adv. lacking, without.
penpronoun. one, somebody, anybody
Usually enclitic and mutated as ben.2
penpreposition. without, lacking, -less
pen²noun. one, somebody, anybody, *[N.] Elf
pen¹preposition/prefix. without, lacking, -less
Sindarized form of Quenya tekil, not known to the Sindar until the coming of the Ñoldor (but see however tegol for a possible dialectal variant)
eradjective. one, alone
dîr¹noun. man, *[N.] adult male, *agental suffix
gwenoun. man, warrior
minfraction. one (first of a series)
min²cardinal. one, *[G.] single
adannoun. man, one of the Second People (elvish name for men)
ar-prefix. without, by, **beside, *[N.] outside, *[S.] without, *beside, *[G.] along with, *compared with
mînfraction. one (first of a series)
godrefadverb. through together
Dúnadannoun. Man of the west, Númenórean
adanadarnoun. man, one of the Fathers of Men
drúadannoun. wild man, one of the Woses
drûnoun. wild man, Wose, Púkel-Man
In PE/11:31, an older Gnomish word drû, drui meant "wood, forest", and in PE/13:142, the early Noldorin word drú was assigned the meaning "dark". Drû pl. Drúin later came to be used for the name of the Woses, with other derivatives (Drúadan, etc.). "Wose" is actually the modernization of an Anglo-Saxon word wasa only found in the compound wudu-wasa "wild man of the woods", cf. UT/385 sq. In the drafts of the "Ride of the Rohirrim" in WR/343-346, the Woses first appeared as "the dark men of Eilenach". Though internally said to derive from drughu in their own tongue, Tolkien's choice for the Sindarin name of the Woses was apparently influenced by earlier meanings assigned to this word
(adv. prefix) ar- (outside)
(prep.) trî ;
(adverbial prefix) ú-, u- (e.g. udalraph ”without stirrups; stirrupless”, uluithiad *”without quenching” (SD:62) = ”unquenchable”). The prefix ar- has a similiar meaning, as in:
pen (one, somebody) (WJ:376); lenited ben
pen (one, anybody) (WJ:376); lenited ben
S pen (lenited ben) (without, lacking) (WJ:375) The phrase ben-adar ”without father, fatherless” is treated as an adjective and lenited following a noun (Iarwain ben-adar, Iarwain the Fatherless or Iarwain without father). Not to be confused with the pronoun pen ”one, somebody, anybody”.
1) pen (lenited ben) (lacking, -less) (WJ:375) Not to be confused with the pronoun pen ”one, somebody, anybody”. When prefixed to a noun, the resulting phrase can be treated as an adjective in that it is lenited (pen- appears as ben-) where an adjective would be lenited. 2)
* pencardinal. one
(indefinite pronoun) (= somebody, anybody) pen (WJ:376); lenited ben. According to one interpretation of the phrase caro den i innas lín from the Sindarin Lords Prayer (VT44:23), this could mean *”let one do your will”, with den (perhaps a lenited form of *ten) as the indefinite pronoun ”one”. However, others interpret den as the accusative form of the pronoun ”it”: ”Do it [, that is:] your will”.
* penpronoun. us (inclusive)
tegil (i degil, o thegil), no distinct pl. form except with article (i thegil) (PM:318). Also (at least in ”Noldorin”) tegol (i degol, o thegol), analogical pl. tegyl (i thegyl)
* gwenpronoun. us (inclusive)
1) (adult male of any speaking race) dîr (dír-, also agentive ending -dir or -nir; with article, i nîr, hard mutation as in o ndîr), no distinct pl. form except with article (i ndîr); coll. pl. díriath. Also benn (i venn, construct ben), pl. binn (i minn). The latter is in archaic language used = "husband" (the etymological meaning). The ending -we in names may also express ”being, man, person”. 2) (mortal human as opposed to Elf) Adan (pl. Edain; the coll. pl. Adanath is attested). The word Adan came to be used primarily of a member of the Three Houses of the Edain, not of the mortal race of Men in general.
* mincardinal. one
1) (number ”one” as the first in a series) min, mîn (VT48:6), Note: homophones include the noun ”peak” and the adjective ”isolated, first, towering”. 2) (number) êr, whence the adjectival prefix er- (alone, lone); 3)
(adverbial prefix, sometimes = ”completely”) tre-, tri-. For an example of this prefix, see TELL TO END.