Quenya 

now

adv. "now" (Nam, RGEO:67, LR:47, SD:310, VT43:34, VT49:18, PE17:94), sin (SI, LR:47) or sín _(SD:247, 310) _before vowels. Compare the distribution of a/an in English, though in his Quenya version of Hail Mary, Tolkien used also before a vowel (sí ar "now and", VT43:28). Si, a short (or incompletely annotated) form of (VT43:26, 34). In Fíriel's Song, is translated "here".

adverb. now

Quenya [PE 22:126; PE 22:147] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

adverb. now

Cognates

  • S. “now” ✧ PE17/027; PE17/045; PE17/127; PE22/147
  • S. “here, in this place (of speaker)” ✧ PE22/147

Derivations

  • “this (by me), now or here” ✧ PE17/067; VT49/18
    • SI “this, this, [ᴹ√] here, now” ✧ PE17/067

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
> [sī]✧ PE17/067
si- > [sī]✧ VT49/18

Variations

  • ✧ LotR/0377
  • ✧ PE17/070; PE17/094; RGEO/59
  • sír ✧ PE22/147
  • Sī̀ ✧ RGEO/58
  • sī́ ✧ RGEO/58
  • ✧ RGEO/58; RGEO/59; RGEO/59
  • si ✧ VT43/34
Quenya [LotR/0377; PE17/027; PE17/045; PE17/067; PE17/069; PE17/070; PE17/094; PE17/127; PE22/147; PE22/161; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; RGEO/60; VT21/06; VT43/34; VT49/18] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sír

adverb. now

sin

now

sin (2) adv., a form of "now" (q.v.) often occurring before vowels; also sín (SI). However, itself (q.v.) may also appear before a vowel.

Sindarin 

thî

now

_adv. _now. Q. . thî/ << . >> hî****

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:27] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

thî

adverb. now

now

_adv. _now. Q. . thî/ << . >> thî****

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:27:127] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

adverb. now

Changes

  • thî ✧ PE17/027

Cognates

  • Q. “now” ✧ PE17/027; PE17/045; PE17/127; PE22/147

Derivations

  • khĭn- “*here, now” ✧ VT49/34

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
khĭn- > [kʰin] > [xin] > [xi] > [hi] > [hī]✧ VT49/34

Variations

  • hi ✧ LotR/0307; PE17/045
  • thî ✧ PE17/027
  • ✧ PE17/027; PE17/027 (); PE17/127; VT49/34
  • hin ✧ PE17/127
  • sîr ✧ PE22/147
  • ✧ VT50/22
Sindarin [LotR/0307; PE17/027; PE17/045; PE17/127; PE22/147; VT49/34; VT50/15; VT50/22] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lîr

noun. line, line, [N.] row

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LIR “*row”

Element in

  • S. aeglir “line of peaks, line of peaks, [N.] range of mountain peaks; [ᴱN.] peak, mountain top” ✧ RC/011

Variations

  • lir ✧ RC/011 (lir)

sîr

adverb. now

Sindarin [PE 22:147] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

hi

adverb. now

_ adv. _now. annon edhellen edro hi ammen! 'Elvish gate open now for us'.

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:45] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

hin

adverb. now

sí(r)

adverb. now

si

adverb. now

Sindarin [LotR/IV:X, LB/354] Group: SINDICT. Published by

line

(i**, o thî) (row), no distinct pl. form except with article (i** thî), coll. pl. tíath.

lîr

line

1) lîr (row), no distinct pl. form, but coll. pl. líriath. 2) (i dê, o thê) (way), pl. (i thî), coll. pl. ?teath, 3) (i dî, o thî) (row), no distinct pl. form except with article (i thî), coll. pl. tíath.

lîr

line

(row), no distinct pl. form, but coll. pl. líriath.

tilias

line of peaks

(i** dilias, o thilias), pl. tiliais (i** thiliais), coll. pl. tiliassath.

nothlir

family line

(family tree); no distinct pl. form; coll. pl. nothliriath.

si

now

si (lenited hi)

si

now

(lenited hi)

taeg

boundary line

(i daeg, o thaeg) (limit, boundary), no distinct pl. form except with article (i thaeg).

line

(i dê, o thê) (way), pl. (i thî), coll. pl. ?teath

falas

line of surf

(pl. felais) (beach, shore, coast, strand, foaming shore; the word was especially used of the western seaboard of Beleriand). *(VT42:15)*****

Adûnaic

îdô

adverb. now

A word translated “now” in the Lament of Akallabêth (SD/247). In the final manuscript version, this is the only form of the word, but in the final typescript version and in all earlier versions, it sometimes appears in the form îdôn.

Some authors have suggested this variation occurs when îdô appears before words beginning in a vowel or semi-vowel (AL/Adûnaic, NBA/12), but this seems unlikely to me. Carl Hostetter, Patrick Wynne and Andreas Moehn instead suggested (VSH/18, AAD/16, LGtAG, EotAL/DAW) that îdôn is a subjective inflection of the word îdô, being used as a noun. The key evidence supporting this second theory is that where the form îdon appears, its gloss is always “now (is)” rather than simply “now”. As discussed elsewhere (SD/429), the subjective inflection can function as the verb “to be”.

I tend to agree with this theory of Hostetter, Wynne and Moehn, but I think the actually development is somewhat more complex. In the first draft version of the Lament of Akallabêth, this form of the word appears twice as īdōn “lo! now is”. As noted by Mr. Moehn (LGtAG), this version of the Lament used a predicate suffix -n “is” in several places: burodan “heavy-is”, rōkhī-nam “bent-are”. It seems likely that draft form īdōn “lo! now is” is another variation of this earlier syntax.

The draft predicate suffix -n differed from the later subjective case in that it applied to the predicate of a clause instead of the subject. Compare these changes from the draft to final versions:

In both draft sentences, the subject is uninflected and the predicate has the predicate suffix -n/-nam. Conversely, in the later sentences the subject is inflected into the subjective case while the predicate is uninflected. This demonstrates the functional shift in the use of the predicate suffix -n in these drafts to the later use of the subjective inflection.

In both the second draft and final typescript versions of the Lament, the form îdôn was retained in all the sentences where it appeared in the first draft. This means that it could have been a remnant of this earlier syntax. The form îdôn could be reinterpreted as the sentence’s subject, but this is also problematic, since îdô is certainly neuter and its subjective form should be ✱îdôwa, not îdôn.

It is my belief that Tolkien eventually decided that the suffix -n could no longer be used in this context and removed it, switching to an uninflected îdô “now” everywhere in the text as is the case in the final manuscript version of the Lament. On the basis of this deduction, I also believe that the manuscript version was written after than the typescript version.

Element in

Variations

  • īdō ✧ SD/247; SD/247; SD/288; SD/312; SD/312; SD/312
Adûnaic [SD/247; SD/288; SD/312] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Primitive elvish

teg

root. line

Tolkien used a number of similar roots as the basis for “line” words throughout his life. The earliest of these appeared in the Qenya Lexicon as ᴱ√TEHE [teχe] “pull” (gloss marked with a “?” by Tolkien) with derivatives like ᴱQ. tea “straight”, ᴱQ. telya “attractive; importunate”, and ᴱQ. tie “line, direction, route, road” (QL/90), the last of these surviving more or less unchanged all the way into the published version of The Lord of the Rings (LotR/377). The early root ᴱ√TEHE also had derivatives in the contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon such as G. “mark, line; track; path”, G. or tion “straight”, and G. tîr “honest; esteem, regard, honour”, originally “straight, upright” (GL/69, 71). Primitive ᴱ✶tegna > ᴱQ. tína/ᴱN. tain “straight” from Early Noldorin Word-lists from the 1920s may represent a shift in the form of the root to ✱ᴱ√TEGE (PE13/153, 165).

In The Etymologies of the 1930s the root appeared as {ᴹ√TEƷ >>} ᴹ√TEÑ “line, direction” with derivatives like ᴹQ. tie/N. “line, way” and ᴹQ. téra/N. tîr “straight, right” (Ety/TEƷ, TEÑ). In the Outline of Phonology Tolkien gave √TEG “line”, whereas √TEÑ was given as the basis for Q. tenna “a thought, notion, idea” and thus clearly with a different meaning; see the entry √TEÑ for further discussion. In any case it is clear that Tolkien considered various ancient velar consonants for the second consonant of this root, all ultimately vanishing in the child languages with similar vocalic effects: 1910s teχ-, 1920s teg-, 1930s {teʒ- >>} teñ- and 1950s teg-.

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Eldarin, I would assume this root was √TEƷ in order to preserve the validity of the word téma “series”. This is because Tolkien kept vacillating on the development of gm, but usually had gm &gt; ngw, so that teg-mā > tengwa, not téma.

Derivatives

  • tegē “line, road”
    • Q. tië “path, road, way, line, path, road, way, line, [ᴹQ.] course, direction, [ᴱQ.] route” ✧ PE19/071
  • tegmā “direct[ion], process” ✧ PE19/097
    • Q. téma “series, series, [ᴹQ.] row, line” ✧ PE18/104; PE19/082; PE19/097
Primitive elvish [PE19/097] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

noun. line, row

Noldorin [Ety/392] Group: SINDICT. Published by

noun. line, way

Noldorin [Ety/391] Group: SINDICT. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Qenya 

adverb. now

Derivations

  • ᴹ√SI “this, here, now” ✧ Ety/SI

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√SI > [sī]✧ Ety/SI

Variations

  • sin ✧ Ety/SI; LR/047
  • ✧ LR/047; SD/310
  • si ✧ LR/056
  • sín ✧ SD/247
  • sīn ✧ SD/310
Qenya [Ety/SI; LR/047; LR/056; LR/072; PE22/105; PE22/120; PE22/124; PE22/125; PE22/126; SD/247; SD/310] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sin

adverb. now

Early Noldorin

noun. line

Variations

  • ✧ PE13/154
Early Noldorin [PE13/121; PE13/154] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Primitive Elvish

kı̯-ā

adverb. now

Derivations

  • ᴱ√KI “this by me”

Derivatives

  • Eq. tyá “now” ✧ QL/049
  • G. “here”
Early Primitive Elvish [QL/049] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

adverb. *now

Variations

  • qin ✧ PE14/055
Early Quenya [PE14/055] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adverb. *now

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ PE15/32
Early Quenya [PE15/32] Group: Eldamo. Published by

qin

adverb. *now

tyá

adverb. now

Cognates

  • G. “here”

Derivations

  • ᴱ✶kı̯-ā “now” ✧ QL/049
    • ᴱ√KI “this by me”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ✶kı̯-ā > tyá[kjā] > [tjā]✧ QL/049
Early Quenya [QL/049] Group: Eldamo. Published by

enqin

adverb. *now

Early Quenya [PE14/055] Group: Eldamo. Published by