS
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/WIS; EtyAC/SWES] Group: Eldamo. Published by

vaiā

noun. sea

Derivations

  • ᴹ√WAY “enfold”

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. vea “sea” ✧ PE21/17

Element in

Variations

  • vaı̯ā ✧ PE21/17
Middle Primitive Elvish [PE21/17] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aı̯an-

adjective. holy

Derivations

  • ᴹ√(A)YAN “*holy” ✧ Ety/AYAN

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. aina “holy” ✧ Ety/AYAN
  • ᴹQ. Aini “holy one, angelic spirit (f.), holy one, angelic spirit (f.); [ᴱQ.] (pagan) goddess” ✧ Ety/AYAN
  • ᴹQ. Ainu “holy one, angelic spirit” ✧ Ety/AYAN

Variations

  • ayan- ✧ EtyAC/AYAN
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/AYAN; EtyAC/AYAN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ay(ar)

root. sea

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. aire “sea” ✧ Ety/AY
  • ᴹQ. airen “sea” ✧ Ety/AY
  • ᴹQ. ear “(open) sea; water” ✧ Ety/AY
  • N. oer “sea” ✧ Ety/AY; Ety/AY; Ety/UY

Element in

  • ᴹ✶ailin “pool, lake” ✧ Ety/AY
  • ᴹQ. ailin “pool, lake” ✧ Ety/LIN¹
  • ᴹQ. Alataire “Great Sea” ✧ Ety/ÁLAT
  • ᴹQ. Earráme “Sea-wing” ✧ Ety/RAM
  • ᴹQ. earuile “seaweed” ✧ Ety/UY
  • N. Belegoer “Great Sea” ✧ Ety/BEL

Variations

  • AY ✧ Ety/ÁLAT; Ety/AY; Ety/BEL; Ety/LIN¹; Ety/RAM; Ety/UY
  • AYAR ✧ EtyAC/AY
  • AIR ✧ EtyAC/AY
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/ÁLAT; Ety/AY; Ety/BEL; Ety/LIN¹; Ety/RAM; Ety/UY; EtyAC/AY] Group: Eldamo. Published by

wilwā

noun. air, lower air

Changes

  • wilwāwilnā “air, lower air” ✧ EtyAC/WIL
  • wilnāwilmā ✧ Ety/WIL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√WIL “fly, float in air” ✧ Ety/WIL

Derivatives

  • Ilk. gwelo “air, lower air” ✧ Ety/WIL; Ety/WIL
  • ᴹQ. wilma “inner or lower air” ✧ Ety/WIL; Ety/WIL; EtyAC/WIL
  • N. gwelw “air (as a substance)” ✧ Ety/WIL

Variations

  • wilmā ✧ Ety/WIL
  • wilnā ✧ EtyAC/WIL (wilnā)
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/WIL; EtyAC/WIL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

gwail

noun. air

Derivations

  • ᴱ√GWILI “*fly” ✧ GL/45

Element in

  • G. gwailtha- “to air; expose to air” ✧ GL/45

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√gu̯il > gwail[gʷīl] > [gʷail]✧ GL/45

air(in)

adjective. holy, sacred

Changes

  • airair(in) ✧ GL/18
  • eirioneirin ✧ PE13/113

Derivations

  • ᴱ√AYA “honour, revere” ✧ GL/18

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√aı̯¹ > air(in)[airin]✧ GL/18

Variations

  • air ✧ GL/18 (air); PE13/113
  • Airi ✧ PE13/093
  • eirin ✧ PE13/113
  • eirion ✧ PE13/113 (eirion)
Gnomish [GL/18; PE13/093; PE13/113] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eirin

adjective. holy

saroth

noun. sea

gwailtha-

verb. to air; expose to air

A word appearing in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s as G. gwailtha- “to air — expose to air”, a verb form of G. gwail “air” from the root ᴱ√gu̯il (GL/45).

Neo-Sindarin: I think this word can be salvaged as a causative verb ᴺS. gwiltha- of the same meaning, from the later version of its root: ᴹ√WIL which still have derivatives related to “air”, such as N. gwelw “air (as a substance)” (Ety/WIL).

blith

noun. air, breeze, zephyr

Cognates

  • Eq. víle “gentle breeze”

Derivations

  • ᴱ√VILI “*air”

dólin

noun. song

Derivations

Element in

  • G. Gondolin “Stone of Song” ✧ LT1A/Gondolin

Variations

  • dôlin ✧ GL/29
Gnomish [GL/29; LT1A/Gondolin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwilith

noun. breeze

Gnomish [GL/23; GL/45; LT1A/Vilna] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

gwai

noun. sea

A word for “sea” in Early Noldorin Word-lists from the 1920s (PE13/146), probably a cognate of ᴱQ. vea “sea” from this same period. It is probably a later iteration of G. Bai “the Outer Seas” from the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, cognate of ᴱQ. Vai as suggested by Christopher Tolkien (GL/21; LT1A/Vai).

Cognates

  • Eq. vea “sea”

Derivations

  • ᴱ√VAẎA “enfold, wind about”

Element in

Early Noldorin [PE13/146] Group: Eldamo. Published by

blith

noun. breeze, breeze, [G.] zephyr; air

A noun in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s appearing as G. blith “air, breeze, zephyr”, probably related to the early root ᴱ√VILI (GL/23). ᴱN. blith “breeze” also appeared in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s (PE13/139).

Derivations

  • ᴱ√VILI “*air”
Early Noldorin [PE13/139] Group: Eldamo. Published by

golyn

noun. song

gôl

noun. song

Variations

  • gól ✧ PE13/145
  • golyn ✧ PE13/145
Early Noldorin [PE13/145] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Primitive Elvish

bili

root. *air

Early Primitive Elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

vili

root. *air

Derivatives

  • Eq. víle “gentle breeze” ✧ LT1A/Vilna; QL/101
  • Eq. vilina “airy, breezy, light” ✧ LT1A/Vilna; QL/101
  • Eq. vilisse “spirit”
  • Eq. Vilna “(lower) air” ✧ LT1A/Vilna; QL/101
  • G. bil “bird” ✧ GL/22
  • G. blaith “spirit”
  • En. blith “breeze, breeze, [G.] zephyr; air”
  • G. blith “air, breeze, zephyr”
  • G. bilin(c) “small bird, sparrow” ✧ GL/22
  • G. biltha- “to flutter, flit”

Element in

  • Eq. Varavilindo “*Birdwarden”
  • Eq. Vilmar “dwelling of Manwe in the high airs” ✧ LT1A/Vilna; QL/101

Variations

  • bīl- ✧ GL/22
  • vil- ✧ GL/22; GL/23 (vil-)
Early Primitive Elvish [GL/22; GL/23; LT1A/Vilna; QL/101; QL/104] Group: Eldamo. Published by

suhyu

root. air, breath, exhale, puff

Derivatives

  • Eq. súma “nostril” ✧ QL/086
  • Eq. “(noise of) wind” ✧ LT1A/Súlimo; QL/086
  • Eq. suiva “soughing, moaning” ✧ QL/086
  • Eq. súlime “wind” ✧ LT1A/Súlimo; QL/086
  • Eq. súne “(human) nose” ✧ QL/086
  • Eq. súru “air-spirit; wind, gale” ✧ LT1A/Súlimo
  • Eq. súye “air, breezes, winds” ✧ QL/086
  • G. “noise of wind” ✧ LT1A/Súlimo
  • G. sûtha- “to blow (of wind)” ✧ LT1A/Súlimo
  • G. saul “great wind”
  • G. Sulus “air-spirit” ✧ LT1A/Súlimo
  • G. hunt “nose, nostrils, snout”

Variations

  • SUHU ✧ LT1A/Súlimo; QL/086
  • SUFU ✧ LT1A/Súlimo; QL/086
  • SUH͡YU ✧ QL/086
Early Primitive Elvish [LT1A/Súlimo; QL/086] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

ilma

noun. air

A word for “air” in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s (PE16/142), probably based on the early root ᴱ√ILU “ether”. Later ᴹQ. Ilma was used for “Starlight” (Ety/GIL; LR/205).

Elements

WordGloss
ILU“ether, the slender airs among the stars”
Early Quenya [PE16/142] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aira

adjective. holy, worshipful

Derivations

  • ᴱ√AYA “honour, revere”

Element in

Early Quenya [PME/034; QL/031] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lin

noun. melody, air, tune, musical voice

Cognates

  • G. glin “sound, voice, utterance” ✧ PE15/25; LT1A/Lindelos

Derivations

  • ᴱ√LIÐI “sing” ✧ LT1A/Lindelos; PME/054; QL/054

Element in

  • Eq. Laurelin “Singing-gold” ✧ PE15/25
  • Eq. Lindelokte “Singing Cluster” ✧ LT1A/Lindelos; LT1A/Lindelos; PE15/25
  • Eq. Lindelóte
  • Eq. linda “singing”
  • Eq. lindele “music, song” ✧ LT1A/Lindelos; QL/054
  • Eq. lindea “singing, *musical” ✧ QL/054
  • Eq. lindelin “melody, tune” ✧ QL/054
  • Eq. lindelokte “labernum, (lit.) singing cluster” ✧ QL/054
  • Eq. lindórea “singing at dawn (esp. of birds)” ✧ QL/054

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√LIŘI > lin[linðǝ] > [linð] > [lind] > [lin]✧ PME/054
ᴱ√LIŘI > lin¹[linðǝ] > [linð] > [lind] > [lin]✧ QL/054

Variations

  • lin ✧ LT1A/Lindelos; PME/054
  • linde ✧ PE15/25
Early Quenya [LT1A/Lindelos; PE15/25; PME/054; QL/054] Group: Eldamo. Published by

vea

noun. sea

Cognates

Derivations

  • ᴱ√VAẎA “enfold, wind about”

Element in

Variations

  • vea ✧ MC/213; MC/214; MC/216; PE16/100; PE16/104; PE16/138
Early Quenya [MC/213; MC/214; MC/216; MC/220; PE16/056; PE16/057; PE16/060; PE16/062; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/077; PE16/100; PE16/104; PE16/138] Group: Eldamo. Published by

súye

noun. air, breezes, winds

A noun in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s glossed “air, breezes, winds”, derived from the early root ᴱ√SUHYU “air, breath, exhale, puff” (QL/86).

Derivations

  • ᴱ√SUHYU “air, breath, exhale, puff” ✧ QL/086

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√SUHU > sūye[suxjē] > [suxje] > [suɣje] > [sūje]✧ QL/086

Variations

  • sūye ✧ QL/086 (sūye)
Early Quenya [QL/086; VT40/08] Group: Eldamo. Published by

valkane

adjective. vague

Element in

Variations

  • valkane ✧ MC/213
  • valka ✧ PE16/081
Early Quenya [MC/213; PE16/081] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eressea

adjective. lonely

Cognates

  • G. erethrin “isolated, solitary, lonely” ✧ GL/33; GL/33

Element in

  • Eq. Tol Eressea “Lonely Isle” ✧ LT1A/Tol Eressëa

Elements

WordGloss
eresse“alone, by oneself, singly, only; once”
-a“adjectival suffix”

Variations

  • eressëa ✧ LT1A/Tol Eressëa
  • Eressea ✧ PME/036
Early Quenya [GL/33; LT1A/Tol Eressëa; PE14/047; PE14/079; PE15/74; PME/036; QL/036] Group: Eldamo. Published by