Quenya 

an-

prefix. intensitive prefix, intensive, intensive prefix, plu-, plus, intensive, superlative, intensive
Quenya [Let/279.0108; PE17/056.1607; PE17/056.2412; PE17/057.0101; PE17/057.0102; PE17/090.0802; PE17/090.1712; PE17/090.1713; PE17/090.1801; PE17/090.2001; PE17/090.2215; PE17/090.2914; PE17/090.3104; PE17/091.0412; PE17/092.3218; PE17/092.3412; PE17/092.3606; PE17/146.4216; PE19/078.3917; PE21/79.2313; VT49/35.3911] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an-

prefix. intensitive prefix, intensive, intensive prefix, plu-, plus, intensive, superlative, intensive
Quenya [Let/279.0108; PE17/056.1607; PE17/056.1608; PE17/056.2412; PE17/057.0101; PE17/057.0102; PE17/090.0802; PE17/090.1712; PE17/090.1713; PE17/090.1801; PE17/090.2001; PE17/090.2215; PE17/090.2914; PE17/090.3104; PE17/091.0412; PE17/091.0413; PE17/092.3218; PE17/092.3412; PE17/092.3606; PE17/146.4216; PE19/078.3917; PE21/79.2313; VT49/35.3911] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an-

very

an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára "very old" or "oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca ("k") "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d, the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically -) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept in the _Elaine inscription). (PE17:92)_

an-

re

an- (3) prefix "re" in antúlien, q.v. (LotR-style Quenya shows en- instead.)

am-

signifying addition, increase

am- (2) prefix used in comparison, "signifying addition, increase" (PE17:90), or with genitive superlative: elenion ancalima "brightest of stars" (PE17:91). Originally identical with #1 above. The form am- as such is in late Quenya only used before p and (presumably) before vowels; the longer form ama- came to be preferred before r and l; before other consonants, the prefix assumes the form an- (pronounced, but not in Romanized Quenya orthography written, - before c) (PE17:90-92). Phonologically we would expect am- before y- (since my is an acceptable Quenya combination); however, Tolkien used an- in the word anyára (q.v.) See an- #2 and compare ar- #2.

ar-

brightest

ar- (2), also ari-, prefix for superlative (compare arya #1, 2), hence arcalima "brightest", arimelda *"dearest" (PE17:56-57). In the grammar described in the source, this prefix was to express superlative as the highest degree (in actual comparison), whereas the alternative prefix an- rather expressed "very" or "exceedingly" with a more purely augmentative or adverbial force, but these distinctions do not seem to have been clearly present at all stages of Tolkiens work. See an- #2, am- #2.

un-

in evil sense

un- intensive prefix used before qu; the assimilated variant um- is said to occur before p, and "b" (the latter evidently = v developed from prehistoric b, but following um- its original quality would be preserved so that we would see umb-). This prefix is reportedly only used "in evil sense"; otherwise the intensive prefix is an- (and assimilated variants thereof). (VT45:5)

anda

long

anda adj. "long" (ÁNAD/ANDA), "far" (PE17:90).In Andafangar noun "Longbeards", one of the tribes of the Dwarves (= Khuzdul Sigin-tarâg and Sindarin Anfangrim) (PM:320). Compare Andafalassë, #andamacil, andamunda, andanéya, andatehta, Anduinë. Apparently derived from the adj. anda is andavë "long" as adverb ("at great length", PE17:102), suggesting that the ending - can be used to derive adverbs from adjectives (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)

anda

adjective. long, long, far
Quenya [PE17/040.1212; PE17/090.2615; PM/321.3009-1; VT49/31.0614] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ando

long

ando (2) adv. "long"; maybe replaced by andavë; see anda (VT14:5)

car-

with

#car- (2) prep. "with" (carelyë "with thee"), prepositional element (evidently an ephemeral form abandoned by Tolkien) (VT43:29)

am(a)-

prefix. intensive prefix
Quenya Group: Eldamo. Published by

andavë

long, at great length

andavë adv. "long, at great length" (PE17:102); see anda

antara

very high, very lofty

antara adj. "very high, very lofty", the adjective tára "lofty" with the superlative prefix an- (q.v.) We might have expected *antára. Also place-name Antaro (VT45:5, 36), said to be the "name of a mountain in Valinor south of Taniq[u]etil" (VT46:17)

anyára

anyára

#anyára (attested with dative ending: anyáran), see an-, yára

as

with

o (2) prep. "with" (MC:216; this is "Qenya"; WJ:367 states that no independent preposition o was used in Quenya. Writers may rather use as.) See ó- below.

as

with

as prep. "with" (together with), also attested with a pronominal suffix: aselyë "with thee" (VT47:31, VT43:29). The conjunction ar "and" may also appear in assimilated form as before s; see ar #1.

ita

very, extremely

ita, íta adv. 2) "very, extremely" (PE17:112). Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkiens efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the "same" version of Quenya.

lai

very

[lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8)]

sóra

long, trailing

sóra adj. "long, trailing" (LT2:344)

yára

ancient, belonging to or descending from former times

yára adj. "ancient, belonging to or descending from former times" (YA); evidently it can also simply mean "old", since Tolkien used the intensive/superlative form #anyára to describe Elaine Griffiths as his "oldest" or "very old" friend in a book dedication (see an-).

ó

with, accompanying
Quenya [PE 22:162] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

with

(2) prep. "with" (PE17:95)

preposition. with
Quenya [PE17/095.0106] Group: Eldamo. Published by

re

re

[re, possibly a 3rd person singular emphatic pronoun, struck out by Tolkien (VT49:49)]

* ó

preposition. with
Quenya [PE22/162.1212; PE22/162.2607; VT43/29.1301; VT43/29.1509; VT43/29.2402; VT43/29.2403; VT43/29.2404; VT43/29.2502; VT43/29.2503; VT43/29.2504; VT43/29.2602; VT43/29.2603; VT43/29.2702; VT43/29.2703; VT43/29.2704; VT43/29.2705; VT43/29.2802; VT43/29.2803; VT43/36.1006; VT43/36.1106; VT43/36.1209] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* as

preposition. with
Quenya [VT43/29.1101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* lai

adverb. very
Quenya Group: Neologism. Published by

Sindarin 

an-

prefix. with, by
Sindarin Group: Eldamo. Published by

a-

prefix. intensive prefix
Sindarin Group: Eldamo. Published by

and

adjective. long
Sindarin [PE17/012.2803; PE17/012.2804; PE17/040.1215; PE17/040.1216; PE17/090.2701; PE17/121.2202; PE17/121.2203; RC/765.4008; SA/an(d).001; VT42/28.1709] Group: Eldamo. Published by

and

adjective. long

adj. long. i·arben na megil and 'The Knight of the Long Sword'. ann

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:12:121:147] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

and

adjective. long
Sindarin [Ety/348, S/427, X/ND1] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

ann

adjective. long

adj. long. Rare except in old names (e.g. Anduin). and

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:12:40:121] < ANAD long. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ann

adjective. long
Sindarin Group: Eldamo. Published by

anann

adverb. long

adv. long. Cuio i Pheriain anann 'May the Halflings live long'.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:102] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

anann

adverb. long, for a long time
Sindarin [LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308] an+and, OS *ananda. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

na

preposition. with, by (also used as a genitive sign)
Sindarin [Ety/374, LotR/I:XII] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

na

preposition. to, towards, at
Sindarin [Ety/374, LotR/I:XII] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

iaur

adjective. older, former
Sindarin [Ety/358, Ety/399, S/433, UT/384] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

iaur

adjective. ancient, old, original
Sindarin [Ety/358, Ety/399, S/433, UT/384] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

di

preposition. with
Sindarin [PE17/095.0102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

di

preposition. with

_ prep. _with. Q. .

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:95] < _dē_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

* an-

prefix. intensive prefix
Sindarin [SA/faug.005-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* an-

prefix. intensive prefix
Sindarin [SA/faug.005-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* an-

very

(as adverbial prefix) an-, as in:

* and

long

(adjective) and (pl. aind),

* anann

long

(adverb, = "for a long time") anann

* ad

re-

(as prefix) ad-, also meaning "back, again, second"

* iaur

ancient

iaur (in compounds ior-, iar-) (old, former), pl. ioer

* na

with

(in instrumental sense?) na (followed by lenition), with article nan (followed by ”mixed mutation”, according to David Salos reconstruction). The preposition has various meanings: ”with, by, near” and also ”to, toward, at; of”

* dae

adverb. very
Sindarin Group: Neologism. Published by

* dae

very

dae (exceedingly). Lenited dhae.

Telerin 

anda

adjective. long
Telerin [VT49/31.0809-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech

sha

preposition. with
Black Speech [LotR/0445.1709; PE17/079.0302; PM/083.0911] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Adûnaic

an-

prefix. genitive prefix, genitive/adjectival prefix, of

A prefix translated as “of” (SD/247) and one of the ways that genitive relationships are expressed in Adûnaic (SD/429). According to Tolkien, “it is not a preposition ... it is the equivalent of an inflexion or suffix” (SD/435). As such, it is used to form adjectives from nouns, as anadûni “western, *of the West” from adûni “the West”. When following another noun, it is often elided so that the a is lost, as in Ârû ’nAdûnâi “King of the Númenóreans” (SD/429) and Bâr ’nAnadûnê “Lord of Númenor” (SD/428). This elision occurs in most examples, but seems not to happen in some cases:

  • When the an- is separated from the modified noun: balîk hazad an-Nimruzîr “ships seven of-Nimruzîr” (SD/247).
  • When the modified nouns is declined into the subjective case: Bârim an-Adûn “Lords of the West” (SD/247).
  • However, when the subjective noun ends in a vowel, elision still occurs: narîka ’nBâri ’nAdûn “Eagles of the Lords of the West” (SD/251).

Tolkien used a dash to separate an- from the noun to which it is prefixed but omitted the dash when the prefix was elided. Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (AAD/10) that Ad. an- may be related to the Sindarin genitive marker S. na² “with, by”

Adûnaic [SD/247.0803; SD/247.1403; SD/251.0302; SD/428.3905; SD/429.3202; SD/435.2004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Khuzdûl

* sigin

adjective. long
Khuzdûl Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

an-

prefix. with, by
Noldorin [Ety/NĀ¹.017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an-

prefix. with, by
Noldorin [Ety/374] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

a-

prefix. intensive prefix
Noldorin [EtyAC/N.089] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ann

adjective. long
Noldorin [Ety/ÁNAD.009; Ety/MBUD.021-1; Ety/RAD.038-1; Ety/TEK.047-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ann

adjective. long
Noldorin [Ety/348, S/427, X/ND1] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

taen

adjective. long (and thin)
Noldorin [Ety/391] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

anann

adverb. long
Noldorin [SD/046.4202] Group: Eldamo. Published by

iaur

adjective. ancient, ancient, old(en), ancient, old(er)
Noldorin [Ety/GENG-WĀ.025; Ety/YA.057; EtyAC/YA.013] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na

preposition. with, by, of
Noldorin [Ety/ERÉK.029; Ety/NĀ¹.013; Ety/NAUK.037; Ety/PHAU.016; Ety/PHUY.017; Ety/SPAR.014; Ety/THŌN.048; EtyAC/NĀ¹.035; LR/284.4010; SM/077.3402; WR/380.0810] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na

preposition. with, by (also used as a genitive sign)
Noldorin [Ety/374, LotR/I:XII] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

na

preposition. to, towards, at
Noldorin [Ety/374, LotR/I:XII] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

dae

adverb. very
Noldorin [EtyAC/DAƷ.007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

iaur

adjective. ancient, old, original
Noldorin [Ety/358, Ety/399, S/433, UT/384] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

iaur

adjective. older, former
Noldorin [Ety/358, Ety/399, S/433, UT/384] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

am-

noun. intensive prefix
Primitive elvish [PE17/090.3103; PE17/092.2802; PE17/092.2805; PE17/092.2817; PE17/092.3004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anad

root. long, far
Primitive elvish [PE17/040.1209; PE17/090.2007; PE17/166.1101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tainā

adjective. long
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

ʒandā

adjective. long
Primitive elvish [PE17/155.1202; VT47/27.1314] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nda

root. long, far
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

e

root. intensive prefix
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

dē/lē

preposition. with
Primitive elvish [PE17/095.0103; PE17/095.0105] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya 

an-

prefix. intensive prefix
Qenya [EtyAC/A.112; EtyAC/A.113; EtyAC/A.114; EtyAC/N.011; EtyAC/N.015; EtyAC/N.036; EtyAC/N.046; PE18/042.2806; PE18/042.2807; PE18/042.2808; PE19/055.0915; PE19/055.1003; PE19/055.1007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

and(r)a

adjective. long
Qenya Group: Eldamo. Published by

anda

adjective. long
Qenya [Ety/ÁNAD.006; PE18/032.0901; PE22/011.1913-1; PE22/011.2004-1; PE22/020.2603-1; PE22/021.3211; PE22/096.1711; PE22/125.0706] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anda

adjective. long
Qenya Group: Eldamo. Published by

andra

adjective. long
Qenya Group: Eldamo. Published by

lai

adverb. very
Qenya [EtyAC/DAƷ.004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-léni

suffix. long
Qenya [GL/39.5806; GL/39.5807; QL/053.0801; QL/053.0803] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-léni/-lénu

suffix. long
Qenya [GL/39.5806, QL/053.0801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-lénu

suffix. long
Qenya Group: Eldamo. Published by

sûr

adjective. long, trailing
Qenya [LT2A/Indrafang.081] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ve

preposition. with
Qenya [PE22/119.1304] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* an-

prefix. re-
Qenya Group: Eldamo. Published by

Old Noldorin 

* anda

noun. long
Old Noldorin [Ety/TEK.049-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

andā

adjective. long
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/ÁNAD.003; Ety/MBUD.013-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

root. intensive prefix
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/A.001; EtyAC/GOS.020-1; EtyAC/N.102; EtyAC/TALÁT.017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tainā

adjective. long
Middle Primitive Elvish [PE18/057.0416] Group: Eldamo. Published by

e

root. intensive prefix
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/E.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

root. intensive prefix
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/I².001; EtyAC/I².007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

in(d)ra

adjective. long, long (also used of time)
Gnomish [GL/51.3201; GL/51.3306; GL/51.4101; LT2A/Indrafang.004; LT2A/Indrafang.034] Group: Eldamo. Published by

odra

adverb. very
Gnomish [GL/62.2601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

agos

adverb. very
Early Noldorin [PE13/124.1515; PE13/124.3610] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Primitive Elvish

lene

root. long
Early Primitive Elvish [GL/53.6907; LT2A/Glend.018; QL/053.0101] Group: Eldamo. Published by