Quenya 

imi

preposition. in, in, [ᴱQ.] inside

imi

in

imi prep. "in"; see mi (VT43:30)

in

the coimas [lembas] of the eldar

in article, apparently a variant of the definite article i, observed in the phrase i-coimas in-Eldaron "the coimas [lembas] of the Eldar" in PM:403. It looks like the Sindarin plural article, but in Quenya i normally covers both sg. and pl. "the", and the word Eldar does not need any article at all. The alternative reading i-coimas Eldaron (PM:395) is probably to be preferred.

in

article. the

in

the

i (1) "the", indeclinable definite article (I, Nam, RGEO:67, Markirya, WJ:369, WJ:398, MC:215, 216, 221). A variant in (q.v.) is also attested. Hyphenated i- in i-mar "the earth" (FS), i-Ciryamo "the mariner's" (UT:8), i-aldar "the trees" (Narqelion), attached with a dot in i·yulmar "the cups" (VT48:11), I·Eldanyárë "the History of the Elves" (LR:199), i·arya *"the best" (PE17:57), directly prefixed with no hyphen or dot in icilyanna = i cilyanna in SD:247, also ihyarma "the left hand" in VT49:22 (but i hyarma in other versions of the same text).

mi

preposition. in, in, [ᴹQ.] within

Cognates

  • S. mi “*in”

Derivations

  • “in, within” ✧ PE17/092; VT47/30
    • MI/IMI “in, within, [ᴹ√] inside” ✧ PE17/092; VT47/30
  • MI/IMI “in, within, [ᴹ√] inside” ✧ VT43/30

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
> [mi]✧ PE17/092
mi > imi[imi]✧ VT43/30
mi > mi[mi]✧ VT43/30
> [mi]✧ VT47/30

Variations

  • ✧ PE17/092; VT47/30
  • ✧ RGEO/58; VT49/35
  • imi ✧ VT43/30
  • mil ✧ VT43/30 (mil)
Quenya [LotR/0377; PE17/063; PE17/071; PE17/092; RGEO/58; UT/305; UT/317; VT43/13; VT43/30; VT43/36; VT44/18; VT44/34; VT47/30; VT49/35] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

article. the

Cognates

  • S. i “the” ✧ PE17/066

Element in

Variations

  • i ✧ DTS/54; LotR/0377; LotR/0377; LotR/0377; MC/221; MC/222; Minor-Doc/1955-CT; Minor-Doc/1973-05-30; MR/049; NM/239; NM/351; PE16/096; PE17/013 (i); PE17/065; PE17/066; PE17/068; PE17/127; PE17/127; PE19/076; PE21/77; PE21/80; PE22/147; PE22/161; PE22/166; RGEO/58; RGEO/58; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; RGEO/59; RGEO/59; S/190; UT/305; UT/317; VT21/06; VT43/19; VT43/29; VT43/31; VT43/35; VT43/37; VT43/37; VT43/37; VT43/38; VT44/35; VT47/35; VT49/08; VT49/12; VT49/22; WJ/166; WJ/369; WJ/369
  • I ✧ PE16/096; WJ/398
  • ✧ PE17/076; PM/395; PM/403; UT/008
  • in· ✧ PM/403
  • ’n ✧ S/190; S/190; WJ/166; WJ/166
Quenya [DTS/54; LotR/0377; MC/221; MC/222; Minor-Doc/1955-CT; Minor-Doc/1973-05-30; MR/049; NM/239; NM/240; NM/351; PE16/096; PE17/013; PE17/065; PE17/066; PE17/068; PE17/076; PE17/127; PE19/076; PE21/77; PE21/80; PE22/147; PE22/161; PE22/166; PM/395; PM/403; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; S/190; UT/008; UT/305; UT/317; VT21/06; VT43/19; VT43/29; VT43/31; VT43/35; VT43/37; VT43/38; VT44/35; VT47/35; VT49/08; VT49/12; VT49/22; WJ/166; WJ/369; WJ/398] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

pronoun. that

Quenya [PE 22:124] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

mina

preposition/adverb. into, in, into, in, [ᴹQ.] to the inside

Derivations

  • MI/IMI “in, within, [ᴹ√] inside” ✧ VT43/30

Element in

  • Q. minasurië “enquiry, *research” ✧ VT42/29
  • ᴺQ. minatec- “to record, (lit.) into-write”

Elements

WordGloss
mi“in, in, [ᴹQ.] within”
-nna“(movement) to, towards, onto, at (arriving at a point); allative suffix”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
mi > mina[mina]✧ VT43/30
Quenya [VT42/29; VT43/30] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mina

into

mina prep. "into" (VT43:30); see minna

sanar

mind

sanar noun "mind" (literally "thinker" or "reflector", suggesting an underlying verb #sana- "to think, to reflect") (VT41:13)

sáma

mind

sáma noun "mind" (pl. sámar and dual samat [sic, read *sámat?] are given) (VT39:23, VT41:5, VT49:33, PE17:183)

sáma

noun. mind

Derivations

  • SAM “mind, think, reflect, be aware” ✧ PE17/183; VT41/05

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
SAM > sāma[sāma]✧ PE17/183
sam > sāma[sāma]✧ VT41/05

Variations

  • sāma ✧ PE17/183; VT41/05
Quenya [PE17/183; VT39/23; VT39/30; VT41/05] Group: Eldamo. Published by

minna

to the inside, into

minna prep. "to the inside, into" (also mir) (MI); variant mina "into" (VT43:30), possibly occurring, compounded, in minasurie, q.v.

apa

on

apa (2) prep. denoting "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall). Apa is said to have this meaning in various Tolkien manuscripts (VT44:26), but apa is also used for "after" (see apa #1 above), and the two were probably never meant to coexist in a single variant of Quenya. The clash may be avoided by consistently using the variants , pa (q.v.) mentioned by Tolkien in the sense of apa #2. Another variant gives apa, "on (above but touching)" (VT49:18).

mi

in, within

mi prep. "in, within" (MI, VT27:20, VT44:18, 34, VT43:30; the latter source also mentions the variant imi); "in the" (Nam, RGEO:66; CO gives mi; the correct forms should evidently be mi = "in" and = mi i "in the"; VT49:35 also has with a long vowel, though the gloss is simply "in"). Used in PE17:71 (cf. 70) of people clad "in" various colours, e.g. mi mísë "in grey". Allative minna "to the inside, into" (MI), also mina (VT43:30). The forms mimmë and mingwë seem to incorporate pronominal suffixes for "us", hence ?"in us", inclusive and exclusive respectively. The pronoun -mmë denoted plural inclusive "we" when this was written, though Tolkien would later make it dual instead (see -mmë). Second person forms are also given: mil or milyë *"in you" (sg.), millë "in you" (pl.) (VT43:36). A special use of mi appears in the phrase Wendë mi Wenderon "Virgin of Virgins" (VT44:18); here mi appears superfluous to achieve the desired meaning, but this combination of singular noun + mi + plural genitive noun may be seen as a fixed idiom expressing that the initial noun represents the most prominent member of a class.

ne

that

ne (2) conj. "that" (as in "I know that you are here") (PE14:54), evidently replaced by i in Tolkiens later Quenya (see i #3).

on

, pa (1) prep. "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall); also used = "touching, as regards, concerning" (VT44:26). Another variant gives (and apa) with the meaning "on (above but touching)". (2) Variants of apa "after" (VT44:36), which preposition is in one source also ascribed the first meaning here discussed. For Neo-Quenya purposes, and pa may be used for "on" or "concerning", whereas apa is used for "after" (see entries for apa #1 and #2), or pa may also be seen as a shorter form of apa "after", as in the phrase yéni pa yéni *"years upon years" (VT44:36)

se

at, in

se (2), also long , preposition "at, in" (VT43:30; compare the "locative prefix" se- possibly occurring in an early "Qenya" text, VT27:25)

se

preposition. at, in

Derivations

  • “at; locative, adessive, inessive” ✧ VT43/30

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
> se[se]✧ VT43/30

Variations

  • se ✧ VT43/30

ier

as

ier prep. "as" (VT43:16, probably rejected in favour of sívë, q.v.). In an abandoned version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer, Tolkien used ier...ter for "as...so" (VT43:17).

mir

to the inside, into

mir (1) prep. with old allative ending "to the inside, into"(also minna) (MI). This is mi "in" with the same allative ending -r (from primitive ¤-da) as in tar "thither", q.v.

sana

that

Quenya [PE 22:116] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

tana

that

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
ta“that, there, that, there, [ᴹQ.] it”

Variations

  • tănā ✧ VT49/11

tana

that

tana (1) demonstrative "that" (said to be "anaphoric") (TA). According to VT49:11, tana is the adjective corresponding to ta, "that" as a pronoun.

yana

that

yana demonstrative "that" (the former) (YA)

síma

mind, imagination

síma noun "mind, imagination" (VT49:16); variant isima. Also attested with endings: símaryassen "in their imaginations" (with the ending -rya used = "their" rather than "his/her", according to colloquial useage) (VT49:16)

sívë

as

sívë (1) prep. "as", apparently ve of similar meaning with the prefix - "this, here, now"; sívë therefore makes a comparison with something close, whereas tambë (q.v.) refers to something remote. Sívë...tambë "as...so" (VT43:17). Elided sív' in VT43:12, since the next word begins in the vowel e-.

tanya

that

tanya demonstrative "that" (MC:215; this is "Qenya", perhaps corresponding to later tana)

-vë

as, like

-, (3) apparently an ending used to derive adverbs from adjectives (see andavë under anda and oiavë under oia). May be related to the preposition ve "as, like".

ta

that, it

ta (1) pron. "that, it" (TA); compare antaróta** "he gave it" (FS); see anta-. The forms tar/tara/tanna "thither", talo/ "thence" and tás/tassë* "there" are originally inflected forms of this pronoun: "to that", "from that" and "in that" (place), respectively. Compare "there" as one gloss of ta (see #4).

ve

as, like

ve (1) prep. "as, like" (Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya, MC:213, 214, VT27:20, 27, VT49:22); in Narqelion ve may mean either "in" or "as". Ve fírimor quetir *"as mortals say" (VT49:10), ve senwa (or senya) "as usual" (VT49:10). Followed by genitive, ve apparently expresses "after the manner of": ve quenderinwë coaron ("k") "after the manner of bodies of Elven-kind" (PE17:174). Tolkien variously derived Quenya ve from older , or vai(VT49:10, 32, PE17:189)

i, antevokaliskt in

conjunction. that

Quenya [PE 22:118] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

savin elessar ar <u>i</u> nánë aran ondórëo

that

i (3) conj. "that". Savin Elessar ar i nánë aran Ondórëo "I believe that Elessar really existed and that [he] was a king of Gondor" (VT49:27), savin…i E[lesarno] quetië naitë *"I believe that Elessars speaking [is] true" (VT49:28) Also cf. nai, nái "be it that" (see nai #1), which may seem to incorporate this conjunction.

-ssë

at

-ssë (1) locative ending (compare the preposition se, "at", q.v.); in Lóriendessë, lúmessë, máriessë, yalúmessë (q.v. for reference); pl. -ssen in yassen, lúmissen, mahalmassen, símaryassen, tarmenissen, q.v. Pronouns take the simple ending -ssë, even if the pronoun is plural by its meaning (messë "on us", VT44:12). The part. pl. (-lissë or -lissen) and dual (-tsë) locative endings are known from the Plotz letter only.

sa

conjunction. that

Quenya [PE 22:119] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

ya

as

ya (2) or yan, prep. "as" (VT43:16, probably abandoned in favour of sívë)

ye

as

[ye (3), also , prep. "as" (VT43:16, struck out; in the text in question Tolkien finally settled on sívë, q.v.)]

Sindarin 

mi

preposition. *in

Changes

  • mivi “*in” ✧ VT50/18

Cognates

  • Q. mi “in, in, [ᴹQ.] within”

Derivations

  • “in, within”
    • MI/IMI “in, within, [ᴹ√] inside” ✧ PE17/092; VT47/30

Element in

Variations

  • vi ✧ VT50/18; VT50/19
Sindarin [PE22/165; VT44/22; VT44/27; VT50/18; VT50/19] Group: Eldamo. Published by

vi

preposition. in

vi

preposition. in

Sindarin [VT/44:21,27] Group: SINDICT. Published by

uin

preposition. of the

Sindarin [SD/129-31] o+i. Group: SINDICT. Published by

erin

preposition. on the

Sindarin [SD/129-31] or+i, MS *œrin. Group: SINDICT. Published by

i

article. the

@@@ enclytic Dagor-nuin-Giliath vs. Dagor-nui-Ngiliath

Cognates

  • Q. i “the” ✧ PE17/066

Element in

Variations

  • i ✧ Let/425; Let/448; LotR/0299; NM/164; NM/372; PE17/039; PE17/044; PE17/044; PE17/066; S/198; SD/129; SD/129; SD/129; UT/280; VT44/24; VT50/12; VT50/18; VT50/18; VT50/23; WJ/338
  • i- ✧ LotR/1061; LotR/1114
  • in ✧ NM/364
  • ✧ PE17/147
  • ir ✧ VT50/23
Sindarin [Let/425; Let/448; LotR/0299; LotR/0305; LotR/0768; LotR/0807; LotR/0953; LotR/1054; LotR/1061; LotR/1114; MR/373; NM/164; NM/364; NM/372; NM/378; PE17/039; PE17/044; PE17/060; PE17/066; PE17/097; PE17/102; PE17/147; PM/256; RGEO/62; S/106; S/198; S/238; SA/edhel; SD/129; UT/054; UT/057; UT/153; UT/280; UT/319; VT44/24; VT50/12; VT50/15; VT50/18; VT50/19; VT50/23; WJ/338; WJ/379; WJ/418; WJI/Taur-i-Melegyrn] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

definite article. the

Sindarin [Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417] Group: SINDICT. Published by

i

definite article. who

Sindarin [Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417] Group: SINDICT. Published by

i

the

pl1. in _ art. _the.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:39:42:44:66:96:102:1] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

min-

preposition. (in) between (referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things)

Sindarin [Minhiriath LotR/Map, VT/47:11,14] Group: SINDICT. Published by

în

noun. year

A Sindarin word for “year”, derived from the primitive root ᴹ√YEN of similar meaning, with its vowel sound the result of [[s|a long [ē] becoming [ī]]].

Conceptual Development: The word în first appeared in The Etymologies from the 1930s with the gloss and derivation given above. It did not directly appear in Tolkien’s later writings, but was an element in several later words such as S. ínias “annals” and S. iphant “aged” (lit. “year full”). Furthermore, its Quenya cognate yén did reappear in the Lord of the Rings appendices.

In The Etymologies, both N. în and ᴹQ. yén were glossed “year”, and there were other words for longer periods of time, such as ᴹQ. qantien “century, (lit.) full year” and N. anrand “cycle, age”. In the Lord of the Rings and other later writings, Tolkien changed the meaning Q. yén to an “Elvish century” of 144 years. It is quite likely that S. în also changed to this meaning, but since it did not appear as an independent word in later writing, we have no direct confirmation of this.

Neo-Sindarin: Most Neo-Sindarin writers continue to use în with the sense “year” (that is, a solar year of 365 days). If you are concerned with this word’s true meaning, you might instead use a neologism for this period of time, such as ᴺS. lóran or ᴺS. coranor, but since these are not in widespread use, it is less likely a reader would understand your meaning.

Cognates

  • Q. yén “Elvish long year (144 solar years)”

Derivations

  • ᴹ√YEN “year”

Element in

  • ᴺS. edinor “anniversary day”
  • S. ínias “annals” ✧ MR/200
  • S. iphant “*aged, [N.] aged, having lived long, (lit.) year-full”
  • ᴺS. penninor “full year (last day of year), *new year’s eve”

Variations

  • ín ✧ MR/200

mîn

preposition. (in) between (referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things)

Sindarin [Minhiriath LotR/Map, VT/47:11,14] Group: SINDICT. Published by

bo

preposition. on

Sindarin [VT/44:21,26] Group: SINDICT. Published by

na

preposition. at

prep. at (a point of time or place). Ai na vedui Dúnadan. Mae g'ovannen. 'Ah! At last, Dúnadan ! Well met !'.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:16] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

idhrinn

noun. year

Sindarin [Ety/383, Ety/400, X/ND4] în+rind. Group: SINDICT. Published by

han

that

pl1. hain _pron. _that, the thing previously mentioned. Tolkien notes "hain = heinn (< san-)" (PE17:42). Im Narvi hain echant 'I Narvi made them'.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:42] < pl1. _hein_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

nan

preposition. of

ned

preposition. (uncertain meaning) in, of (about time, e.g. giving a date)

[Another possible interpretation: "another, one more" (related to Q. net(e)), VT/47:40]

Sindarin [SD/129-31] Group: SINDICT. Published by

san

pronoun. that

Derivations

  • san- “that” ✧ PE17/042

Element in

Sindarin [LotR/0305; PE17/042] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sui

conjunction. as, like

Sindarin [VT/44:21,27] Group: SINDICT. Published by

be

preposition. in; ?as, like, as, like; in

A preposition appearing in the King’s Letter, glossed “in”. Carl Hostetter’s suggested it is connected to the root √MI/IMI “in” via the strengthened form MBI that appears in Q. imbë “between” (VT31/19-20). David Salo instead proposed that it may be a cognate of Q. ve “as, like” derived from primitive ✶, suffixed with a form of the definite article -n and having the sense “as in the [Shire-reckoning]” (SG/226). This second option seems more likely to me; the primitive form ✶ was not published when Carl Hostetter made his analysis. @@@

Cognates

  • Q. ve “as, like, similar, after the manner [of], as, like, similar, after the manner [of]; [ᴹQ.] with”

Derivations

  • “as, like”

Element in

he

she

he, hen, hene. (The distinctions between these forms are unclear. Possibly he is the nominative, whereas hen is the accusative ”her”. Hene could be an emphatic form. It may be that all of these pronouns as ”N” rather than Sindarin proper.)

sa

pronoun. that

Derivations

  • sa “3 sg. neuter [it], the thing, impersonal; this by me, [ᴱ√] demonstrative”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

taw

that

(demonstrative pronoun) ?taw. _Only the ”Old Noldorin” form is actually given in LR:389 s.v. _

taw

pronoun. that

Derivations

  • TA “that, there, then; demonstrative”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

vi

in

(prep.) 1) vi (VT44:23), with article vin; 2) ne, ned (used of time in the source), possibly followed by hard mutation (SD:129); 3) , unstressed di (beneath, under) (VT45:37). Note: a homophone means ”bride, lady”.

ind

mind

ind (inner thought, meaning, heart), no distinct pl. form;, coll. pl. innath.

i

the

: Singular i (+ soft mutation), basically in in the plural, but often loses the n which is then replaced by nasal mutation of the next consonant (e.g. i thîw ”the letters”, compare tîw ”letters”). In this wordlist it is assumed that in becomes idh before a word in r-, as general patterns would seem to suggest. The articles are also used as relative pronouns ”who, which, that” (see THAT). Apparently ”the” sometimes appears as a suffix -n added to a preposition, e.g. be**<u>n</u>** ”according to <u>the</u>”. This suffix is followed by ”mixed mutation” according to David Salos reconstructions.

în

year

1) în, no distinct pl. form; coll. pl. ?íniath. 2) idhrinn (no distinct pl. form). LONG YEAR (Valian year) ennin. No distinct pl. form, but coll. pl. enniniath.

na

at

na (followed by lenition), with article nan (followed by ”mixed mutation”, according to David Salos reconstruction). The preposition has various meanings: ”with, by, near” and also ”to, toward, at; of”

ne

in, inside

ne- (prefix) (mid-)

or

on

(prep.) 1) or (above), with article erin ”on the” (followed by ”mixed mutation” according to David Salos reconstructions). Erin represents archaic örin. 2)

po

on

po (lenited bo) (VT44:23)

sui

as

1) prep. “like, as”) sui (VT44:23), 2) (prep.) be (like, according to). Followed by lenition? With article ben (followed by "mixed mutation" according to David Salos reconstruction)

Telerin 

-o

suffix. of

Cognates

  • Q. -o “of; genitive ending” ✧ WJ/369

Black Speech

ishi

preposition. in, inside

Element in

Black Speech [LotR/0254; PE17/011; PE17/012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ishi

preposition. in, inside

Usually placed after the noun in Black Speech, c.f. burzum-ishi (darkness-inside).

Black Speech [PE17/11] Published by

Adûnaic

hi

pronoun. she

A pronominal prefix, the feminine singular pronoun “she” (SD/247). It appears in the pseudo-phrase hi-Akallabêth “She-that-hath-fallen” in the sentence êphal êphalak îdô hi-Akallabêth and in the verb form hikalba “[she] fell” in the sentence Anadûnê zîrân hikalba “Númenor beloved fell (down)”. See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.

Derivations

  • √Ad. HI “she”

Element in

-zê

preposition. at

A prepositional suffix translated “at” (SD/429), but not appearing in any example sentences. It is perhaps a later repurposing of the draft-dative case suffix -s, since the other draft-cases became prepositional suffixes in later versions of the Adûnaic grammar: draft genitive versus later preposition “from”, draft instrumental -ma versus later preposition -mâ “with”.

Cognates

  • Q. -ssë “locative ending”

Variations

  • ✧ SD/429

-nud Reconstructed

preposition. on

A preposition attested only in the phrase “on us” in the Lament of Akallabêth, changing through the drafts as nēnum >> nēnu >> nēnud (SD/247, 312). Most authors identify -nud as the prepositional element (AAD/20, LGtAG, NBA/14), perhaps related to Q. nu “under”. If so, it may be a derivative of the Elvish roots √NŪ/UNU “under” or √NDU “down”, with a semantic shift to the meaning “on”.

Cognates

  • Q. nu “under, beneath”

Derivations

  • NDU “down, under, below; sink, descend, go down, down, under, below; sink, descend, go down, [ᴹ√] set (of Sun)”

Element in

Variations

  • -num ✧ SD/312
  • -nu ✧ SD/312
Adûnaic [SD/247; SD/312] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Khuzdûl

-u

suffix. of, in

Element in

  • Kh. bund “head” ✧ PE17/036
  • Kh. Bundushathûr “Cloudy-head” ✧ PE17/036; TI/174

Variations

  • u ✧ PE17/036; TI/174
Khuzdûl [PE17/036; PE17/047; TI/174] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ul

suffix. of

Element in

  • Kh. Azanulbizar “Dimrill Dale, (lit.) Rills of the Shadows” ✧ RC/269

Variations

  • |ul ✧ PE17/047
Khuzdûl [PE17/047; RC/269] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Primitive elvish

imi

root. in

in(id)

root. mind, (inner) thought, inmost heart, inner senses

A root appearing in various notes written around 1957 connected to the mind (PE17/145, 155, 189; UT/400; VT43/16). Its most notable derivatives are Q. indo/S. ind “(state of) mind”. In The Etymologies of the 1930s, ᴹQ. indo “heart, mood” and N. ind “inner thought, meaning, heart” were instead derived from the root ᴹ√ID; this 1930s root was unglossed but had derivatives connected to both thoughts and desires, such as ᴹQ. íre “desire, longing” (Ety/ID).

Tolkien introduced a new derivation of indo from √IN(ID) in Quenya Notes written in 1957 (PE17/145, 189):

> IN-I-D, mind, inner thought. These refer to the movements or activities of the fëa or “spirit” (rational soul). indo, inner thought, in fea as exhibited in character or [?personality]. indóme, settled character, also used of the “will” of Eru (PE17/189).

The root √IN- “inmost heart, thought, mind” with extended forms √INID and √INIS also appeared in contemporaneous Notes on Names (NN), again as the basis for indo (PE17/155).

Tolkien coined yet another etymology of Q. indo in notes written in 1969, deriving it from √NID “force, press(ure), thrust” (PE22/165). This new derivation doesn’t necessarily invalidate √INID, but rather gives a new basis for the root itself as an vocalic augment of √NID rather than an extended form of √IN-.

Derivatives

  • ᴺ✶. inrē “thoughtfulness”
    • ᴺS. idhor “thoughtfulness”
  • Q. indo “(state of) mind, (inner) thought, mood; will, resolve, (state of) mind, (inner) thought, mood; will, resolve; [ᴹQ.] heart” ✧ PE17/155; PE17/155; PE17/189
    • Q. indu- “to will, do on purpose” ✧ PE22/165
  • Q. indómë “settled character; will of Eru” ✧ PE17/189; VT43/16

Element in

  • Q. incánu “mind master” ✧ PE17/155
  • Q. Incánus “Mind Master(ship)” ✧ UT/400

Variations

  • IN-I-D ✧ PE17/145; PE17/155; PE17/189
  • IN ✧ PE17/155
  • INIS ✧ PE17/155
  • INID ✧ PE17/155
  • IN-ID ✧ PE17/155
  • in(id)- ✧ UT/400
  • in-i-d ✧ VT43/16
Primitive elvish [PE17/145; PE17/155; PE17/189; UT/400; VT43/16] Group: Eldamo. Published by

preposition. in, within

Derivations

  • MI/IMI “in, within, [ᴹ√] inside” ✧ PE17/092; VT47/30

Derivatives

  • Q. mi “in, in, [ᴹQ.] within” ✧ PE17/092; VT47/30
  • S. mi “*in”

Element in

  • ᴺS. “(to the) inside; into”
Primitive elvish [PE17/092; VT47/30] Group: Eldamo. Published by

san-

noun. that

Derivatives

  • S. san “that” ✧ PE17/042
Primitive elvish [PE17/042] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mi/imi

root. in, within, [ᴹ√] inside

This invertible root had the basic sense “in(side)” for all of Tolkien’s life. It first appeared as ᴱ√IMI “in, into” and ᴱ√MĪ² in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s with derivatives like ᴱQ. imi “in, inside” and ᴱQ. mitta- “enter” (QL/42, 61). Deleted Gnomish forms like G. bi “in” and G. bin “into” might be derived from a strengthened form of the root ✱ᴱ√MBI (GL/21) but Tolkien said the undeleted prefix bi- or G. ba “in“ had a Qenya cognate ve (GL/20), so I think these were based on some other (abandoned) root.

Both ᴹ√MI “inside” and its inversion ᴹ√IMI “in” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s (Ety/MI; EtyAC/IMI), though the only derivative of the inversion was ᴹ√IMBE “dell, deep vale” (EtyAC/IMI, IMBE). The root or its inversion appeared a number of times in Tolkien’s later writings as well, up into the 1960s (PE17/41, 92; VT47/11, 30).

Derivatives

  • imbi “between” ✧ PE17/092; VT47/11; VT47/30
    • Q. imbë “between, among, between, among; [ᴹQ.] in(wards)” ✧ PE17/092; VT47/11; VT47/30
    • S. im “valley, valley; [N.] dell, deep vale” ✧ VT47/14
    • T. imbe “gap, gully; low/narrow tract between high walls” ✧ VT47/14
  • “in, within” ✧ PE17/092; VT47/30
    • Q. mi “in, in, [ᴹQ.] within” ✧ PE17/092; VT47/30
    • S. mi “*in”
  • mīni “between” ✧ VT47/11
    • S. mîn “[thing] between; gap, space, barrier; anything intervening between two other things” ✧ VT47/11
  • Q. imbë “deep valley, wide ravine, (lit.) tween-land, deep valley, (wide) ravine, [ᴹQ.] glen, dell, (lit.) tween-land”
  • Q. imíca “among” ✧ VT43/30
  • Q. mi “in, in, [ᴹQ.] within” ✧ VT43/30
  • Q. mina “into, in, into, in, [ᴹQ.] to the inside” ✧ VT43/30
  • Q. mitta “between, [ᴹQ.] inwards, into, [ᴱQ.] in; [Q.] between” ✧ VT43/30
  • Q. mitta- “to insert, to insert; [ᴹQ.] to come in, [ᴱQ.] enter” ✧ VT43/30
  • S. im “between”
  • ᴺS. mîg “among”
  • S. minna- “to go in, enter” ✧ PE17/041

Variations

  • MI ✧ PE17/041; PE17/165; VT47/11
  • IMI ✧ PE17/092; PE17/155
  • mi ✧ VT43/30
  • imi ✧ VT47/30
Primitive elvish [PE17/041; PE17/092; PE17/155; PE17/165; VT43/30; VT47/11; VT47/30] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ne

root. *in

Noldorin 

di

preposition. in

Derivations

  • ᴹ√(N)DI “in” ✧ EtyAC/NDI

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NDI/DI > di[ndi] > [di]✧ EtyAC/NDI
Noldorin [EtyAC/NDI] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ne-

prefix. in

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NE “*in”

Element in

  • N. neledh- “*to go in, enter”
  • N. nestag- “to insert, stick in” ✧ Ety/STAK
  • ᴺS. nethan- “to inspire, kindle inside”

i

definite article. the

Noldorin [Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417] Group: SINDICT. Published by

i

definite article. who

Noldorin [Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417] Group: SINDICT. Published by

i

article. the

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. i “the” ✧ Ety/I¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ√I “that (deictic particle); [ᴱ√] here it is, root of relatives” ✧ Ety/I¹

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√I > i-[i]✧ Ety/I¹

Variations

  • i- ✧ Ety/I¹
Noldorin [Ety/I¹; Ety/KHOP; Ety/KIRIK; EtyAC/I¹; LR/201; PE22/033; RS/186; SD/046; TAI/150; TI/182; TI/187] Group: Eldamo. Published by

în

noun. year

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. yén “year” ✧ Ety/YEN

Derivations

  • ᴹ√YEN “year” ✧ Ety/YEN

Element in

  • N. edinar “anniversary day”
  • N. Enedhin “Midyear week”
  • N. ennin “Valian year” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • N. idhrin “year, *(lit.) year-circle”
  • N. ingem “old (in mortal sense), suffering from old age, decrepit, (lit.) year-sick” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • N. ínias “annals” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • N. ifant “aged, having lived long, (lit.) year-full” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • N. penninar “full year (last day of year)” ✧ Ety/YEN

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√YEN > în[jēn] > [jīn] > [īn]✧ Ety/YEN

Variations

  • in ✧ Ety/YEN

în

noun. year

Noldorin [Ety/400] Group: SINDICT. Published by

ennin

noun. Valian year

Noldorin [Ety/400] and+în "long year". Group: SINDICT. Published by

an

preposition. of

Element in

Noldorin [WR/287; WR/388] Group: Eldamo. Published by

idhrin

noun. year

Noldorin [Ety/383, Ety/400, X/ND4] în+rind. Group: SINDICT. Published by

idhrind

noun. year

Noldorin [Ety/383, Ety/400, X/ND4] în+rind. Group: SINDICT. Published by

hen

pronoun. she

Noldorin [Ety/385] Group: SINDICT. Published by

nan

preposition. of

hene

pronoun. she

Noldorin [Ety/385] Group: SINDICT. Published by

nedh-

prefix. in, inside, mid-

See also the preposition ned , and the noun ened for a discussion of this form

Noldorin [Ety/376] Group: SINDICT. Published by

hen(e)

pronoun. she

he

pronoun. she

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶sī̆/sē̆ “she” ✧ Ety/S
    • ᴹ√S “demonstrative stem” ✧ Ety/S

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶sī̆/sē̆ > he[se] > [he]✧ Ety/S

Variations

  • hen ✧ Ety/S
  • hene ✧ Ety/S

he

pronoun. she

Noldorin [Ety/385] Group: SINDICT. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive adûnaic

hi Reconstructed

root. she

A Primitive Adûnaic form attested as i “she” (SD/435), but given the later feminine pronoun Ad. hi, the actual primitive pronoun must have been ✱HI [xi]. The suffix -i was also a common feature of Classical Adûnaic feminine-nouns.

Derivatives

  • Ad. hi “she”

Variations

  • i ✧ SD/435
Primitive adûnaic [SD/435] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya 

in

pronoun. that

to

preposition. in

Element in

i

pronoun. that

Element in

Variations

  • i ✧ PE22/118; PE22/124; PE22/124; VT27/07
  • in ✧ PE22/118
Qenya [PE22/118; PE22/124; VT27/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

article. the

Cognates

  • N. i “the” ✧ Ety/I¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ√I “that (deictic particle); [ᴱ√] here it is, root of relatives” ✧ Ety/I¹

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√I > i[i]✧ Ety/I¹

Variations

  • i ✧ Ety/I¹; LR/072; LR/072; PE21/69; PE22/106; PE22/108; PE22/116; PE22/120; PE22/121; PE22/124
  • i- ✧ LR/072
  • ✧ LR/199
  • i{n} ✧ VT28/11
Qenya [Ety/I¹; LR/072; LR/199; PE21/69; PE22/106; PE22/108; PE22/116; PE22/120; PE22/121; PE22/124; VT28/11] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mi

preposition. in, within

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MĪ/IMI “in, inside” ✧ Ety/MI

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√MI > mi[mi]✧ Ety/MI
Qenya [Ety/MI; LR/072] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sana

adjective. that

Element in

yén

noun. year

Cognates

  • N. în “year” ✧ Ety/YEN

Derivations

  • ᴹ√YEN “year” ✧ Ety/YEN

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Arendien “Midyear’s Day”
  • ᴹQ. Endien “Midyear (week)” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • ᴹQ. qantien “century, (lit.) full year” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • ᴹQ. linyenwa “old, having many years” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • ᴹQ. yénie “annals” ✧ MR/200
  • ᴹQ. yenya “last year”
  • ᴹQ. Minyen “first day [of year]” ✧ Ety/YEN

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√YEN > yén[jēn]✧ Ety/YEN

Variations

  • yen- ✧ EtyAC/YEN
Qenya [Ety/YEN; EtyAC/YEN; MR/200] Group: Eldamo. Published by

loa

noun. year

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LAW “warm; abound”

Element in

  • ᴹQ. elloa “next year” ✧ PE22/124
  • ᴹQ. nóloa “yesteryear” ✧ PE22/124

sa

pronoun. that

Element in

ye

preposition. at

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ “at” ✧ PE21/27

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ > ye[je]✧ PE21/27

Old Noldorin 

i

article. the

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ī “the” ✧ PE21/58
Old Noldorin [PE21/58; PE22/027] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

(n)di

root. in

Derivatives

  • N. di “in” ✧ EtyAC/NDI

Variations

  • NDI/DI ✧ EtyAC/NDI
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/NDI] Group: Eldamo. Published by

imi

root. in

Middle Primitive Elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

ne

root. *in

A rejected root in The Etymologies of the 1930s with a strengthened form ✱ndē̆ serving as the basis for the prefix in N. nestag- “insert”, possibly related to ᴹ√NED “middle” (EtyAC/NĒ̆). The strengthened form may have been replaced by the root ᴹ√(N)DI “in” (EtyAC/NDI), but in later writing ✶ndī was given the meaning “beneath, not touching, under” (PE17/95). Despite the rejection of the root, the verb N. nestag- “insert” remained unmodified under the root ᴹ√STAK (Ety/STAK), and there is further evidence for the ne- prefix in the verb N. neledh- “enter” appearing on the 1936 draft of Thror’s Map from this same time period (TAI/150).

Neo-Eldarin: For purposes of Neo-Eldarin, I think it is worth retaining this (Noldorin and Sindarin-only?) prefix ne- “in”.

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶ndē̆- “in, inside” ✧ EtyAC/NĒ̆
  • N. ne- “in”

Element in

  • On. nestak- “to insert, stick in” ✧ EtyAC/NĒ̆ (ne-stak-)

Variations

  • NĒ̆ ✧ EtyAC/NĒ̆ (NĒ̆)
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/NĒ̆] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ī

article. the

Derivatives

  • On. i “the” ✧ PE21/58
Middle Primitive Elvish [PE21/58] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yen

root. year

A root in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “year” with derivatives like ᴹQ. yén/N. în “year” (Ety/YEN). Tolkien’s ongoing used of words like Q. yén and S. ínias “annals” indicate its ongoing validity (LotR/377; MR/200), but in Quenya at least the meaning shifted to that of an “Elvish long year”, equal to 144 solar years (LotR/1107; MR/471; NM/84).

Derivatives

  • Q. yén “Elvish long year (144 solar years)”
  • ᴹQ. yén “year” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • N. ennin “Valian year” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • N. idhrin “year, *(lit.) year-circle” ✧ Ety/RIN
  • S. în “year”
  • N. în “year” ✧ Ety/YEN

Element in

  • ᴹ✶atyēnar “anniversary day” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • ᴹ✶yenpanta “aged, long-lived” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • ᴹ✶yenrinde “year” ✧ Ety/YEN
  • ᴹQ. yenya “last year” ✧ Ety/YA
  • N. ingem “old (in mortal sense), suffering from old age, decrepit, (lit.) year-sick” ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ
  • N. ifant “aged, having lived long, (lit.) year-full” ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ

Variations

  • YEN ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ; Ety/GENG-WĀ; Ety/LEP; Ety/RIN; Ety/YA; Ety/YEN
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/GENG-WĀ; Ety/LEP; Ety/RIN; Ety/YA; Ety/YEN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yenrinde

noun. year

Derivatives

  • N. idhrin “year, *(lit.) year-circle” ✧ Ety/YEN

Variations

  • ı̯en-rinde ✧ Ety/YEN
  • ien-rinde ✧ EtyAC/YEN
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/YEN; EtyAC/YEN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mī/imi

root. in, inside

Derivatives

  • ᴹ√IMBE “dell, deep vale”
    • ᴹQ. imbe “dell, deep vale, ravine, glen” ✧ EtyAC/IMBE
    • N. imm “dell, deep vale” ✧ EtyAC/IMBE
  • ᴹQ. imbe “in(wards)” ✧ EtyAC/IMÍ
  • ᴹQ. mi “in, within” ✧ Ety/MI
  • ᴹQ. minna “into, to the inside” ✧ Ety/MI
  • ᴹQ. mir “to the inside, into” ✧ Ety/MI
  • ᴹQ. mitta “inwards, (?into)” ✧ EtyAC/MI
  • ᴹQ. mitya “interior” ✧ Ety/MI
  • N. minna- “to enter” ✧ EtyAC/MI

Variations

  • MI ✧ Ety/MI; EtyAC/MI
  • IMÍ ✧ EtyAC/IMÍ
  • ✧ EtyAC/IMÍ; EtyAC/MI
  • imi ✧ EtyAC/NDI
  • mi ✧ EtyAC/NDI
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/MI; EtyAC/IMÍ; EtyAC/MI; EtyAC/NDI] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ndē̆-

prefix. in, inside

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NE “*in” ✧ EtyAC/NĒ̆
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/NĒ̆] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sī̆/sē̆

pronoun. she

Derivations

  • ᴹ√S “demonstrative stem” ✧ Ety/S

Derivatives

  • N. he “she” ✧ Ety/S
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/S] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ta

root. that

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶tad “thither” ✧ Ety/TA
    • ᴹQ. tar “thither, beyond” ✧ Ety/TA; PE19/052; PE21/58
    • On. “thither” ✧ PE19/052; PE21/58
  • ᴹQ. ta “that, it” ✧ Ety/TA
  • ᴹQ. tana “that (anaphoric)” ✧ Ety/TA
  • On. “thither” ✧ Ety/TA

Element in

  • ᴹ√TAN “*show” ✧ PE18/033; PE18/060
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/TA; PE18/033; PE18/060] Group: Eldamo. Published by

preposition. at

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. ye “at” ✧ PE21/27
Middle Primitive Elvish [PE21/27] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

ba

preposition. in

Cognates

  • Eq. ve “as, like” ✧ GL/21

Variations

  • b- ✧ GL/21
  • bi- ✧ GL/21
  • b’ ✧ GL/21

bi

preposition. in

Element in

  • G. bin “into” ✧ GL/22 (bin)
  • G. bir “in, within, inside” ✧ GL/22 (bir)
Gnomish [GL/20; GL/22] Group: Eldamo. Published by

in

noun. a go, a move, turn, occasion

bin

preposition. into

Gnomish [GL/20; GL/22] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a(d)

preposition. into

Changes

  • atha(d) “at, towards, in direction of; into” ✧ GL/17

Cognates

  • Eq. at- “bi-, twi-” ✧ GL/17

Variations

  • ath ✧ GL/17 (ath)

avin

preposition. into

i

article. the

Derivations

  • ᴱ√I “here it is, root of relatives” ✧ GG/07

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ GG/09; GL/44; GL/50
  • in· ✧ GG/09
  • i(n) ✧ GL/59
Gnomish [GG/07; GG/09; GG/11; GG/12; GG/15; GL/17; GL/34; GL/44; GL/49; GL/50; GL/59; GL/64; GL/65; LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi; PE13/093; PE13/095; PE13/117] Group: Eldamo. Published by

fanuin

masculine name. Year

Gnomish [LT1/217; LT1/222; LT1A/Fanuin; LT1A/Gonlath; LT1I/Fanuin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bir

preposition. in, within, inside

nan

preposition. of

a(n)

preposition. of

Derivations

  • ᴱ✶ā ✧ PE13/108

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ GG/07; GL/17; GL/49; LT1A/Uolë Kúvion; LT1I/Gilfanon
  • an ✧ GG/11; GL/26; GL/26; LT2A/Cûm an-Idrisaith
  • a ✧ GG/11; GL/34; GL/46; GL/64; LT1A/Cûm a Gumlaith; LT2A/Falasquil; LT2A/Teld Quing Ilon; LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin; PE13/093; PE13/108
Gnomish [GG/07; GG/11; GG/12; GL/17; GL/26; GL/34; GL/46; GL/49; GL/64; LT1A/Cûm a Gumlaith; LT1A/Uolë Kúvion; LT1I/Gilfanon; LT2A/Cûm an-Idrisaith; LT2A/Falasquil; LT2A/Teld Quing Ilon; LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin; PE13/093; PE13/108] Group: Eldamo. Published by

fann

noun. year

Element in

  • G. Fanuin “Year” ✧ LT1A/Fanuin
Gnomish [GL/34; LT1A/Fanuin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

preposition. of

lath

noun. year

Cognates

  • Eq. latta “year” ✧ GL/53

Element in

  • G. Lathweg ✧ LT1A/Gonlath (Lathos); LT1A/Gonlath (Lathweg)
  • G. Gonlath ✧ LT1A/Gonlath
  • G. teglath “noted year, special year, feast year” ✧ GL/69
Gnomish [GL/53; GL/69; LT1A/Gonlath] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

i

article. the

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ PE13/128; PE13/128 ()
Early Noldorin [PE13/120; PE13/124; PE13/128] Group: Eldamo. Published by

in(g)

masculine name. In(g)

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Ingwe “Prince of Elves” ✧ SMI/Ing; SM/013; SM/084

Element in

  • En. Ingwar “City of In” ✧ PE13/148

Variations

  • Ing ✧ LBI/Ing; SM/013; SM/084; SMI/Ing
  • In ✧ PE13/148
Early Noldorin [LBI/Ing; PE13/148; SM/013; SM/084; SMI/Ing] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na

preposition. of

Element in

Early Noldorin [LB/275; SM/026] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Primitive Elvish

root. in

Early Primitive Elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

root. as

Derivatives

  • Eq. ve “as, like” ✧ QL/101
  • Eq. víke “like” ✧ QL/101
  • G. fel “like; (as av.) as, like”

Variations

  • VI‘I ✧ QL/101
Early Primitive Elvish [QL/101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

imi

root. in, into

Derivatives

  • Eq. int “inwards” ✧ QL/042
  • Eq. imi “in, inside” ✧ QL/042
  • Eq. mi “*in”
  • Eq. mitta “in, into, inwards” ✧ QL/061
  • Eq. mitta- “to enter” ✧ QL/061

Variations

  • MĪ² ✧ QL/061
Early Primitive Elvish [QL/042; QL/061] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

in

article. the

mi

preposition. *in

Derivations

  • ᴱ√IMI “in, into”

Element in

Early Quenya [QL/048] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

article. the

Derivations

  • ᴱ√I “here it is, root of relatives”

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ LT1/114; LT1/184
  • i ✧ LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi; MC/215; MC/216; MC/216; MC/221; PE14/032; PE14/046; PE14/047; PE14/048; PE14/050; PE14/055; PE14/056; PE14/079; PE14/081; PE14/083; PE15/32; PE15/32; PE15/32; PE15/32; PE16/062; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/077; PE16/077; PE16/077; PE16/090; PE16/090; PE16/092; PE16/100; PE16/100; PE16/104; PE16/104
  • I ✧ LT1A/Nori Landar; MC/215
  • i- ✧ PE14/042
  • n- ✧ PE14/042
  • in- ✧ PE14/042 (in-)
  • ’n ✧ PE14/048; PE14/081
  • n ✧ PE14/050; PE14/054; PE15/32; PE16/062; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/077
  • ✧ PE14/071; QL/031; VT40/08
  • ✧ PE14/071; PE14/083; PE14/117
  • in· ✧ PE14/071 (in·)
  • in ✧ PE15/32
  • Y ✧ PE16/090; PE16/092
  • ✧ VT40/08; VT40/08
Early Quenya [LT1/114; LT1/184; LT1A/Meril-i-Turinqi; LT1A/Nori Landar; MC/215; MC/216; MC/221; PE14/032; PE14/042; PE14/046; PE14/047; PE14/048; PE14/050; PE14/054; PE14/055; PE14/056; PE14/071; PE14/079; PE14/081; PE14/083; PE14/117; PE15/32; PE16/062; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/077; PE16/090; PE16/092; PE16/100; PE16/104; QL/031; VT40/08] Group: Eldamo. Published by

hi

pronoun. she; 3rd sg. fem. pronoun

Element in

  • Eq. (h)íva “*her; 3rd sg. fem. possessive emphatic” ✧ PE14/052
  • Eq. hi·mante “she ate” ✧ PE14/085
  • Eq. hi·tule ki “she may be coming, may come” ✧ PE14/059
  • Eq. hi·tule nai “she might (possibly) come or be coming” ✧ PE14/059
  • Eq. hi·túlie nai “she might have come” ✧ PE14/059
  • Eq. hi·tulinde nai “she {will >>} might be coming (supposing else also to be the case, which we know is not so)” ✧ PE14/059
  • Eq. hi·tuluva nai “she might (conceivably) come at some time in the future” ✧ PE14/059
  • Eq. hie “she (emphatic); 3rd sg. fem. pronoun” ✧ PE14/052
  • Eq. naike hi·tule “would she might come (of something remotely possible or impossible)” ✧ PE14/059
  • Eq. hya- “*her; 3rd sg. fem. possessive” ✧ PE14/052

Variations

  • hi- ✧ PE14/052; PE14/085
  • i- ✧ PE14/052
Early Quenya [PE14/052; PE14/053; PE14/054; PE14/059; PE14/085] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i-

prefix. she; 3rd sg. fem. pronoun

ne

conjunction. that

Element in

Early Quenya [PE14/052; PE14/054; PE14/085] Group: Eldamo. Published by

imi

adverb. in, inside

Derivations

  • ᴱ√IMI “in, into” ✧ QL/042

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√IMI² > imi[imī] > [imi]✧ QL/042
Early Quenya [QL/042] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mitta

preposition/adverb. in, into, inwards

Derivations

  • ᴱ√IMI “in, into” ✧ QL/061

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√MĪ² > mitta[mittā] > [mitta]✧ QL/061

Variations

  • mitta ✧ QL/061
Early Quenya [QL/061] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sanda

adjective. that

Changes

  • santasanda ✧ PE14/055

Element in

Variations

  • santa ✧ PE14/055 (santa)
  • tanda ✧ PE16/056; PE16/057; PE16/060; PE16/060
Early Quenya [PE14/055; PE16/056; PE16/057; PE16/060] Group: Eldamo. Published by

santo

pronoun. that

Early Quenya [PE14/055] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tanya

adjective. that

Element in

Early Quenya [MC/215; PE16/090; PE16/092] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-víke

suffix. as

Element in

  • Eq. noldovike “like a gnome, after the gnomes’ way” ✧ PE15/69 (noldovike)

Variations

  • vīke ✧ QL/101
Early Quenya [PE15/69; QL/101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-sse

suffix. at, in, by; inessive suffix

Changes

  • -isse-sse ✧ PE14/078
  • -issea-ssea ✧ PE14/078

Element in

  • Eq. kiryassea “what is on board ship” ✧ PE14/046
  • Eq. -lukse “-times” ✧ QL/056

Variations

  • -sse ✧ PE14/046; PE14/078
  • -isse ✧ PE14/047; PE14/047 (-isse); PE14/078; PE14/078 (-isse)
  • -se ✧ PE14/047 (-se); PE14/078
  • -ssea ✧ PE14/078
  • -de ✧ PE14/078
  • -sea ✧ PE14/078
  • -dea ✧ PE14/078
  • -issea ✧ PE14/078 (-issea)
  • -kse ✧ QL/056 (-kse)
Early Quenya [PE14/046; PE14/047; PE14/078; QL/056] Group: Eldamo. Published by

latta

noun. year

Cognates

  • G. lath “year” ✧ GL/53
Early Quenya [GL/53] Group: Eldamo. Published by